Estudios de seguimiento han sido conducidos en EnglÃ©s (vÃ©ase informe abajo). Los estudios estÃ¡n orientados a ex-alumnos que terminaron sus estudios por lo menos hace cuatro aÃ±os y actualizan la informaciÃ³n de su domicilio y su empleo.
What are Scholars doing after their Studies?
This is the "bottom line" question for the JJ/WBGSP. For this reason, the Secretariat conducts a biannual Tracer Study of Regular Program scholars. The study targets scholars who completed their awards at least four years earlier, and traces where they are living and working, and whether they attained their degrees.
The first Tracer Study, in 1994, covered the first four classes (1987, 1988, 1989 and 1990) and tracked 235 scholars.
The second Tracer Study, in 1995, included those classes and added the 1991 class, tracing 322 scholars.
The third Tracer Study was completed in 1997 and added the class of 1992, bringing the total to six classes and 427 scholars.
The fourth Tracer Study, published in 1998, added two classes, 1993 and 1994, bringing the total number of scholars to 740 (646 for Regular Program and 94 for Partnership Programs).
The fifth Tracer Study, in 2000, added two classes, 1995 and 1996, bringing the total number of scholars to 1.075 (872 from the Regular Program and 203 from the Partnership Programs).
The sixth Tracer Study, published in 2004, added the classes of 1997 and 1998, bringing the total number of scholars to 1.479 (1139 from the Regular Program and 340 from the Partnership Programs).
The JJ/WBGSP awarded a total of 3.554 during 1987-2006. Â The 2007 tracer study, the seventh in this series, addresses the performance of the scholars during these 20 years by investigating whether they:
- attained their degrees successfully and benefited from their academic programs
- returned to their home country or other developing countries
- achieved recognition for their enhanced skills, progression and mobility, higher income, and better grades and promotion in their jobs
- engaged in senior professional and managerial positions that provided them with the opportunity to disseminate their newly acquired skills and knowledge, and
- contributed to the overall socioeconomic development of their own country or of other developing countries.
Each future Tracer Study will add one new class, but will continue to study all previously included classes. As a result, the population of scholars will grow and the findings will become more reliable. (However, the Tracer Studies cannot include all scholars in their findings because some scholars may still be pursuing their studies.)
What Have the Tracer Studies Found?
Tracer Studies strive to answer two main questions:
- Did the scholar receive the degree he or she was supposed to attain with the JJ/WBGSP scholarship?; and
- Where is the scholar living and working, now that the scholarship period is complete?
The fifth Tracer Study yielded the following answers:
Degree Attainment:Â Nearly all scholars (97 percent) attained the degree for which the scholarship was awarded.
Some scholars obtained two degrees during their scholarship period. The second degree was often a higher degree than the degree for which the scholarship was originally granted. In those few cases in which the scholar did not earn the degree, the scholar was usually requested to return home by his or her Government, returned home for family reasons or died during the course of study. In some cases, JJ/WBGSP doctoral students completed their period of study with an "ABD" degree (All But Dissertation). The scholars in this category are not included in the Degree Attainment. In only one case did a scholar fail to obtain a degree because of academic shortcomings.
Post Scholarship Residence and Employment:Â Most scholars (87percent) are either living and working in their home country or another developing country or employed by multilateral development agencies.
The 2004 study reports the following breakdown of this result:
|Living and working in home country||(78 percent)|
|Living and working in another developing country||(5 percent)|
|Employed in multilateral development agencies 40 scholars||(4 percent)|
Scholars who have returned to their home country for employment have assumed responsibilities equal to or greater than those that they had before they accepted the JJ/WBGSP scholarship. More than 35 percent are employed in positions where the primary focus of their work is on policy inputs.
AlumniÂ success stories indicate that many of the early scholars have attained leadership positions in their careers.
On the other hand, some 13 percent of former scholars are living in an industrialized country after completing their studies and thus are not meeting the primary JJ/WBSGP goal. Nearly all of these former scholars indicate that they will return to their home country eventually and are remaining abroad for a few extra years to gain more experience. This claim may not be true in all cases. The vast majority of these scholars have remained in the country of the host institution.
Gender is not a determining factor in whether scholars return to their home country. The return rate for men is nearly the same as the return rate for women.
An analysis of variations across home regions indicates that the percentage of scholars living and working in their home country varies from a high of 88% for the Middle East and North Africa (MNA) region to 69% for the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region, though it should be kept in mind that the MNA region accounts for only 5% of the total Program alumni. As far as absolute numbers are concerned, the Africa Region, with 30% of the total alumni, has the largest number of scholars living and working in their home country, followed by the East Asia and Pacific Region.
The selection of universities in the two most favored host countries (the United Kingdom and the United States) does not appear to be a contributing factor. Among those who have not returned to their home country, almost equal numbers had studied in the United Kingdom or the United States just as it is in the total group. However, the return rate is higher when scholars studied in Continental Europe, where immigration policies are less liberal.
A high proportion of those who have not returned to their home country used their scholarship to obtain doctoral degrees. Degree attainment rate for the doctoral program is 92 percent, whereas for the master's degree and its equivalent is 99%.