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Tertiary Education in Africa (TEIA)

Overview

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Why is tertiary education important to Africa’s development?

Knowledge has become a key driver of growth and development. Countries with higher skill levels are better equipped to face new challenges and master technological discoveries.

In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), qualified human capital remains scarce compared to the continent’s development needs. This situation hinders growth and undermines the foundation for sustainable development.

Because skills for the knowledge economy are built at the tertiary education level, improving tertiary education systems should be high on SSA’s development agenda. And African tertiary education institutions and policy makers must ensure that the workforce acquires the skills to compete, innovate, and respond to complex social, environmental, and economical situations.

How does the World Bank support its clients in tertiary education reform?

The World Bank has chosen a case-specific approach that provides options tailored to each country’s needs. This means that the Bank adjusts its support to match the need for reform in a given tertiary education system, as well as to match the political will in the country to achieve reform (see table below).

For example, in countries experiencing rapid growth of low-quality private institutions, setting up an accreditation and evaluation system would be a high priority.

Priorities for Bank Involvement

Need for
Change
Willingness to Reform*
Low High
High Limited policy dialogue and lending Full-scale policy dialogue and lending
Low Limited policy dialogue Full-scale policy dialogue

*Willingness to reform as reflected in the government's commitment to implementing reforms and its ability to mobilize major stakeholders

Source: World Bank 2002. Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education. The World Bank, Washington DC. 

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Which Bank activities support tertiary education in Africa?

The World Bank participates in the development of tertiary education and STI in Africa through four types of activities: analytical work; investment credits; strategic learning; and partnership development.

(i) Analytical Work

The following studies have examined the major challenges in the region. (For access to the full text of these publications and additional listings including foreign language versions, please visit the publications section.)

  1. Differentiation and Articulation in Tertiary Education Systems
    A Study of Twelve African Countries

    In collaboration with ADEA and the Association of African Universities
    April 2008
  2. Higher Education in Francophone Africa: What Tools Can Be Used to Support Financially Sustainable Policies?
    March 2008
  3. Higher Education Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Status, Challenges, Opportunities, and Promising Practices
    August 2007
  4. Cost and Financing of Tertiary Education in Francophone Africa
    In collaboration with UNESCO/Dakar,
    2007

In addition, Country Status Reports (CSRs) analyze tertiary education in the broader context of the education sector, with particular attention to the evolution of enrollment and participation, financing and sustainability, unit costs and efficiency, and equity.

During the last two years, the following CSRs have been finalized: Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mali, Mauritania, Sierra Leone, and Togo.

(ii) Lending
Four tertiary education projects and one STI project are now under implementation. About 12 other projects contain significant higher education components.  Recent initiatives supported by Bank lending and knowledge programs in tertiary education include:  

Visit the World Bank Education Lending pages for information on World Bank lending to tertiary education.

(iii)  Strategic Learning
The World Bank has organized various learning activities to share knowledge on key tertiary education related issues.

  • Organization and Management of Innovation Funds, October 2005
  • Regional Conference on Higher Education in Francophone Africa, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, June 2006 (19 countries, 225 participants including 9 ministers)
  • Global Forum on Science &Technology Innovation, February 2007.  Co-sponsored with HDNED and a number of external partners
  • Workshop on Higher Education Financing, Cotonou, Benin, July 2007 (50 participants from government (Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Education) and academia (rectors and teachers unions) from three countries: Benin, Burkina Faso and Mauritania)
  • Regional Learning Partnership on Higher Education Quality Assurance.  Being implemented in collaboration with the Association of African Universities under DGF funding

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Who are the World Bank’s partners in tertiary education in Africa?

The Bank works in collaboration with other development partners and national tertiary education stakeholders at the country level. Regionally, the Bank has had a longstanding partnership with the Association of African Universities (AAU) ― which resulted in the launch of the Africa Quality Network in September 2007― and with the ADEA Working Group on Higher Education

In all francophone countries, the Bank works closely with the Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie, the CRUFAOCI (Association of Rectors of Francophone African Universities), and the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs

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Key Issues

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The World Bank focuses on six main areas within the tertiary education sector in Sub-Saharan Africa: sustainable financing; diversification and public-private partnerships; governance and management; quality; labor market relevance and linkages; and regionalization.

(i) Improving sustainable financing

Improving financing policies in a context of  increasing enrollments
During the past decade, Africa has experienced the fastest increase in tertiary enrollment in the world, far outstripping economic growth and the capacity of government financing to keep pace.  Reestablishing financial stability within the tertiary sub-sector is a challenging reform in the context of competing social demands, parental resistance and student/staff contentiousness. At the same time, tertiary education enrollment rates in Africa are the lowest in the World, averaging at about 5 percent of the relevant age group. Reconciling these opposite trends requires innovative and diversified financing solutions and increased support of public-private partnerships.

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(ii) Diversifying tertiary education and increasing Public-Private Partnerships

Developing technical and vocational training programs.
Evidence from countries that have transitioned into middle income status (such as Tunisia) show that technical (intermediary level) skills are critically needed. In recent years, institutions providing technical and vocational education have significantly developed their activities. Presently, short-term technical programs account for 28 percent of all tertiary enrollments in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to the World average of 19 percent. However, this type of programs chronically suffers from a lack of funding and recognition, and needs to be supported, with efforts devoted to strengthening their quality and relevance.

Encouraging private tertiary education development.   
The public sector has frequently viewed private providers as direct competitors, which has had a direct impact on the formulation of public policy in the past, and oftentimes, has hampered the development of private tertiary education. However, in a context of rising demand for access and limited capacities of the public tertiary education providers, the circumstances for improved public-private dialogue and collaboration have emerged, which could benefit aspiring students and allow a more sustainable development of the sector.

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(iii) Strengthening policy environment, sector governance and management capacities

Strengthening policy environment and sector governance
The combined effect of rising social demand for tertiary education and fiscal constraints, call for an increased focus on capacity development initiatives of decision makers and managers involved in tertiary education. Training programs on such issues as system steering and monitoring & evaluation are a key element for increased sector governance and a strengthened policy environment. This would also include putting in place funding mechanisms to stimulate institutional performance, promote equity and develop research in priority areas.

Improving institutional management capacity
Increased focus on efficiency of tertiary institutions create the need for investment in (i) training for university leaders and administrative staff in a range of professional management skills; (ii) information technology and management information systems; (iii) accounting mechanisms and internal controls; (iv) human resource management; and (v) academic management (students, diploma, and curriculum). 

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(iv) Improving quality

Increasing the number and quality of academic staff
Tertiary education systems in Sub-Saharan Africa are facing a genuine staffing crisis. Brain drain, weak salaries, the low output from national postgraduate programs, as well as the rising tide of retirements caused by the aging of Africa’s initial cohort of academic leaders constitute some of the reasons for this crisis. To reverse this situation some governments have started to link salary incentives to performance to improve the retention of academic staff. There have also been attempts to provide more targeted support to students in post graduate programs to attract them to the academia.

Assuring quality, equivalence and student mobility
At the country or regional level, incentives exist to improve educational quality and relevance in higher education. Competition-based or innovation funds, in particular, have proven to be effective mechanisms in that matter since institutions must present high quality projects to compete and be eligible to receive funds. To be really effective, this type of funding should be paired with accreditation and quality assurance mechanisms.  Those, in turn, can be organized at a national or regional level, facilitating, in the second case, student mobility. The adoption of the three study cycles scheme adopted by the Bologna process, also called LMD (Licence/Bachelor; Master; Doctorate), in particular in Francophone Africa, provides a good example of reforms aimed at facilitating the mobility of students, teachers and workers through a greater harmonization of degrees.

Improving the absorption capacity for new technologies, including Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
Although the digital divide remains a reality in Africa, considerable progress has been made by many universities in obtaining, improving and expanding ICT connectivity. The critical constraints for ICT utilization within tertiary institutions are now shifting from issues of hardware, local area networks, and basic internet access to human capacity limitations in making best use of these new technologies. Some countries therefore start to focus their attention on investment for ICT training to improve such areas as teaching methods, student learning behaviors, and public institution collaborations with society, and stimulate the research agenda.

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(v) Strengthening Labor Market LinkagesFostering linkages with industry

The mission of tertiary education institutions is to equip students with the skills that will allow them to enter the labor market. However, in Sub-Saharan African, the unemployment rate among graduates is very high. This situation results in a loss of investment, energy and hope with at times serious consequences at the social but also individual level. Close collaboration with industry can help guide institutions on the types of skill sets needed to enter the labor market. It can also facilitate the insertion of recent graduates in the labor market. Finally, applied research can help to experiment with technological innovation to enhance national competitiveness.

Renewing  curricula and better orienting flows of students to labor market needs
In line with international standards the renewal of curricula can contribute to making academic subjects more applied. It can help develop problem solving skills and increase time spent in a) laboratories, b) doing field work in enterprises and c) participating in group projects. The introduction of more flexible pathways through the modularization of education (credit system and bridges between disciplines) and training programs and qualifications and orientation mechanisms will allow for an increase in options for student choices and facilitate their entry in the job market.

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(vi) Enhancing Region-wide Capacities

Supporting Regional Centers of Excellence
Regional centers of postgraduate specialization are warranted by (i) the need to train limited numbers of experts in highly specialized areas that can only be justified in cost terms through sub-regional collaboration; and (ii) the staff development needs of small countries that cannot afford to set up and maintain a wide range of postgraduate programs. Regional programs promise economies of scale in assembling a critical mass of specialists because one hub location can serve the graduate training needs of a larger regional area.  Minimum conditions for regional undertakings are:  (i) common problems and needs across regions; (ii) demonstrable economies of scale; (iii) insufficient national training base, i.e. absence of duplication; (iv) staff/management buy-in at the host institution, which may have other national priorities; and (v) availability of financing to allow participation by non-host countries. 

Developing knowledge networks
Partnership has become a maxim for the global higher education community in the 21st century.  The pace of events, the rapidity of change and the explosion in accessibility of information have made it impossible for any single tertiary institution, governmental education agency, or development organization to stay on top of the topics that are relevant to its mission.  In this area, a networked division of labor among similarly inclined partners sharing common interests is proving to be an effective mechanism for keeping abreast of pertinent information, maintaining ‘manageability,’ and preserving institutional efficiency in an increasingly complex and dynamic world.  Partnerships at the local, national, regional and international level –mediated by the internet – allow for the sharing of ideas, the combining of resources, and the development of communities of practice that cultivate innovation and discovery.

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Data

EdStats, short for Education Statistics, is a comprehensive education statistics database developed by the World Bank’s Education Group of the Human Development Network in collaboration with Development Data Group in the Development Economics Vice-Presidency. It compiles data from a variety of national and international sources and provides information on key education topics. 

What key data or statistics are relevant to Tertiary Education and why?

The following indicators on tertiary education are available through EdStats and are useful for a wide array of research needs.  In particular, they allow for reliable cross-national examinations and research within shared issue areas by presenting data on the most basic and universal issues facing tertiary education around the world today. 
These indicators include:

  • girl (adult female) enrollment share (%), tertiary
  • gross enrollment rate (%) tertiary, total
  • gross enrollment rate (%) tertiary, female 
  • gross enrollment rate (%) tertiary, male
  • labor force with tertiary education (% of total)
  • labor force with tertiary education, female (% of female total)
  • labor force with tertiary education, male (% of male total)
  • labor force, total
  • public education expenditures per student (% of per capita GDP), tertiary
  • share of expenditure for tertiary education (% of total expenditures)
  • student enrollment, tertiary, total
  • tertiary education, teachers
  • tertiary education, teachers (% female)

What other data resources on Tertiary Education are available through the World Bank?

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Events

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World Bank tertiary education experts regularly contribute their expertise and advice at conferences, workshops and seminars.

Recent examples include:

Year Month Event Date Venue
2003 September Improving Tertiary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Things that work! 23-25 September Accra, Ghana
2006 June Higher Education for Francophone Africa’s Development 13-15 June Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
2007 July Cost and Financing of Tertiary Education in Francophone Africa: Training Session 2-4 July Cotonou, Benin
2008 July International Association of Universities 15-18 July Utrecht, The Netherlands
September International Conference on Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Africa 15-17
Sept
Dakar, Senegal
Capacity Building Workshop on the Licence-Master-Doctorat (LMD) Reform for Francophone Countries 19-20, Sept Saint Louis, Senegal
October World Bank Annual Meetings
13-14 October Washington DC, USA
November The Partnership for Higher Education in Africa (PHEA) University Leadership Forum            23-25      
November
Accra, Ghana
2009 January World Economic Forum: Regional Focus on Africa
28 Jan-1 Feb Davos, Switzerland
February 12th General Conference of the Association of African Universities TBD TBD
March Africa Conference - Science, Technology, and the Environment in Africa 27-29
March
Uni. of Texas, Austin USA
April African Union AMCOST (African Ministerial Council on Science and Technology) meetings TBD TBD
July UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education
6-8 July Paris, France
First half of 2009 COMEDAF (Conference of Ministers of Education in Africa) TBD TBD

 

For further event listings related to Tertiary Education visit the following World Bank websites

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Key Publications

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Studies on Tertiary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

The studies presented below target issues specific to tertiary education in sub-Saharan Africa. Most of them are comparative and cover key themes for higher education policy making.

  • Differentiation and Articulation in Tertiary Education Systems
    A Study of Twelve African Countries

    In collaboration with ADEA and the Association of African Universities
    April 2008
    French
    This study strives to sketch an initial map of the extent and nature of institutional and program differentiation within African systems of tertiary education. In doing so, it also seeks to chart the patterns of articulation that have emerged – or been consciously put in place – between the different institutional types (e.g., public universities, private universities, polytechnics, training colleges).  The analysis of tertiary education differentiation and articulation is based on field visits to a dozen selected African countries. Its purpose is to improve general understanding of this under-researched but strategically  important technical aspect of African higher education at a time when it is becoming an important aspect of education policy.

  • Higher Education in Francophone Africa: What Tools Can Be Used to Support Financially Sustainable Policies?
    March 2008
    French
    This working paper aims to highlight the factors which have led to the development of a situation of severe crisis, albeit to varying degrees, in most Francophone countries; identify the conditions for creating a framework to regulate the trends in the higher education and research sector and make them more financially sustainable; and review the tools which could be used to guarantee the long term financing of this sector and thus help to guarantee its quality and relevance.

  • Higher Education Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Status, Challenges, Opportunities, and Promising Practices
    August 2007
    French
    This report summarizes the findings from a study on quality assurance for higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The research was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006 through document and web reviews, interviews and six detailed country case studies covering Cameroon, Ghana, Mauritius, Nigeria, South Africa and Tanzania.

  • Cost and Financing of Tertiary Education in Francophone Africa
    in collaboration with UNESCO/Dakar, 2007
    French
    Comparative data on costs and financing of higher education in a large number of
    countries are presented. The data highlight the specific problems common to countries of this region, but also to identify the measures taken by some countries to address them. Moreover, the financing of higher education is analyzed within the framework of the entire education sector. This raises issues of equity in the use of public resources, management of student flow, and families’ financial effort for their children’s
    education.

  • Post-Primary Agricultural Education and Training in Sub-Saharan Africa: Adapting Supply to Changing Demand
    August 2006
    This study looks at the changes and adaptations that post-primary agricultural education and training institutions need to make to face new challenges and to become more responsive to the needs of a demand-driven and market-driven agricultural sector.

  • Higher Education and Economic Development in Africa
    February 2006
    This paper uses panel data over the 1960--2000 period, a modified neoclassical growth equation, and a dynamic panel estimator to investigate the effect of higher education human capital on economic growth in African countries. The authors find that all levels of education human capital, including higher education human capital, have positive and statistically significant effect on the growth rate of per capita income in African counties. These result differs from those of earlier research that find no significant relationship between higher education human capital and income growth.

  • Improving Tertiary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Things that Work
    March 2004
    French
    This document reports on a regional training conference entitled Improving Tertiary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa:  Things That Work which was held in Accra, Ghana on September 23-25, 2003 in an effort to support and share innovative experiences.  Based on 33 case studies of how specific institutional innovations were introduced and implemented, the conference engaged in a broad range of themes, from innovation to financing and management through access and equity among others.

  • Financing Vocational Training to meet Policy Objectives in Sub-Saharan Africa
    August 2003
    This work first examines the theoretical basis for different financing mechanisms, including the rationale for state intervention in training markets. Based on a literature review and country visits to Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa, the review then explores the effects of different kinds of training levies, different forms of training funds and the implications of different transfer mechanisms. The advantages and limitations are presented of the various financing measures and mechanisms. The report concludes with a checklist for policy makers on a menu of measures that may be employed to achieve various policy objectives.

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Key Publications for Tertiary Education

Key publications cover analytical work published on tertiary education issues. They deal with either regional or general themes that provide tools, examples, experiences, thinking on key themes for policy makers and other stakeholders involved in tertiary education.

  • Accelerating Catch-up: Tertiary Education for Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (Synopsis)
    2008

  • Global Trends in University Governance
    John Fielden, 2008
    The paper seeks to provide evidence of the global trends in the ways that such systems and institutions are planned, governed, and monitored. The scope is limited to issues of strategy, funding, and governance, although some reference is made to assessing quality and institutional management.

  • Financing Lifelong Learning
    Hessel Oosterbeek, Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2008
    This paper describes and analyzes different financial schemes to promote lifelong learning. Considered are financial instruments to stimulate successful early learning, financial aid schemes and subsidization mechanisms. Theoretical analyses about funding of early learning have mainly focused on vouchers. Yet, the available empirical evidence is more ambiguous about the effects of vouchers than about the effects of conditional cash transfers and financial incentives for pupils and teachers.

  • Funding Higher Education: The Contribution of Economic Thinking to Debate and Policy Development
    Maureen Woodhall, 2007
    This paper examines the influence of economic thinking in the last 20 years on debate and policy on HE finance in selected OECD countries (including Australia, Sweden, the U.K. and U.S.), transition economies (Hungary) and developing countries (Ethiopia and South Africa).

  • Cross-border Tertiary Education: A Way towards Capacity Development
    OECD and The World Bank, 2007
    The purpose of this book is to cast light on these opportunities and challenges, especially for developing countries willing to leverage cross-border higher education as a tool for development. This book discusses the concept of capacity-building through cross-border education, emphasising the critical role of quality assurance and trade negotiations. This volume should be of particular interest to both education policy makers and the myriad stakeholders in higher education from developing countries. The book is also available for purchase online at OECD Online Bookshop.

  • Higher Education Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Status, Challenges, Opportunities, and Promising Practices
    Peter Materu, 2007
    This report summarizes the findings from a study on quality assurance for higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The research was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006 through document and web reviews, interviews and six detailed country case studies covering Cameroon, Ghana, Mauritius, Nigeria, South Africa and Tanzania.

  • Trend in International Trade in Higher Education: Implications and Options for Developing Countries
    Sajitha Bashir, 2007
    The objectives of this paper are to provide policy makers in developing countries, Bank staff and others associated with higher education policy development with information on and analyses of the recent trends in international trade in higher education and to present the policy issues and options that arise from it.

  • Higher Education in Francophone Africa: What Tools Can Be Used to Support Financially Sustainable Policies?
    March 2008
    French
    This working paper aims to highlight the factors which have led to the development of a situation of severe crisis, albeit to varying degrees, in most Francophone countries; identify the conditions for creating a framework to regulate the trends in the higher education and research sector and make them more financially sustainable; and review the tools which could be used to guarantee the long term financing of this sector and thus help to guarantee its quality and relevance.

  • Cost and Financing of Tertiary Education in Francophone Africa
    in collaboration with UNESCO/Dakar, 2007
    French
    Comparative data on costs and financing of higher education in a large number of
    countries are presented. The data highlight the specific problems common to countries of this region, but also to identify the measures taken by some countries to address them. Moreover, the financing of higher education is analyzed within the framework of the entire education sector. This raises issues of equity in the use of public resources, management of student flow, and families’ financial effort for their children’s
    education.

  • Innovation Funds for Higher Education: A User’s Guide for World Bank-Funded Projects
    William Saint, May 2006
    This paper is Users’ Guide for innovation funds in tertiary education. It is intended for Bank staff and other education professionals who seek to cultivate demand-driven processes for the improvement of educational quality.

  • Crafting Institutional Responses to HIV/AIDS: Guidelines and Resources for Tertiary Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa
    May 2004
    The document constitutes a resource on how tertiary institutions can face the challenge of HIV/AIDS.

  • Lifelong Learning in the Global Knowledge Economy: Challenges for Developing Countries
    May 2003
    Russian | Spanish
    This report provides a departure point for continuing discussions, providing a conceptual framework for education-related lending activities reflecting the latest knowledge and successful practices of planning and implementing education for lifelong learning. It encourages countries to look beyond traditional approaches to education and training and to engage in a policy dialogue on the pedagogical and economic consequence of lifelong learning.

  • Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education
    2002
    Armenian | Spanish | Russian | Korean | Arabic | French
    This report describes how tertiary education contributes to building up a country’s capacity for participation in an increasingly knowledge-based world economy and investigates policy options for tertiary education that have the potential to enhance economic growth and reduce poverty.

  • Tertiary Education: Lessons from a Decade of Lending, FY 1990-2000
    Operations Evaluations Department, 2002
    This study reviews the objectives, content, and performance of the 30 Bank-supported tertiary education projects completed between fiscal years 1990 and 2000, based on project appraisal and completion reports and Performance Assessment Reports (PPARs) of the World Bank’s Operations Evaluation Department (OED).

  • A Chance to Learn: Knowledge and Finance for Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Africa Region Education Sector Assistance Strategy, February 2001
    French
    This book proposes a strategy and a program of action for the World Bank’s Africa Region, which is striving to support countries in their efforts to accelerate education development. It summarizes the challenges facing education development in Africa, suggests key elements of country responses, discusses the implications of these responses, and proposes actions for improving the World Bank’s effectiveness as a partner in education development.

  •  Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise
    Task Force on Higher Education and Society
    February 2000
    Chinese | Spanish
    The report poses key questions with regard to tertiary education and its position within the knowledge economy: What is the role of higher education in supporting and enhancing the process of economic and social development? What are the major obstacles that higher education faces in developing countries? How can these obstacles best be overcome?

  • Tertiary Distance Education and Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa
    William Saint, 2000
    The document provides an overview of tertiary education distance learning and technology experience through-out Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) and the world and highlights their relevance for SSA.

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Tools and Instruments

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The documents below present case studies and research papers on different tools and instruments on financing and management issues. They are aimed to provide examples on innovative funds, funding formula, and strategic planning that could be useful to policy makers and other stakeholders of tertiary education in Africa.

Innovative Funds

Funding Formula

Strategic Planning

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Links

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Quick Link:

Disclaimer - While we hope you find this resource of interest, the World Bank is not responsible for the content of external websites.

  • African Virtual University
    http://www.avu.org/ 
    The African Virtual University (AVU) is an innovative educational organization established to serve the countries of Africa. The objective of the AVU is to build capacity and support economic development by leveraging the power of modern telecommunications technology to provide world-class quality education and training programs to students and professionals in Africa.

  • Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)
    www.adeanet.org
    ADEA is a forum that promotes partnerships between its two major constituencies-African ministries of education and training as well as their external technical and funding partners. ADEA’s activities focus on strengthening policy dialogue between governments and agencies, between governments, and between development agencies. 

  • Association of African Universities
    http://www.aau.org/
    The Association of African Universities (AAU) is the apex organization and forum for consultation, exchange of information and co-operation among institutions of higher education in Africa. It represents the voice of higher education in Africa on regional and international bodies and supports networking by institutions of higher education in teaching, research, information exchange and dissemination.

  • Association of Commonwealth Universities
    http://www.acu.ac.uk/
    The ACU is an inter-university network and fosters collaboration between developed and developing country universities. Specific activities include assisting members to develop the capacity of their human resources, promoting the movement of academic and administrative staff and of students from one country of the Commonwealth to another, providing information about universities and about issues of relevance to them.

  • Agence universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF)
    http://www.auf.org/
    Hosted by the University of Montreal in Quebec, Canada, the Agency’s mandate is to contribute to building closer scientific cooperation amongst French-speaking universities, to guide capacity development of future development actors, and to support research and knowledge sharing. 

  • Center for International Higher Education at Boston College
    http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/soe/cihe/
    The Center for International Higher Education contributes to advancing knowledge about the realities of higher education in the contemporary world. The Center has developed several areas of activity. One activity focuses on strengthening and fostering African higher education and supporting research through provision of up-to-date and relevant information. It also functions as an International Higher Education Clearinghouse (IHEC). The Clearinghouse provides researchers and practitioners with a starting point for searching available web-based resources.  

  • Conférence des Recteurs des Universités Francophones d’Afrique et d’Océan Indien
    http://www.crufaoci.bf.refer.org/
    CRUFAOCI is an association of presidents of mainly French-speaking Universities and Higher Education Institutions. Its mission is to foster dialogue amongst its members.

  • Global Development Learning Network (GDLN)
    http://www.gdln.org/
    The Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) is a partnership of over 120 recognized global institutions, collaborating in the design of customized learning solutions for people working in development.

  • Global Development Network (GDN)
    http://www.gdnet.org
    The Global Development Network (GDN) is a worldwide network of research and policy institutes working to provide a fresh and relevant perspective to the development challenges of our time.

  • Global Information & Communication Technologies Department (GICT)
    http://www.worldbank.org/gict
    The Global Information and Communication Technologies Department (GICT) is a joint department of the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation (IFC). Bringing together IFC’s experience in private sector investment transactions and the World Bank’s expertise in policy and regulatory matters, GICT promotes access to information and communication technologies in developing countries.

  • Infodev
    http://www.infodev.org/en/index.html
    infoDev is a global development financing program among international development agencies, coordinated and served by an expert Secretariat housed in the Global ICT Department (GICT) of the World Bank, one of its key donors and founders.

  • Infothèque francophone
    www.infotheque.info
    Infothèque is a Web site of the Agence universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF). Its main objective is to provide French-speaking students from the South with easy access to information that helps them to revise their courses, self-training or pursue their research.  Organized around a catalogue of educational resources and French scientists, it also includes a selection of sites and disseminates news.

  • Ministère Français des Affaires Etrangères ( French Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
    http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/
  • Partnership of Higher Education in Africa
    http://www.carnegie.org/sub/program/foundation-partnership-overview.html
    The Partnership for Higher Education in Africa is a joint effort of Carnegie Corporation of New York, and the Ford, MacArthur, Rockefeller, William and Flora Hewlett and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundations to support efforts to build the capacity of universities and the field of higher education in Africa.

  • Research Africa.net
    http://www.research-africa.net/
    Research Africa is for African government and institutional policy makers, researchers and research managers. Research Africa strengthens the African science and technology policy-making, and research community, and connects them with the world scientific community.

  • UNESCO
    www.unesco.org/education

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