The Africa Union | Ethiopia | Kenya | Mali | Sierra Leone | Uganda
The Africa Union Commission (AUC): IDF Grant for Strengthening the Africa Union Commission’s Diaspora Program in North America - P110750
African Diasporas in North America represent some of the most highly educated, skilled and resourceful communities of Africans anywhere in the world. Remittances from African immigrants in the U.S. constitute significant percentages of the GDP of several countries e.g., Nigerians and Ghanaians in the U.S. are among those who remitted more than US$1 billion to their home countries in 2006. African Diaspora populations are also influential e.g., in the U.S., African Americans constitute about 13% of the population, and this constituency champions Africa’s development through advocacy for appropriate U.S. Government policies and priorities on Africa. On July 14, 2008, AUC and the World Bank signed an agreement for an IDF grant for $487,900 for “Strengthening the African Diaspora Program of the African Union Commission.”
The Objectives and Activities of the IDF Grant
The grant is part of Bank’s support in enhancing capacity of AUC, specifically the AU’s Representational Mission to the United States of America to carry out its core functions of developing and maintaining productive institutional relationships with the African Diaspora in the Americas. The main activities being supported are:
- Development of a reliable database of African Diaspora networks and individuals, their resource potentials, products and services
- Facilitating deployment of Diaspora professional networks, especially in the health and education sectors: e.g., the AU mission launched the Diaspora Health Initiative on September 26, 2008. African Diaspora professional networks are being nurtured in education, finance, business and procurement, governance, infrastructure (energy, water & sanitation), information technologies, agriculture, community and rural development, based on Diaspora participant data during the World Bank-African Union Open House for the Diaspora held at the World Bank Headquarters in November 2007.
- Establishing the AU Mission as a Policy Center on African Diaspora Mobilization: The Mission will improve coordination with the African Diaspora in the Americas for their inputs and participation in the frameworks and activities of international, bilateral and multilateral institutions on Africa.
- Helping to identify good practices in the Americas on leveraging remittances e.g., Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) and its work with Latin American economies and their Diasporas, which could assist African Governments develop policies for banking reforms and value-added services to recipients and senders of remittances, issuance of Diaspora bonds (see separate note), and securitization of future remittances.
- Organizing African Diaspora Business Roundtables in the Americas, primarily in the U.S., on investment opportunities in Africa, and how the Diaspora could help investors identify these opportunities and constitute part of the elite human resources in firms that want to do business in Africa, and thus address the skills gaps often experienced by Diaspora investors.
The Africa Union Commission (AUC): IDF Grant for Strengthening the AUC’s Global Diaspora Program
In 2009, the AUC requested World Bank support of its global Diaspora program in the following areas:
a. Completing the regional consultative process to include Middle-East, Australia and Asia, working in close coordination and cooperation with the AU Member states;
b. Creating a consolidated Africa skills database, inclusive of new and existing Africa and Diaspora skills databases;
c. Working with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) for the Migration for Development in Africa program;
d. Mobilizing skills and resources of the Diaspora to enhance the institutional capacities of national and regional institutions;
e. Supporting the role of the AUC as the focal point and coordination hub of all Diaspora initiatives on the Continent; and
f. To this end, Diaspora issues should be a standing item on the programs and agenda of AUC Summits, and the AUC’s Directorate tasked with Diaspora matters, be strengthened and capacitated in financial and human resource terms.
The IDF Grant
In August 2010, the Region’s Institutional Development Fund (IDF) Committee (RIC) approved in principal the Grant for $990,000.
The Objectives and Activities of the IDF Grant: The main objective of the Grant is strengthening the capacity of African Union's Citizens and Diaspora Directorate (CIDO) in order for it to implement selected high priority activities of its larger global Diaspora Program. The main components and activities to be supported are:
Component 1: Strengthening implementation capacity of staff in CIDO to implement its global Diaspora program, specifically by supporting the regional coordination liaison function located in the AUC representational missions in different parts of the World.
Component 2: Implementing the high priority activities of the AUC’s global Diaspora to include:
- Developing a legal framework for Diaspora participation in the AU;
- Preparing the African Heads of State Summit on the Diaspora including a draft Plan of Action
- Creating and consolidating the Regional Diaspora networks through Regional Consultative Conferences in USA, Caribbean, and South America; in Europe; the Middle East and the Gulf; and in Australia and Oceania;
- Strengthening AU’s outreach and communication capacity to African Diaspora and African Member states; and
- Launching a pilot project to establish the AUC’s Diaspora Volunteers Program with specific focus on volunteer medical doctors and nurses.
ETHIOPIA: IDF Grant for Strengthening Capacity to Mobilize and Engage the Diaspora
Background and Objectives
The Ethiopian Expatriate Affairs (EEA) Directorate General, a department within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is the focal institution tasked by the Government of Ethiopia (GoE) with mobilizing and engaging the Ethiopian Diaspora. Its major achievements, among many, include actively working with the GoE to establish a legal status for the Ethiopian Diaspora. Consequently, Ethiopian Diasporas who hold non-Ethiopian nationalities have been entitled to an “Ethiopian Origin ID Card” that grants them all the rights and privileges of an Ethiopian national. This act alone has been by far the most important incentive enabling Ethiopians in the Diaspora to increasingly engage with their home country through various activities, most notably through investment and knowledge transfer.
The EEA Directorate General has achieved these results with meager financial resources and limited institutional capacity. Moreover, its initiatives and activities have been guided more by its business mandate and less by a comprehensive policy framework for engaging the Diaspora, as the latter does not yet exist. Notwithstanding these limitations, and in fact to overcome them, the EEA has outlined a number of goals that it would like to pursue: (i) mobilize the Ethiopian Diaspora for the formulation of a national policy framework for Diaspora engagement; and (ii) acquire a state of the art live database that will enable systematic collection and cataloguing of information on the Ethiopian Diaspora.
Activities of the IDF Grant
Component 1: Develop capacity for participatory policy formulation
The EEA Directorate General has been working on a draft Diaspora Engagement Policy Framework that will guide all future government engagement with the Diaspora based on identified national development needs and priorities. The EEA Directorate General would like to create an opportunity for the Ethiopian Diaspora community to actively participate in refining the draft Framework. It would like to create a platform – initially physical and eventually virtual – that will enable the large Ethiopian Diaspora community spread around the globe to provide substantive views and inputs. By undertaking a participatory approach to the formulation of the Framework, the EEA hopes to instill in the GoE and the Diaspora community a sense of ownership to the process so that both stakeholders will have equal stake in the success of its implementation
Component 2: Develop capacity for acquiring and maintaining a database that collects and catalogues information on the Ethiopian Diaspora
Despite several years of engagement with the Ethiopian Diaspora, there has been to date no systematic gathering and cataloguing of personal and professional information on the Diaspora. The EEA recognizes that the Ethiopian Diaspora community is diverse and is keen to tailor its initiatives to target varied groups differently and would like to build the technological capacity that will enable it to differentiate the Diaspora community by different categories and characteristics.
Kenya: IDF Grant for Strengthening Capacity for Diaspora Engagement with Specific Focus on Building Capacity of Diaspora Affairs Directorate in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs - P121227
The Government of Kenya (GoK) has recognized that Kenyans in the Diaspora can contribute to economic development through the injection of their knowledge, ideas, and resources for projects and programs. Best practices gained by the Diaspora who work in and/or do business in developed economies, can be applied to fast-track government goals as articulated in the Kenya economic blueprints such as the "Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation" and "Vision 2030".
In 2007, GoK in recognition of the significant contribution of Kenyans living abroad to its national development established the Diaspora Affairs Directorate i.e. International Jobs and Diaspora Office (Directorate), in the MoFA to specifically deal with Diaspora matters. MoFA plans to create opportunities for the Diaspora community to actively participate in refining the draft Diaspora Engagement Strategic Policy Framework (DESPF). By undertaking a participatory approach to the formulation of the Framework, the MoFA hopes to instill in the Diaspora community, a sense of ownership in the process so that it will have an equal stake in the success of implementation. The Ministry has entrenched Diaspora Diplomacy as one of its key objectives as outlined in its Strategic Plan for the 2008- 2012 period.
The Directorate has the mandate to design and implement strategies that would integrate the Kenyan Diaspora into national development as outlined in "Vision 2030". The Directorate has been assigned to work on a draft DESPF that will guide all future government engagement with the Diaspora based on identified national development needs and priorities. More specifically, the Directorate has been tasked to: (a) mobilize the Diaspora to participate in the formulation of a Diaspora engagement policy; (b) establish a database that will enable systematic collection and cataloguing of information on the Diaspora; (c) undertake programs for the Diaspora to engage in development activities; (d) support organized Diaspora associations to carry out some of these development activities in a coordinated manner; and (e) work closely with Kenya's Foreign Missions to identify and facilitate professionals to return (real or virtual) to contribute to national development.
The IDF grant will develop the communications, outreach, and information gathering capacity of the Directorate office.
The Objectives and Activities of the IDF Grant
The main objective of the IDF Grant is to enhance the capacity of Directorate in MoFA to mobilize the Kenyan Diaspora for development. Emphasis will be given to mainstreaming the Diaspora into national development as outlined in the Kenyan Economic blueprint: "Vision 2030". Enhancing the capacity of the Directorate would lead to the development of a national Diaspora Engagement Strategic Policy Framework and Plan of Action; and would strengthen the GoK's communications with, outreach to, and information gathering from its Diaspora.
Component 1: Develop the Kenya’s Diaspora Engagement Strategic Policy Framework and Plan of Action of Action
This component will strengthen capacity of staff in the Directorate to develop the strategic framework, plan of action and benchmarks to engage Kenyan Diaspora for development. Activities include to provide support to:
- Outreach workshops to the Kenyan Diaspora Networks and Hometown Associations in the United Kingdom and Europe, and in the United States.
- Outreach for participation of the Kenyan Diaspora at the Bi-annual conference of Kenyan Ambassadors and High Commissioners.
- Outreach Kenya Diaspora through engagement with Kenyan Think Tanks for preparation of policy notes on Kenyan Remittance flows and leveraging investments for development investment climate and constraints.
Component 2: Develop the Communications, outreach, and information gathering capacity of the Directorate office
The component will finance short term consultant assignments to strengthen staff capacity in the Directorate. Activities include to:
- Develop a web portal for exchanging experiences, and global communication strategies
- Learn best practices experiences of Diaspora engagement through study tours in Asia and Africa as well as utilization of the Global Distance Learning Network (GDLN)
- Improve the virtual technology of the Directorate to engage with the Kenyan Diaspora
- Develop a training module which includes training curriculum and training manual at the Foreign Service Institute in MOFA on the role of Diaspora in Kenya’s economic and social development.
MALI: IDF Grant for Strengthening the Transfer of Knowledge through the Expatriate National Program (TOKTEN)
Mali has a strong migrant population. It is estimated that over 4,000,000 Malians live abroad (Diaspora), out of which 3.5 million live on the African continent. To make sure that the needs of this heavily migrant population are meet, the Government of Mali created in 1991, a Ministry in charge of Diaspora affairs and a secretariat, “Le Haut Conseil des Maliens de l’Extérieur” (HCME) through which Malians abroad make their voice heard. Mali Diaspora policy is designed to encourage continued contacts with, and investment in the homeland by Malians living outside of the country.
In key development areas, namely higher education, there is a lack of highly qualified professionals with enough expertise in scientific and technological areas. In addition, a significant number of high-level professionals become Diaspora every year by moving abroad permanently and exacerbating the brain-drain phenomena.
In order to address the issue of brain drain and the consequences of large unplanned return of immigrants, the Government has adopted the Transfer of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) approach. The Transfer of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals Program (TOKTEN) was first propose by UNDP in 1977 and has been operational in 50 countries in Africa, Asia, North America and Europe. The program presents an opportunity for developing countries to take advantage of the expertise of their Diaspora. Through the program, Diaspora professionals can voluntarily return to their home country for short periods, through consultancies, and give their expertise to improve development.
In 2007 as the Malian Government and the World Bank were developing their country assistance strategy, it was proposed that an increased in technical support was necessary to enhance capacity to produce measurable results. To this end, the policy of engaging Diaspora in the country would be supported through an institutional development fund (IDF) grant. In addition to several ongoing capacity building initiatives in monitoring and evaluation and reinforcing audit institutions, the Mali-IDF will support capacity development through a specific program for “brain-gain” through the increased engagement of Malian Diaspora professionals in the university and attendant institutions.
Therefore, the Mali-IDF’s objective is to strengthen the capacity of the Ministry of Malians Living Abroad to expand the university teaching aspects of the Transfer of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals or Diaspora (TOKTEN) program. The IDF grant was approved on July 13th 2010 and will commence implementation by December 2010.
The Malian Diaspora will be enlisted to support curriculum development and distance learning opportunities at the university level.
The two components of the IDF grant are:
- Coordination of Malian Diaspora for university teaching which comprises the following activities: Review of existing teaching curriculum to incorporate distance learning modules and e-courses by Malian visiting professors. The Ministry in Charge of Malians Living Abroad will make sure that a pool of Malian experts are also available to assist students taking e-courses.
- Support to the establishment of a Virtual Library. At the request of the Ministry in Charge of Malians Living abroad and of the Ministry of Higher Education, Diaspora Malian professors from universities outside Mali will assist the University of Bamako in establishing a Virtual Library and exchange references with their respective universities. The Virtual Library is also an opportunity to further the exchange of knowledge and reverse the brain drain.
SIERRA LEONE: IDF Grant for Strengthening the Directorate of Diaspora Affairs in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with Specific Focus on the National Health Sector program - P114113
The Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL) looks to its Diaspora to assist in rebuilding the capacity of its governing institutions. Civil service, local government, public financial management, judicial systems, anti corruption, and police reforms are at the center of GoSL’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2005-2007). The Bank has been supporting the government’s agenda through the Institutional Reform and Capacity Building Project and strengthening the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework budget process. The government, in turn, has enacted key legislation to support the decentralization policy and public sector reform programs.
The government established the Directorate of Diaspora Affairs (Directorate) in the Ministry of Presidential and Public Affairs (MOPPA). The primary roles of the Directorate are to: (a) help mobilize the Diaspora for the country’s development, (b) coordinate efforts to improve relationship with the Diaspora, and (c) harness the Diaspora expertise and resources for development. This central office will ensure broad stakeholder involvement, coordinate alignment and harmonization of all donor activities for capacity development through the Diaspora. In May 2008, GoSL requested Bank support for developing and implementing a national Diaspora engagement policy framework. The government also expressed concerns about the shortage of health personal such as medical doctors and nurses and requested the Bank’s support especially in the health sector. The Directorate would like to provide support in all public sectors but for the purpose of this Grant, the GoSL decided to focus on Health Sector as a pilot.
The Objective and Activities of the IDF Grant
The main objective of the IDF Grant is to enhance the capacity of the Directorate in the MOPPA for mobilizing Sierra Leone’s Diaspora in addressing critical gaps in the Public Sector with a specific focus on the National Health Sector program. The main components and activities to be supported are:
Component 1: Develop the capacity of the Directorate to prepare Consultative Strategies for the Public Sector
This component provides support shot term consultant assignments to support improving the capacity of the Directorate to develop various Diaspora consultative strategy papers with specific objectives. For example, the objective of the strategy paper is to enhance the capacity for improved services in public and private sector, institutions by Diaspora Technical Expert Networks. Activities would include:
- Strengthening the communication and network coordination capacity of the Directorate;
- Developing data generation, management, and application capacity of the Directorate; and
- Learning from the experience of other countries through study tours and other exchanges.
Component 2: Designing a Diaspora Engagement Strategic Framework, Plan of Action, and Benchmark in the Health Sector
This component will finance short term consultants to assist in strengthening the Directorate in (a) preparing four health sector analytical papers; and (b) developing the National Comprehensive Diaspora Engagement Strategic Framework, Plan of Action and benchmarks with focus on the health sector. Activities would include:
- Strengthening the knowledge of Directorate and other policymakers about African Union Diaspora Health Sector Initiative which was launched in September 2008, and
- Strengthening the Directorate to prepare analytical papers and issue the National Diaspora Engagement Framework, Plan of Action, and benchmarks for building capacity in the health sector.
UGANDA: IDF Grant for Strengthening Capacity for Diaspora Engagement with Specific Focus on Infrastructure Sector (Energy, Roads and Railways) - P119720
The Government of Uganda (GOU) looks to its Diaspora to assist in rebuilding capacity in infrastructure support in the selected focus areas of energy, roads and railways. Infrastructure has, and will continue to be, an integral part of the Government’s development plan. Capacity issues in the infrastructure sector are a central part of the Republic of Uganda’s National Development Plan (2010/11 – 2014/15) and the world Bank new Country Assistance Strategy for 2010-2013 . The Bank is providing support to Government to improve institutional efficiency and capacity through the Kampala Institutional and Infrastructure Development Project and the Transport Sector Development Project.
Recognizing the need for specialized services that would enable the country to engage the Diaspora for Uganda's development, H. E. President Museveni directed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA) to create a Diaspora Department/Division (Division) . The MoFA was selected by the President as the Ministry to house this Department because of its coordination role in dealing with external partners outside the country. The Division seeks to: (a) undertake programs for Uganda Diaspora to engage in development activities; (b) support organized Uganda Diaspora associations to carry out some of these development activities; and (c) work closely with Uganda’s foreign missions to identify and facilitate professionals to return to Uganda and contribute to national development.
In July 2009, the GOU requested Bank support for developing and implementing a national Diaspora engagement policy framework. The Government has expressed concerns about the shortage of civil servant personnel for infrastructure support. The Diaspora Division would like to provide support in all public sectors but for the purposes of this Grant, decided to focus on the infrastructure sector (energy, roads and railways) as a pilot. On May 14, 2010, GOU and the World Bank signed an agreement for an IDF grant for $500,000 for strengthening the capacity of staff in the Diaspora Division. The MoFA is working with other development partners such as UNDP on obtaining additional resources for the Diaspora Division.
The Objectives and Activities of the IDF Grant
The main objective of the IDF Grant is to enhance the capacity of staff in the Diaspora Division in MoFA and Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development’s Petroleum Exploration and Production Department (MEMP), Uganda National Roads Authority (URA) and Uganda Railways Cooperation (URC) to engage Ugandan Diaspora in infrastructure development support in selected focus areas i.e. energy, roads and railways. The main components and activities to be supported are:
Component 1: Design Strategic Framework and Plan of Action to Engage Ugandan Diaspora Talent in Infrastructure Development
This component will strengthen capacity of staff in the Division to design the strategic framework, plan of action and benchmarks to engage Uganda Diaspora in infrastructure development. Activities include to support to:
- Learn from best practice experiences of Diaspora engagement through study tours of Diaspora engagement in Asia and utilizing the Global Distance Learning Network (GDLN).
- Organize workshops in Europe, UK, and North America with a focus on infrastructure talent in the Ugandan Diaspora.
- Produce three Diaspora capacity needs assessments and a strategic framework and plan of action in the focus areas of energy, roads, and railways.
Component 2: Strengthening Knowledge Sharing and Building Infrastructure Capacity in Energy, Roads, and Railways
The component will finance short term consultant assignments to strengthen staff capacity in the MEMP, URA and URC to ensure that they have the essential institutional capacities. The activity is to issue the following three reports:
- Energy: Report on options for sources of financing and human capital for a mini oil refinery.
- Roads: Report on recommendations for updating all sections in the manual for highway and road safety.
- Railways: Report on recommendations for guidelines to design and evaluate Private Public Partnership proposals.