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World Bank Dialogue Series

Dialogue Series with Civil Society in Mozambique

The World Bank holds monthly dialogue series with civil society organizations with the objective of broadening the understanding of development topics and stimulate public discourse in the country. Below are summaries of such meetings with quotes from the participants.   

The World Bank and Civil Society
 Dialogue Session on the World Bank New Series of Budget Support – September 2009


A civil society Dialogue Series session took place last Thursday, September 24, at the Bank's conference room, and with the objective of presenting the new series of PRSC and discuss its main objectives in response to previous consultations held with CSOs under the same Dialogue Series session organized some months ago.

The meeting, chaired by Antonio Nucifora, World Bank Sr. Economist, who task manages the new series, was held in Portuguese and comprised a powerpoint presentation and handouts detailing matrix' triggers and other elements of the new PRSC, clearly making it easy for participants to understand how the PRSC series relates with budget support from other donors, and how it relates to the country's own priorities as outlined in its poverty reduction strategy, known as PARPA from its Portuguese acronym.


There was broad support from participants for the new PRSC series and the dual focus on measures to strengthen public financial management systems and to boost economic growth.

The meeting, which last two hours, was a pure moment of two-way communication among the twenty something participants from CSOs groups, specialized think tanks, academia, university professors, and researchers. Thus achieving one of the meeting's main objectives of targeting those who really matter and whose opinion and thinking counts for other groups.


The multifaceted aspect of budget support operations coupled with PARPA goals made the session vivid and full of questions, comments, and insights on the most varied angles. Among the contributions highlight goes to the following:


"How the Bank sees, through this operation, its support to agriculture, and why the Bank does not use its leverage to give a new impetus to such a crucial sector for the economy?".


"Is the Bank willing to and ready to address frontally the issue and relevance of subsidies for the agriculture sector? what would be the best approach?"


"Since PRSC supports land reforms, what are the expected implications of the reform on the poor? how it will guarantee that land is used in a sustainable manner and what are the guarantees that agriculture output will increase as result of that?


Others were more interested on the M&E, asking why for instance the GoM instruments used jointly with donors for their support to the PARPA, such as the Performance Assessment Framework, known as PAF, do not have qualitative M&E imbedded since most of the challenges facing the country in many areas as education is related with the quality of services.


Still on the M&E, some wondered whether the PRSC incorporates the findings of the Implementation Evaluation Report of the PARPA, under the designation of RAI.


Finally, some others suggested that supporting and pushing for reforms as is the case with PRSCs does not guarantee enforcement of reform's outputs, including the ensuing specific legislation, etc, adding that, perhaps its now time for the Bank to work with partners and the GoM in putting a special emphasis on the issue of enforcement.


That session follows another one organized earlier on in the month, on September 10,  and chaired by Kristen Himelein, and which served to present to the same group the new database ADePT, as part of a series of other presentations she made with other important players including the GoM. For more about ADePT, see below:,,contentMDK:21336632~menuPK:3808810~pagePK:64168182~piPK:64168060~theSitePK:477894,00.html

Dialogue Session on health sector in Mozambique – May 2009
This month Dialogue Series session discussed the health sector in Mozambique, and, particularly, the World Bank support for the sector. Humberto Cossa, Sr. Health Specialist, was the session's guest speaker for about two hours of a lively and interactive conversation with members of civil society and NGOs.

The purpose of these sessions is to share experience, compare notes, gather intelligence, and improve CSOs grasp of issues, as well as boost our image as a trustworthy and transparent institution. Humberto started with an overview of the Bank's support to the sector from 1990s to date, underlining results and achievements along the way, as well as presenting an overview of the policy choices made over the years. He then dwelt on the recently approved HSDP, going thru the rationale for the Bank's support to the project, its main objectives, components, cost structure, and expected results.

Humberto's long time services to the national health system helped him handle extremely well the questions, comments coming from the floor; a great majority of which focused on policy choices, perspectives for the country going forward.

Participants inquired why results are so meager in the fight against HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and in achieving many of the MDGs indicators despite huge financing on these sectors from many donors over the years. Others suggested that the country should seek to invest in its own planning and M&E abilities, and that it should act as a learning organization that uses past experiences (failures and success) to implement sound health programs with better value for money approach.

Child and maternal health, as well as sanitation were discussed with a lot of detail. The role of public investments such as in rural health facilities, but also the overall socioeconomic development, including roads, education, were also underscored as important determinants for better child and maternal health, and for the improvement of health indicators in general. Other improbable aspects, but not less important were also discussed, including the importance of factoring in local habits and cultural codes when planing health investments.

Here, concrete examples from the field revealed that many health facilities in rural areas were not being used because some cultural codes were not being taken into consideration. For instance, despite large investments in rural health facilities for pregnant women in rural areas, many pregnant women refused to use them on the ground that among the facilities' personnel, some were men. In other places, pregnant women opted for not using those facilities because mother-in-laws were not allowed in to accompany them during the delivery of the babes, which is considered unacceptable in their cultural codes and tradition.

Dialogue Session on World Bank Support to the Government's Budget  - March 2009
This month dialogue  session discussed the preparation of the new series of World Bank budget support operations; the indicators of which are still to be determined based on consultations like these, and extended to donor partners, Government, and other stakeholders. The World Bank uses a lending instrument called Poverty Reduction Support Credit (PRSC) for its funding to the budget. As in the past, the PRSC triggers will be selected out of the Performance Assessment Framework (PAF) agreed with the group of 19 donors providing budget support to the Government of Mozambique, which itself is the result of an intensive dialogue between the government, donors, and stakeholders, particularly in the context of the semi-annual Joint Reviews.

The discussion was lively and covered a number of important development topics spanning from decentralization, governance, to human and social development, and support to agriculture and other priority sectors. The session also discussed ways to enhance CSOs  role vis a vis GoM actions.
A rather heterogenous group representing all spectrum of civil society including academia, research institutions, think tanks, but also NGOs took part to the meeting which last for 2 hours of lively discussion moderated by Rafael Saute, Communication Specialist.
Antonio Nucifora, Senior Economist, was the main speaker. He started with a brief  power point presentation and handled the range of questions and comments that followed. The meeting was joined by Mr. Young Chul Kim, Lead Economist for Mozambique who contributed with invaluable insights throughout.

Here's a snapshot of the questions and comments raised:

"There's a contradiction between public discourse that places agriculture and Green Revolution at the top while central budget allocation to agriculture is so low, marginally situated around 4 percent. Is there any way the WB could help revert this through its support to the state budget?"

"GoM's PARPA II barely mention vulnerable groups and the need for safety nets, etc. Budget for social sectors is estimated at 1 percent. What can be done to revert this? Likewise, the vulnerable among vulnerable are the elderly who are not even mentioned in GoM's own national health strategy."

" Is there anything the WB can do under the G19 framework to strengthening CSOs?"

"GoM discourse is in favor of decentralization, but it's not accompanied by a proper allocation of funds for it. Currently only 3-4 percent of budget support goes to decentralization. It's also time that procurement be decentralized." 

"Some GoM plans fail due to lack of proper attention to governance issues including fiduciary, corporate governance within state institutions, and NGOs capacity building to perform their oversight role."

"Support to agriculture over the years is not resulting in positive gains to the economy. What is the WB doing to support implementation policies of the GoM for a maximum impact of investments made"

"Human development, especially health and education are facing great challenges of quality. The GoM's PAF, which the WB is using for the delivery of this budget support, does not incorporate the need to improve quality; it's only a question of quantity. In the same vein, the PAF mentions numbers of local consultative meetings held in districts but it does not mention how these consultative groups operate, who takes part to it, and ultimately the quality of the discussions held. What can be done to revert this?"

" There are many places in this country which are not getting any or very little support from central budget. There should be a way for the WB to exert its influence in reviewing budget allocation for priority sectors."
"The economic growth we are registering is not accompanied with equity in distribution of wealth, which increases the number of vulnerable and enhance the potential for societal conflicts and social unrest."

Dialogue Session on Governance – February 2009

A high moment of dialogue, exchange of ideas, listening, and lecturing are the epithets best suited to describe this month Development Dialogue Series session with Brian Levy, World Bank Senior Advisor, and Governance and Anti-Corruption (GAC) Chief.


The meeting was attended by over 25 people, an heterogeneous representation of members of civil society groups, among them stakeholders, development practitioners, think tanks, and academia, all with interest and a lot to share on the theme of governance in its many facets; a theme didactically presented and discussed during the two-hour session which was also followed by a media interview broadcast by an independent news agency in its evening news edition.


Questions, contributions, comments, and answers characterized the lively moment that followed Mr. Levy’s power point presentation which had the merit of connecting with the local circumstances with examples of past and present concrete work and activities on that front in the country. His presentation also brought to the discussion empirical evidences from other places, enriching the debate on the conceptual standpoint.


Many topics were discussed, including the civil society participatory role in improving de delivery of education, health care, and other public services. The participant's contributions converged on the absence of and the need for a strong civil society able to meaningfully perform its checks-and-balance function in Mozambique, counterweighing a paradox of a somewhat weak institution environment with a strong government.


Solutions were also discussed, including that appeal from one of the participant for a better financing mechanism in support of civil society groups from the part of donor countries.


Another participant suggested that the current budget support to the government exacerbates the marginalization of civil society groups because the government’s accountability is currently focused towards those who provide them with funds (donor countries).


Some suggested that access to funds shouldn’t constitute the centerpiece of civil society struggle for relevance, and that the future of civil society groups in Mozambiqueresides in their ability to find their own space, make themselves heard at local community levels as reliable partners in development matters, including in their interaction with local government structures.


“There’s a danger that civil society groups be valued only when their work is in benefit of government’s interests”, said one of the participants. Adding that “as soon as civil society work contradicts a government’s approach on a given development issue, it runs the risk of being marginalized”. Another participant added that “if that happens is because our civil society is not a genuine force embedded in the society it serves; it is an artificial creation for the sake of the so-called dialogue, participation, and the likes". 


Please send you comments, suggestions to


Dialogue on Climate Change: Implications on Mozambique Development Efforts – December 2008
This month dialogue serie session was attended by 25 representatives of civil society groups, academia, and media. Mr. Fernandes,  World Bank Land Management Adviser, started his presentation by conveying a message of urgency by saying that climate change presents a challenge for the well-being of all countries, and particularly to the poorest countries and the poorest people (especially women and children) in vulnerable regions. He also added that addressing climate change is central to the development and poverty reduction agenda.

His presentation made the link between climate change, poverty reduction and livelihood impacts in Africa. Examples of climate change adverse impacts on water availability or health were discussed. Fourteen countries are already experiencing water stress in Africa, and another 11 countries are expected to join them by 2025 at which time nearly 50% of Africa’s  population of 1.45 billion people will face water stress or scarcity. Regarding the impacts of water shortage on health, nearly 41% of Africa population lack adequate sanitation.

Some manifestation of climate change is through natural disaster, which not only destroy livelihood and infrastructure, but can also aggravate financial, political, social problems,  making it difficult for many countries to meet their development target and goals. This is particularly true for lower income countries (Mozambique), where economic losses from disasters can have the highest proportional impact on GDP. The immediate consequences of the increased frequency and/or intense extreme weather are bad enough, but these shocks can also reinforce larger and longer-term problems. For example, studies have repeatedly found that women and other marginalized social groups suffer more during disasters and find it harder to re-adjust afterwards. Climate change thus threatens to exacerbate social inequalities.

During the debate, one third of the discussion focuses on how can the green revolution be linked  to climate change. There are reports of low or no precipitation in some parts of the country despite the efforts put by smallholders farmers on agriculture. To mitigate the livelihood Impacts of low precipitation, the people use forest to produce charcoal for income, thus increasing deforestation.

Mr. Fernandes proposed solutions to mitigate adverse climate change impacts on the social, economic, and agricultural point of view. He stressed the importance of investing in meteorological information, and to use multiple crops and agroforestry rather than monocrops to support biodiversity and multifunctional habitats/niches. Mr Fernandes emphasized that climate change can also be seen as an opportunity by reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.
Presentation (PDF 1.66 MB)

Dialogue on the Role of Civil Society in Development – October 2008
Shantayanan Devarajan, the World Bank Chief Economist for Africa, was the special guest of this month Dialogue Series and a public lecture organized in coordination with a Mozambican think tank, Amecon.

The public lecture attended by over 100 people, and organized jointly with the Mozambican Economic Association, jumpstarted the series of open and two-ways communications with Mozambicans that followed.

“Overcoming Government and Market failures” was the theme of his lecture, which encompassed a number of important sub themes, backed with data and concrete examples from the field, ranging from access to education and health, to the provision of infrastructure services to poor communities.

The lecture also served to discuss solutions, one of them being the importance of scaling up access to information in order to stimulate demand for accountability, key in promoting better services delivery at the community level.

Shanta was also the guest speaker of this month Dialogue Series, a window for debate between World Bank experts and the civil society promoted by the World Bank country office in Mozambique.

In a more informal setting than usual, this month Dialogue Series was an inspiration for a more spontaneous interaction where Shanta made one of the most convincing cases about the role of the civil society in development, and why the Bank, the development community, governments, and communities themselves need civil society. 

"Pro-poor reforms will only come about if there is a domestic political consensus for it. This consensus will emerge only if there is an evidence-based debate. Civil society can help nurture that debate by contributing to the evidence base, as well as participating in it", said Shanta.

The two hours of lively debate covered a lot of ground and was an occasion to revisit a wide range of topics from country-specific to broader ones. Here are some of the questions and contributions raised during the two debates:

“While it’s true that there is evidence of government and market failures, we know of development institutions such as the World Bank and others that have also failed in some policies. What do you make of that?” asked one of the participants.

“If access to [development] information is really important for communities, what is the Bank doing about that?”, asked another participant.

“It looks like your presentation is a case for less State and more private sectors. I’m not sure basic service provision can be covered by private sector only”, wondered one of the participants.

Other questions focused on the current financial crisis and its implication for both development aid and foreign direct investments in Africa; another set on agriculture as the engine of growth in Africa. Also discussed were questions on harmonization and the Paris declaration; environment; population versus economic growth; effects of floods, droughts, and erosion on development efforts in Mozambique, among many other topics.    

To access Shanta’s Africa Can blog : 

Dialogue on Social Accountability – September 2008
This month topic was social accountability, and focused on the question of public voice and demand for accountability, and it covered a wide range of issues, with one third of the discussion focusing on the importance and the centrality of access to information as a key factor to improve social accountability at all levels of the society, particularly in rural communities where a greater development efforts is being concentrated nowadays. On that regard, one of the participants wondered whether the World Bank could use its leverage to make sure the information act, which has been awaiting approval for years in the parliament, gets approved. 

Another set of questions focused on the allegedly highly politicized environment in which CSOs operate in many parts of the continent, and particularly in Mozambique, and which makes it difficult for them to contribute meaningfully as reliable players in promoting social accountability. There were also questions related to difficulties faced in promoting social responsibility in a context of massive illiteracy rate; others would underscore the difficulties in translating complex information such as budget execution to rural communities. Finally, but not the least, some would try to broaden the scope of the debate and include the relation between the donor community and governments, by underscoring the risk for governments to be more accountable to the donors than to their own citizens.

The meeting was attended by 20 representatives of civil society groups, academia, and media

Dialogue on the World Bank Support to the Government General Budget, Policy Reforms and PARPA implementation - August 2008

CSO3This month session discussed the preparation of the World Bank fifth Poverty Reduction Support Credit, the Bank's operational instrument in support to policy dialogue and reforms, through direct budget support to the government's action plan for poverty reduction, PARPA, from its Portuguese acronym. Antonio Nucifora, the World Bank Task Team Leader for the operation, chaired the lively debated that followed his presentation, which was facilitated by Rafael Saute, the Bank's External Affairs Specialist. Trade unionists, G20, CIP, GMD, and academia, were among the 35 participants to the meeting. Questions were diverse and embraced a wide range of issues, with some incidence on the mechanisms of World Bank budget allocation to Mozambique. Here is a summary of the main questions:


What are the roles, responsibility, complementarity of the General Inspectorate of Finance and the 'Tribunal Administrative'?”


"There's a need for greater autonomy of the 'Tribunal Administrativo' in pursuing and investigating issues related with public finance"


"What are the roles and responsibilities of the General Inspectorate of Finance and the 'Tribunal Administrativo' in performing government's internal and external auditing?"


"What is the relation between the World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) and the Government Performance Assessment Framework (PAF) used by the group of 19 direct budget support donors (G19) in deciding about their funds allocation to the Government's PARPA?"


"Apparently the Bank has increased its overall support based on greater availability of resources thanks to a good replenishment. Does it mean that what determines the increase is the availability of funds and not the government needs?"


"What is made of the assessment by donors of the government procurement, when will the evaluation be made public?"


"How the Bank makes the definition of priorities?"


"Is the Sweden reduction of its budget support the result of the country CPIA low scores of last year?"


"What is the Bank's take on Sweden reduction of its support to the general budget?"


"The numbers seem to show that there will be a decline in the Bank's budget allocation through direct budget support, is it a subtle indication that the Bank is also cutting its support to the budget?"


"How the CPIA scores play out in the budget allocation to the government general budget?”


"How can the country cope with a possible drastic cut in donor support to its budget - is it possible for the country to be more effective in collecting taxes and improving its GDP?”


"What is the Bank response to stimulate good performance and what it does to help the government perform better?"

Dialogue on the Bank's Overall Support in Fighting Poverty - July 2008

This session was based on presentations made by Susan Hume, Country Program Manager, and Gregor Binkert, Lead Economist, about the Bank's overall support in fighting poverty in Mozambique. The Bank's relation with CSOs at corporate and country level was also presented by Rafael Saute, External Affairs Specialist, who facilitated the discussions.


The floor was made of a total of 28 people from a rather heterogeneous group of civil societyCSO and WB in Mozambique members composed of representatives from academia, NGOs, and media. A lively debate followed with questions and suggestions ranging from the Bank's  work in sectors such as the environment, agriculture, fishery, natural resources, and sanitation; as well as the Bank's  relations/partnership with stakeholders such as the private sector, smallholder farmers, but also with the larger development community.


Below is a snapshot of some of the participants' contributions:


"Global warming is already affecting the output of the fishery industry. Is the Bank supporting in any way the country better cope with that emergency? "


"What is the Bank's position on climate change?


"To what extent the Bank can influence policy decision-making in urban sanitation?"


"The Bank's support to Agriculture and rural development accounts for only 6 percent of its portfolio. How come when about 80 percent of the country's population leave in rural areas" 

"What is the Bank's assessment of the management of funds it provides to the government for research in higher education? "


"The lack of investments in rural areas is responsible for the rural exodus to the cities, which is resulting in massive unemployment. This phenomenon is also exacerbated by the current surge in the number of people entering the country from neighboring countries...what is the Bank's take on that and how/what it's doing to support the government cope with that?


"Which measures the Bank is taking to help the country curb corruption?  The Anti-corruption forum was abolished; the information act is in the parliament for quite some time waiting to be discussed/approved..."


"What is the impact of the Bank's projects in people's life?  What examples do you have demonstrating that the support provided to the country via the government is trickling down to ordinary citizens? Wouldn't it be better  to support the communities directly?"


"Could the Bank share with us examples of countries that received its assistance and succeed in getting out of poverty ?"


"There's so much good talking and so many studies out there, but when it comes to implementation, there's little to be showcased"

Dialogue on Food Prices - June 2008
This session was based on a joint research work between IMF, the World Bank, and the Ministry of Planning and Development, and was the first of its kind held jointly. IMF Resident Representative, Felix Fisher and Antonio Nucifora, World Bank Sr. Economist were among the panelist and presenters of this dialogue session, which was facilitated by Rafael Saúte, World Bank External Affairs Specialist. The floor was made of representatives from CSOs, academia, media, totaling about 30 people.

The lively debate that followed focused on the opportunities created by the rise in food prices for agriculture producers, with a quarter of the interventions focusing on the structural constraints to be addressed in order for the country to make the most out of this opportunity, including by developing adequate physical and institutional infrastructures in support to agriculture producers, including by guaranteeing access to markets. Some participants would also argue in favor of additional and focused fuel subsidies for key sectors such as the fishery. Here are some highlights of participants’ interventions: 


"Given that food subsidies is presented as one of the policy options to be considered in mitigating the effects of the food prices for poor households, wouldn't the food subsidies deter people from embracing the opportunity created by this crisis, which is increasing agriculture output?”  


"There's a paradox in international development, which the WB could help us understand. The international community encourages economic growth, and yet, we are seeing today that the demand generated by the growth of economies such as Chine, India, etc is partly responsible for the crisis the world is in today. How do you explain that?"  


"Given the opportunity created by the food prices in agriculture in this country, those regions  with great agriculture potential like Tete ( for potatoes) should benefit from a robust government and donor push in putting in place adequate infrastructures there such as roads, but  also access to markets."


"The employers are severely hit by this, most of them are obliged to increase salaries while also increasing terminal benefits, which represents additional financial burden for employers and the private sector. Wouldn’t it be reasonable to consider some kind of financial support for employers in order to help them cope with the crisis and keep going?"


"Since many of the projections presented in the graphs reflect data from INE's 2003 household survey, there is risk that this study neglects a number of natural disasters occurred between 2003 to date, the effects of which are of great proportions for poor households"


"The fishery sector is severely hit by the rise in fuel prices. Wouldn't it be adequate that the GoM subsidize the fuel used in this sector, given the extent of the Mozambican coast and the importance of fishery in the country's economy?"


This session was followed by an interview with Radio Mocambique, and television coverage.


Additional materials on this topic are posted on this site through the following links:

Food Price Crises

Dialogue on the Upcoming Country Economic Memorandum – April 2008

The meeting was attended by about 25 representatives of civil society organizations, academia, and media. The discussion focused on upcoming World Bank Country Economic Memorandum for Mozambique. Gregor Binkert, Lead Country Economist and the report’s main author, made the presentations followed by lively discussions facilitated by Rafael Saute, External Affairs Specialist. Below are highlights of the debate that followed:


“NGOs, especially those providing services to communities, are among the largest employers in rural areas. Their contribution to the economy is also reflected through the services, goods and public works they provide to the communities. It would be important that NGOs contribution to the economy be reflected in the new CEM. The Bank should consider that dimension of NGOs' contribution and maybe also prepare a study that analyses that reality, and, which would also measure the impact of NGOs contribution to the economy. Furthermore, although NGOs are currently active economic players, this country have no policy that clarifies the relation between the State, the private sector, donors and NGOs in this country."


"According to the National Institute of Statistic (INE) figures - and mentioned in the current last CEM -  the fishery sector is among the lowest contributor to real GDP growth, falling far behind agriculture, mining, manufacture, transport, commerce, and  tourism, etc. Why is it so? Why the fishery sector is such a low GDP contributor? Is the Bank looking into it in its studies and researches? Is the Bank advising the Government actively on such a strategic sector for this country?"


"Mega-Projects and other large investments in the mining sector, including also in tourism should contribute directly to the development of the surrounding communities. If this study is an advisory tool, then it should seek to help the country enforce the current legislation on the matter so that really transfer of investment funds are materialized in areas where those investments occur"


"Given the prominent role of water resources and land to the economy, the CEM should reflect that aspect."

Dialogue on the Water Resources Management Strategy for Mozambique – March 2008

The discussions on this topic were based on a research paper available through this site (please see link below), and produced by the World Bank.  Leonard Abram, World Bank Water Resources Management Specialist and lead author, made the presentations followed by an open discussion facilitated by Rafael Saute, External Affairs specialist.


Here are some highlights of the participants' contributions: 


“What are the WB plans to attend agriculture development needs in Mozambique, such as support to irrigation along the Zambezi basin. We need a much bolder WB involved in such areas, key for Mozambique's development.”


“There is an enormous quantity of water unaccounted for due to lack of maintenance in the distribution systems in the most part of Mozambican towns – what the WB thinks about it?  Wouldn't it be cost-effective to concentrate efforts to also curb such a waste?”


“The Government of Mozambique is pushing for what it calls green revolution. Is the WB study reflecting this urgent government call? Does the report present some insights as to how to link the study's findings with the government's "green revolution?”


“Managing Water resources is also managing floods. Is there any possibility of collaboration between the Bank and INGC (the government management body for natural disaster) on that aspect? And in relation to that, is there any way to make sure that hydropower dams are equipped to also mitigate floods?”


This dialogue session was followed with an interview with Radio Moçambique, for one of its national flagship programs.


The study is available through

Water Resources Strategy

Dialogue on World Bank Poverty Assessment – February 2008

The session focused on HIV/AIDs and gender related poverty. The great majority of the 32 participants were among the most active stakeholders on those topics in Mozambique.


The participant's contributions were based on their experience of work in the HIV/AIDS and gender sectors, and ranged from behavioral patterns related with stigma, economic motivation leading to unsafe sex, orphans living with HIV/AIDS, growing number of street children, among other topics.


Some questions, followed by elements of response by the participants themselves, would be on the data presented. They would argue around the data showing projections with 4 times more girls infected than men aged 20-24, while also questioning the feminization of the disease.


Important to note is that this discussion and the reports’ findings came in a time when the national HIV/AIDS strategy was being revised and many of the participants were among the main contributors to that exercise.


The entire poverty assessment report is also available through the link below:

Poverty Assessment Study 

 Please send your comments, reactions, and questions to Rafael Saúte, through


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