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Papers and Reports Published by ASTAE or through ASTAE-Funded Initiatives
2011 Annual Report (forthcoming)
2010 Annual Report 
2009 Annual Report 



Lao PDR report coverLAO PDR: Power to the People: Twenty Years of National Electrification [pdf]. January 2012. This report presents the remarkable success story of the rapid deployment of a national electrification program by Lao People's Democratic Republic, integrated within a broader strategy of national and rural development. These efforts resulted in the quadrupling of the access rate from approximately 15 percent in 1995 to 70 percent in 2010, primarily through an extension of the grid. Moving toward the government target of 90 percent coverage by 2020 will require a dramatic increase in coverage by off-grid solutions.

Greenhouse Gas report coverTRANSPORT: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in Road Construction and Rehabilitation: A Toolkit for Developing Countries [pdf]. June 2011. In expectation of population and automobile growth trends, the East Asia Sustainable Development Unit was tasked with conducting a timely study for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions due to road construction and rehabilitation in East Asia. The development of this toolkit represents an effort to introduce new methodologies to reduce the gap between international best practices and the state-of-practice in East Asia.

Vietnam Rural Electrification coverVIETNAM: State and People, Central and Local, Working Together: The Rural Electrification Experience [pdf]. March 2011. This book chronicles the development of Vietnam’s rural electrification program. It tells the story of how the Vietnamese government conceived, developed, scaled up, and improved its program. It also discusses the roles the government, the country’s main utility, local authorities, local communities, and the country’s international development partners played in the pursuit of the electrification agenda. Also watch the companion video, The Last Mile.


Winds of Change coverWINDS OF CHANGE: East Asia's Sustainable Energy Future [pdf]. May 2010. Major investments in energy efficiency and a concerted effort to switch to renewable sources of power in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam could simultaneously stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, increase energy security, and improve local environments.


Cambodia Cookstoves coverCAMBODIA: Supporting Self-Sustaining Commercial Markets for Improved Cookstoves and Household Biodigesters [pdf]. December 2010. This document highlights the technical reports of two programs related to the dissemination of efficient cookstoves and biodigesters that are working to develop creative business models and payment schemes so that poorer households can access these energy-efficient, renewable technologies and improve their livelihoods. Also watch the video, Gender Dimension of Improved Cooking Stoves in Cambodia.


Timor-Leste coverTIMOR-LESTE: Key Issues in Rural Energy Policy [pdf]. December 2010. This report presents key issues in the development of a rural energy policy for Timor-Leste. The study proposes practical recommendations derived from lessons learned from international experience in the areas of off-grid electrification, household energy, and the development of biofuels from Jatropha crops.


Cambodia Improved Energy Technologies coverCAMBODIA: Improved Energy Technologies [pdf]. February 2010. Approximately 80% of Cambodians live in rural areas with limited access to clean and affordable water and energy. Furthermore, 34% percent of the rural population lives below the national poverty line on less than $0.60 per day. Many of these rural households use kerosene for lighting, “three stone stoves” for cooking, and drink water from rivers or ponds. Wood and charcoal are the primary energy sources, and almost all electricity is generated from imported diesel, both contributing to increased air pollution and deforestation. To address this situation, ASTAE, in collaboration with other donors, supported a program that focused on research and testing of new efficient, cleaner, and affordable energy technologies for wide dissemination.


Vietnam Expanding Opportunities coverVIETNAM: Expanding Opportunities in Energy Efficiency [pdf]. February 2010. Vietnam has made great strides in promoting energy efficiency measures in recent years, including the newly launched National Energy-Efficiency Program, a draft law on Energy Conservation and Efficient Use, This report provides an overview of energy demand trends in Vietnam, examines the need to promote energy efficiency, and summarizes ongoing government and international donor efforts in supporting Vietnam's energy efficiency initiatives. It also offers the suggestions and recommendations on how the government can expand energy-efficiency results in the future.


CHINA: Offshore Wind Report. February 2010. With support from AusAID and ASTAE, China: Meeting the Challenges of Offshore and Large-Scale Wind Power was implemented as a joint effort of the National Energy Administration of China and the World Bank to gather lessons learned from international experience in large-scale onshore and offshore wind-power development, with a view to informing China’s strategy going forward. The following two publications have been produced.
China Wind 1 coverChina Wind 2 coverMeeting the Challenges of Offshore and Large-Scale Wind Power: Strategic Guidance [pdf] defines a roadmap for the promotion of offshore and large-scale onshore wind developments in China, and summarizes the messages emerging from a high-level workshop held in Beijing. Regulatory Review of Offshore Wind in Five European Countries provides a detailed description and evaluation of the regulatory approaches that various countries in Europe have taken to develop offshore wind energy. 

Also available in Chinese:

Meeting the Challenges of Offshore and Large-Scale Wind Power: Strategic Guidance

Regulatory Review of Offshore Wind in Five European Countries 

Tonga report coverTONGA: Electric Supply System Forecasts [pdf]. February 2010. In recognition of the vulnerability of the Tonga electricity sector to the price of oil, the GoT has set a target of 50%renewable energy for the grid-based electricity supply in three years. The study is to identify the options available, evaluate their potential role in grid electricity supplies, and determine the best combination of renewable energy projects to meet the target, and will also serve as part of the Tonga Energy Road Map.
Coconut Oil coverPACIFIC ISLANDS: Coconut Oil Power Generation: A How-To Guide for Small Stationary Engines [pdf]. February 2010. This report provides relevant information on every aspect of fueling an engine with coconut oil. In order to successfully power a diesel engine with coconut oil, the user needs to consider several key elements of the fuel delivery and combustion system so to prevent from causing damages to the engine prematurely. Additionally, some of the interdependent factors including the type of engine being used, how it is used, and local conditions such as temperature, should also be carefully selected. This Guide includes the necessary background on the relevant aspects of the diesel engine system and the theory of running an engine on coconut oil.


Liaoning report coverCHINA: Social Analysis of Heating Reforms in Liaoning Province [pdf]. December 2009. District heating is growing rapidly in China as urban areas increase, making China the fastest-growing district heating market in the world. Until recently, most consumers working for government entities and state-owned enterprises did not directly pay for heating; this cost was paid by their work units. District heating has thus been characterized as one of the last vestiges of the welfare state in China. The main purpose of this report is to present the findings of this survey, which focuses on the impact of changes in billing and pricing, heating quality, the extent of social assistance programs for heating, and the degree of public awareness of heating reforms. The study is based upon a survey of medium-size cities in Liaoning Province in 2007, as urban heating demand has grown rapidly due to rising incomes, housing sector growth, and the privatization of housing. The results from the survey provide a snapshot of the challenges the district heating industry faces in different cities. Overall, the results reveal a need to improve the quality of services and widespread support for these reforms, especially for consumption-based billing.

Mongolia report coverMONGOLIA: Heating in Poor, Peri-Urban Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar [pdf]. See also Appendices [pdf]. October 2009. Household heating in ger areas of Ulaanbaatar is a large contributor to overall air pollution in the city. The use of coal in simple heating stoves releases high levels of particulate matter into the air, accounting for as much as 45-70% of the overall annual average particulate matter emissions in Ulaanbaatar. After a series of studies on the stove heating practices and preferences in ger households, it was concluded that it is possible to develop a program aiming to provide cleaner, affordable heating to ger areas in Ulaanbaatar, but there remain significant technical and financial barriers. The report provides detailed information on market or non-market based approaches, as well as policy recommendations, for switching to cleaner and more energy efficient heating stoves and cleaner fuels in ger households.

Wind Atlas graphicPacific Islands Wind Atlas [pdf]. June 2009.
(data and additional maps are also available for download)


Welfare Impacts graphicWelfare Impacts of Rural Electrification: Evidence from Vietnam [pdf]. September 2008. Shahidur R. Khandker, Douglas F. Barnes, Hussain Samad, and Nguyen Huu Minh.


The Development of China's ESCO, 2004-2007 [pdf]. July 2008.

Investigation in Coconut Oil Production and Conversion to Fuel forPower Generation [pdf]. February 2008.

Financing Energy Efficiency: Lessons From Brazil, China, India, and Beyond [pdf]. 2008. Robert Taylor, Chandrasekar Govindarajalu, Jeremy Levin, Anke S. Meyer, and William Ward.

2007 and prior

Electricity for All: Options for Increasing Access in Indonesia [pdf]. December 2005. East Asia Energy and Mining Unit, The World Bank Group.

Assistance to the Government of Indonesia’s Demand-Side Management Program [pdf]. January 2006. Consultant Report, Econoler International for the World Bank Group. 

Burgos Wind Farm Project [pdf]. June 2006. Consultant Technical Review, Philippines, Risø National Laboratory for ASTAE.

Biomass Energy Development. Scoping Study in Inner Mongolia, China [pdf]. November 2005.

Sustainable Energy: Less Poverty, More Profits [url]. Also see extracts: China Efficiency and China Solar [pdfs]. The book and accompanying video describe achievements in increasing access to modern energy services and maintstreaming the use of renewable energy efficiency in several client countries.

Developing a Green Electricity Scheme for Shanghai [pdf]. April 2005. Noureddine Berrah, Enno Heijndermans, and Mark D. Crowdis. ESMAP and ASTAE, The World Bank Group, East Asia Energy and Mining Unit.

Economic Analysis of Solar Home System [pdf]. February 2003. A Case Study for the Philippines.Peter Meier for The World Bank Group, East Asia Energy and Mining Unit.

Heat Metering and Billing: Technical options, Policies and Regulations [pdf]. August 2002. Chinese Demonstration projects and International Experience. JP Building Engineers & Center for Energy Efficiency in Buildings, China.

EnPoGen: Energy, Poverty, and Gender Project (EnPoGen) [url]. Case studies and reports.

Quality Program for Photovoltaics (QuaP-PV) [url]. Guidelines and Reports.

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1818 H Street N.W.
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(202) 458-5454
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