How will JUFMP help mitigate floods in Jakarta? JUFMP will help improve the operation and maintenance of Jakarta's flood management system. Specifically it will rehabilitate sections of a number of major waterways in Jakarta. JUFMP will help dredge about 67.5 km of 11 key channel sections and 65 hectares of four retention basins, to help restore their operating capacities. About 42 km of embankments will also be repaired in these sections. All these activities will take place in the priority sections of Jakarta's flood management system.
Which floodways and basins will be dredged? Sections of the following floodways, channels and retention basins will be rehabilitated: Ciliwung-Gunung Sahari Floodway, Waduk Melati, Cengkareng Floodway, Lower Sunter Floodway, Cideng Thamrin Drain, Sentiong-Sunter Drain, Waduk Sunter Utara, Waduk Sunter Selatan, Waduk Sunter Timur III, Tanjungan Drain, Lower Angke Drain, West Banjir Canal, Upper Sunter Floodway, Grogol Sekretaris Drain, Pakin –Kali Besar-Jelakang Drain, Krukut Cideng Drain, Krukut Lama Drain. These sections are under the responsibility of separate institutions, as follows:
DKI Jakarta is responsible for the following: Ciliwung-Gunung Sahari Floodway, Waduk Melati, Sentiong-Sunter Drain, Waduk Sunter Utara, Waduk Sunter Selatan, Waduk Sunter Timur III, Grogol Sekretaris Drain, Pakin –Kali Besar-Jelakang Drain, Krukut Cideng Drain, and Krukut Lama Drain.
the Directorate General of Human Settlements (Cipta Karya) of the Ministry of Public Works is responsible for the following: Cideng Thamrin Drain, Tanjungan Drain, and Lower Angke Drain.
the Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai Ciliwung & Cisadane, under the Directorate General of Water Resources of the Ministry of Public Works is responsible for the following: Cengkareng Floodway, Lower Sunter Floodway, West Banjir Canal, and Upper Sunter Floodway.
Why dredging? There are numerous drainage floodways and basins within the city of Jakarta designed to retain water and prevent flooding. Over the years however, these floodways have accumulated a large amount of sediment and solid waste which ideally should be dredged on a routine basis. Studies on Jakarta's recurrent flood problem shows that restoring these waterways and basins back to its original design capacity is the most beneficial step in flood mitigation. But it's not just about dredging: routine maintenance of the flood management system is equally important.
How sustainable are the dredging works? The dredging and restoration of the canals and retention ponds is expected to reduce the extent and duration of flooding within the area covered by these infrastructures. However, routine operation and maintenance system is necessary to avoid the systems from steadily reverting back to inadequate and insufficient operational capacity. Both DKI Jakarta and the Ministry of Public Works have recognized the need for continual maintenance and have formed dedicated Operations and Maintenance (O&M) divisions responsible for drainage and increased funding for O&M. The JUFMP will also support the establishment of a Flood Management Information System (FMIS) - through Dutch grant funding - to help strengthen Jakarta's flood monitoring and assessment capacity, as well as its O&M planning capacities.
When will dredging activities commence? The Government of Indonesia and DKI Jakarta is expected to commence the procurement of the rehabilitation works upon the approval of the project by the World Bank's Board of Directors in January 2012. Currently, rehabilitation activities are expected to commence during the second quarter of calendar year 2012.
How long will the dredging take? Will dredging activities be done simultaneously? The JUFMP is a five year project, but most of the rehabilitation activities under the project are expected to be completed in the three years between 2012 and 2015. The works have been packaged into eight separate construction contracts for the efficiency of implementation. Each package will be implemented by contractors hired by the institution responsible for the sections, i.e., DKI Jakarta, the Directorate General of Human Settlements, or the Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai Ciliwung & Cisadane. The description of the works packages and expected amount of works are as follows (click for larger table):
The implementation of the packages will be sequenced, and it is expected that Packages 1, 2a, 2b and 3 will commence first.
The Role of the World Bank and Other Development Partners
Why is the World Bank helping mitigate floods in Jakarta? The World Bank's Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) for Indonesia is centered on strengthening the capacity of all Indonesian institutions – both government and non-government, and at both central and local government level. The Jakarta Urgent Flood Mitigation Project or JUFMP (also known as the Jakarta Emergency Dredging Initiative or JEDI) supports this objective by helping strengthen central and local government capacity to provide basic public services i.e. drainage and flood management. More specifically, the project will help to:
raise government spending on infrastructure (CPS Core Engagement 2 on Infrastructure)
improve Jakarta's flood management system, in line with international standards for environmental and social safety (CPS Core Engagement 5 on Environmental Sustainability and Disaster Mitigation)
support decentralization by operating a new system that transfers funding from central to local governments for economically beneficial projects
Why does the JUFMP not support a more comprehensive scope that simultaneously addresses all the multi-faceted challenges of floods in Jakarta? The project scope has been carefully balance to focus on the immediate priority steps towards a longer term sustained flood mitigation efforts of the Government and DKI Jakarta. It should be noted that the Government and DKI Jakarta have in recent years made significant investments and commendable efforts to protect the city against floods (e.g., the recent completion of the major East Flood Canal and the construction of extensive sea defense walls). The scope and implementation arrangements of JUFMP have been carefully chosen, strategically positioning the project to focus on the key challenges that have proven to be the most difficult areas to address. These include involuntary resettlement, environmental sustainability, inter-institutional cooperation and coordination, and the mechanisms for funds transfer between the central and local government.
What else is the World Bank doing to support Jakarta's floods mitigation efforts? Apart from helping to finance the JUFMP, the World Bank has provided targeted support to the Government and DKI Jakarta towards their floods mitigation efforts. A World Bank - European Space Agency (ESA) collaboration program carried out subsidence analysis in 2011 which provided more accurate and current information on land subsidence in Jakarta. During the current rainy season of late 2011 to early 2012, the World Bank (through the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery - GFDRR) has partnered with the Australian Government-supported Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR) to support Jakarta and the national governments to improve contingency planning, including in disaster preparedness public communications strategy.
Which other major Development Partners are supporting flood mitigation efforts in Jakarta? The Netherlands is a key partner and supporter of floods mitigation efforts in Jakarta. A component of the Jakarta Flood Management Project (JFM) supported by the Netherlands provided key lessons for the design of the JUFMP. Flood hazard mapping under JFM provided the basis for joint Bank-Dutch dialogue efforts with the many institutional stakeholders in Jakarta resulting in the request for JUFMP. The Netherlands significantly funded the Government preparation of JUFMP, and will fund the Floods Management Information System (FMIS) activity under the project. The Netherlands is continuing support with a Jakarta Coastal Defense Strategy (JCDS) technical assistance, which is working towards a master plan for coastal management and protection. Additionally, the City of Rotterdam has a Memorandum of Understanding with DKI Jakarta for the sharing of knowledge and expertise on flood prevention and management.
The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has previously financed various flood related studies and infrastructure in Jakarta. JICA's Jakarta Comprehensive Flood Management (JCFM) project is providing various technical assistance, including studies at the rivers catchment level. JICA is also giving assistance for wastewater treatment system preparation for Jakarta and is currently supporting work on a sewerage master plan for Jakarta.
Apart from the recent support towards contingency planning and disaster preparedness, the Australian Government Overseas Aid Program (AusAID) also supported an urban resilience study in Jakarta in 2011 which began to examine floods mitigation efforts through city development planning geared towards resilience from disasters.
Environment and Social Safeguards
Is the dredge material hazardous? How would hazardous material be identified? The quality of the sediment materials in the project sites has been tested during preparation and no hazardous waste material were found. Nevertheless, during project implementation all sections of JUFMP project sites will be compulsorily pre-tested for hazardous material before dredging will be authorized by the project's supervision consultants. In the unlikely event of hazardous material being identified, the relevant section will be marked and closed-off. The material will then be removed and taken to a hazardous waste disposal facility (which have been specifically identified and assessed to be suitable during project preparation) by contractors certified to handle hazardous wastes
What happens to the sediment after it's been dredged out? About 3.4 million cubic meters of sediment are expected to be dredged out of 15 designated floodways and basins. Non-hazardous materials will be utilized for ongoing reclamation at a monitored Confined Disposal Facility located in the Ancol area of North Jakarta. Solid waste will be disposed of at the Bantar Gebang Landfill in Bekasi, West Java. Hazardous sediment materials (if any are found through the prior-dredge testing) will be disposed of at the PPLi Hazardous Waste Facility in Bogor, West Java. Disposal of hazardous materials will follow national regulations and require prior approval from the Ministry of Environment.
Is a Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) suitable for the disposal of dredge material? Is the use of dredge material for reclamation purposes safe? The use of both land-based and offshore-based CDFs to store and manage material from dredging activities in canals, navigational waterways and port facilities, etc., is fairly common throughout the world. CDFs have been designed for use to store and contain of potentially contaminated material (e.g. CDFs in the US Great Lakes managed by the US Army Corp of Engineers). CDFs have also been designed and constructed for later multi-purpose use such as for public recreational purposes and industrial buildings (e.g., part of Tokyo's Haneda Airport is built on a CDF which has been dewatered and covered by geotextiles). The Ancol CDF has been designed specifically with later development in mind - only non-hazardous dredge material from JUFMP will be sent to the facility, besides this dredge material only sand will be utilized to complete reclamation, and a specified minimum thickness of red soil finally used to cap the area to ensure later uses do not risk contact with the dredge material.
What are the impacts on the project adjacent communities from project construction and implementation activities? How would these be mitigated and/or managed? While all efforts will be made to minimize impacts to the project area communities, some disruptions and inconveniences during construction will be unavoidable. These include noise, dusts, construction vibrations and traffic congestions. All contractors are required to prepare and implement a Traffic Management Plan and an Environmental and Social Management Plan, which are subject to the approval and supervision of the project supervision consultants. Contractors are obligated to consult the project community as part of the preparation of these plans, and thereafter, a specified minimum number of periodic consultations are contractually required during implementation. These plans and consultations will enable agreements to be reached to minimize disruptions (e.g., limiting noise during prayer times or at night) and will inform the community of the construction plans and schedules. Local regulations require that transportation of dredge material (from temporary storage locations at project sites) for disposal be limited to night time, to reduce traffic congestions.
Every project site will have a "POSKO" which functions, amongst others, as a public information center and as a location (out of various channels) for the receipt of project-related complaints and related consultations. The project information centers will also function to disseminate clear project information. A project Grievance Redress System will be put in place to receive and resolve complaints. The project information centers will serve as one or several channel to receive and resolve complaints.
Will anyone be forced to resettle as a result of this project? All efforts have been, and continue to be made, to minimize the number of affected persons. However, involuntary resettlement is expected at six out of the 15 project sites but all efforts will be made to minimize the number of affected persons. It is expected that all project affected persons are those that have occupied state or government land. Resettlement issues will be governed by the DKI Jakarta provincial government's Resettlement Policy Framework which was created specifically for this project. The framework addresses:
entitlements of people who occupy state or government land,
rationale for compensation for lost assets at replacement cost,
specific measures to address vulnerable groups,
assistance for livelihood restoration
The framework adheres to international best practices for the provision of resettlement support. It sees DKI Jakarta adopting a more equitable approach to involuntary resettlement – a significant departure from the forced evictions of past.
What kind of assistance will be given to project affected persons? Assets other than land will be compensated at replacement cost, which is the market cost of the materials required to build a replacement home of similar size and quality, plus labor and transportation costs. Replacement costs will be appraised by the Suku Dinas Perumahan (Housing Sub-Agency at the municipal level) or Dinas Perumahan dan Gedung Pemerintah (DKI Jakarta Agency for Housing and Government Buildings). Compensation can also be provided in kind in the form of subsidized, affordable housing e.g. rental units in government housing. Owners of crops and trees affected by JUFMP will also be entitled to compensation.
Who's eligible for compensation? For every project site where there is involuntary resettlement, a site-specific Resettlement Plan (RP) – also known as a Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan or LARAP – will be prepared. The project Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) will govern the preparation of Resettlement Plans (RPs) and the determination of assistance to be provided to Project Affected Persons (PAPs). The policy framework addresses the entitlements of PAPs who are occupants of state or government land as well as entitlements of PAPs affected by the acquisition of privately owned land, the rationale for compensation for lost assets at replacement cost, specific measures to address vulnerable groups, and assistance for livelihood restoration. The consultation of the project affected persons is an integral part of the RP preparation and development process. All RPs must be approved by the Bank, publicly disclosed and must be implemented (except elements in the RPs related to post-resettlement activities) prior to any works commencing at the associated site. During project implementation a project grievance redress system that is open, approachable, and also provides timely feedback to concerns, as well as mediation options for disputes will be in place to address any complaints that arise from the project.
What if someone is unhappy with the involuntary resettlement assistance offered? Where can they field their complaints to? Complaints arising from the project will be addressed through an open and approachable grievance redress system. Feedback will be provided in a timely fashion and with updates on the status of complaints posted online. The team handling the complaints will also advise DKI Jakarta on acceptable follow-up actions and help ensure that decisions are made in a fair, independent and transparent manner.