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ECA Migration - Publications


Publications Addressing Migration in the CIS Countries

These publications are summary of the World Bank working papers and books on development implications of current migration and remittances issues in the CIS countries.


Demography, Aging, and Mobility in the ECA Region: A Critical Overview of Trends and Future Challenges. Timothy Heleniak and Sudharshan Canagarajah. World Bank. (2013)
This paper reviews recent past and projected population trends for the countries of the ECA region, including implications of the expected demographic trends over the next two decades. (.pdf Eng.) Summary (.pdf Rus.)

arr Manolo I. Abella. Manual - Sending Workers Abroad. ILO, Geneva (ed. 2004) (2011)
The manual is developed within the framework of the International Labor Office project: "The vocational training opportunities and migration policy as factors for prevention and reduction of women trafficing in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine". (.pdf Ukr)

arrRemittances and the Macroeconomic Impact of the Global Economic Crisis in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan (2011)
As a result of their very rapid growth in the 2000s, worker remittances have emerged as one of the most important channels of economic integration within the CIS for its smaller and poorer economies. Tajikistan is the most heavily dependent of the CIS countries on remittances, followed by Moldova and Kyrgyz Republic. (pdf Eng, Rus)

 arr Harnessing the Diaspora for Development in Europe and Central Asia (2011)
This report builds on the World Bank’s earlier work and focuses on an aspect of migration which is important, from various aspects, to practically all countries of the Europe and Central Asia region. The role that the diaspora can play is a major part in overall migration policy of the countries of Europe and Central Asia. This report represents a first step towards understanding the role that Europe and Central Asian diaspora can play in their home countries and how the Bank can facilitate these relationships. (pdf Eng)

arrMigration and Remittances Country Profiles
The profiles of migration and remittances in Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, and Ukraine have been prepared as part of the Migration and Remittances Peer-Assisted Learning Network (MiRPAL). These profiles attempt to provide consistent and reliable estimates of migration and remittances as well as information on regulations on migration and remittances. (pdf Eng)

arr Migration and Development Brief N14
"Preliminary Estimates of Diaspora Savings" by Dilip Ratha and Sanket Mohapatra suggest that annual diaspora savings of developing countries could be in the range of $400 billion. Diaspora saving as a share of GDP is estimated to be 2.3 percent in middle-income countries and as high as 9 percent in low-income countries.(pdf Eng)

arr Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011
This factbook provides a snapshot of migration and remittances for all countries, regions and income groups of the world, compiled from available data from various sources. More>

arr Strenthening the Link between Migration and Development in Moldova
This report examines the role of migrants as a distinct market segment and as a resource for development. Various sources have shown that they remit large amounts of money, have a high propensity to save, show a strong intention to return home, and manifest a clear ambition toward investment in Moldova. The investment objective is often combined with other important goals, such as obtaining a necessary skill-set or establishing relevant contacts. The underlying assumption of the current approach is that the transfer of this accumulated capital could provide a significant potential developmental opportunity for the Republic of Moldova. (pdf Eng)

arr Migration and Development Brief N13
The brief is titled "Outlook for Remittance Flows 2011-12. Recovery after the crisis, but risks lie ahead" by Sanket Mohapatra, Dilip Ratha and Ani Silwal (pdf Eng)

arr Migration and Remittances in CIS During the Global Economic Crisis
The recent economic crisis has severely affected migration and remittance trends in the ECA region. Countries that are most dependent on migration adn remittances are bearing the brunt of the crisis. CIS countries have to focus on implementing a coordinated migration policy. (pdf Eng; pdf Rus)

arr Migrant Remittance Flows: Findings from a Global Survey of Central Banks
Drawing on the findings from responses to a survey conducted in 2008–09 from 114 central banks worldwide (of which 33 are in Africa), this paper aims to better understand how central banks and other national institutions regulate and collect data and other information on cross-border remittance flows. Findings indicate that, although the vast majority of countries, in both sending and receiving countries, collect data on remittances, and 43 percent of receiving countries estimate informal remittances, there is a need for more frequent and better coordinated data collection, both across national institutions and among different divisions within the same national institution, as well as between countries. More>

arr Taking Stock of Recent Migration Flows in the European Union (2010)
Following the accession of EU10 countries to the EU, how large were the ensuing flows of migrant workers, and what were their main socio-economic characteristics?—in particular, how do migrants from within the EU compare to those from countries outside the EU? Are migrants poorer than the native-born population?—do they impose a high economic and social burden on the countries where they currently reside? Addressing these and other such key issues of policy interest are among the main questions addressed by this report. Using information from a variety of data sources, it takes stock of the nature, extent, and impact of EU migration following EU10 accession, and synthesizes the main lessons from this experience for future migration policy. (pdf Eng)

arr Russian Economic Report 21: Jobless Recovery for Russia?
RER is a series of periodic economic reports from the Moscow office of the World Bank. Each report contains a concise description of the major economic trends and issues facing the Russian economy.There is a section in RER 21 on migration issues and the role of migration in the Russian economy. More>

arr The Crisis Hits Home: Stress-Testing Households in Europe and Central Asia (2010)
The financial crisis and economic downturn threatens the welfare of more than 160 million people who are poor or are just above the poverty line in the economies of Eastern and Central Europe, the former Soviet Union, and Turkey. This note concerns the findings of recent World Bank analysis (Tiongson et al. 2010) that uses precrisis household data and aggregate macroeconomic outcomes in these countries to simulate the impact of the crisis on households, transmitted via credit market shocks, price shocks, and income shocks. More>

arr Migration and skills : the experience of migrant workers from Albania, Egypt, Moldova, and Tunisia
The subject of migration, and how best to manage it, has been moving up the policy agenda of the European Union for some time now. Faced with an aging population, possible skills shortages at all skills levels, and the need to compete for highly skilled migrants with countries such as Australia, Canada, and the United States, the European Union (EU) is moving from seeing migration as a problem or a threat to viewing it as an opportunity. As an EU agency promoting skills and human capital development in transition and developing countries, the European Training Foundation (ETF) wished to explore the impact of migration on skills development, with a special emphasis on Diasporas and returning migrants. More>

arrThe foreign-born population in the European Union and its contribution to national tax and benefit systems : some insights from recent household survey data (2009)
Despite the purported surge in internal migration following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, data from the 2006 European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions show that internal migrants are a relatively small share of the European Union's population. Depending on the exact definition used, only about 1 to 2 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries (members prior to the 2004 enlargement, not including Germany and Luxembourg) were born in other European Union countries, while the corresponding share for European Union-4 countries (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia) is even lower. By contrast, about 6 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries was born outside the European Union. More >

arr Migration pressures and immigration policies: new evidence on the selection of migrants
This paper aims to better understand emigration pressures in migrant sending countries by looking at the determinants of the propensity to migrate at the individual level. The analysis is based on survey data from Albania, Moldova, Egypt and Tunisia collected by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in 2006.

arr Modeling migration dynamics in Albania: a hazard function approach
Since 1990 migration flows from Albania have been massive, relative to the size of the country and its population, but they have also fluctuated over time. This paper presents and discusses various descriptive trends, mainly in graphical form. The data come from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey, 2005 round, and cover the period 1990-2004. More>

arr International migration and gender differentials in the home labor market : evidence from Albania
This paper examines the role of male-dominated international migration in shaping labor market outcomes by gender in migrant-sending households in Albania. Using detailed information on family migration experience from the latest Living Standards Measurement Study survey, the authors find that male and female labor supplies respond differently to the current and past migration episodes of household members. More>

arr Moving up the ladder ? the impact of migration experience on occupational mobility in Albania (2009)
The contribution of return migrants to economic development in source countries can be significant. Overseas savings of returnees may lead to improvements in household welfare and provide liquidity for investments in the face of credit market failures. Labor market experience and skills acquired abroad may also lead migrants to find occupations higher in the skill and remuneration spectrum upon return. More>

arr Definitions, good practices, and global estimates on the status of social protection for international migrants
This paper analyzes the issue of social protection for migrants by looking at formal and informal social protection provisions. In particular, it presents the latest global data on the social protection status on migrants, including undocumented migrants. The paper gives special attention to lower-income countries drawing upon recent studies from the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It finds that migrants in poorer countries have very limited access to formal social protection such as social security systems, and that the legal social protection frameworks are far from making benefits portable. More>

arr Migration, labor markets, and integration of migrants : an overview for Europe (2008)
This paper discusses the size of Europe's migrant population, its demographic structure, and the socio-economic position of migrants. The European Labor Force Survey (LFS) as well as Eurostat, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and United Nation (UN) migration data are used as the main databases. In most sections of the paper the geographic unit of analysis is European Union (EU15) as the so-called old EU Member States are home or host some 94 percent of all migrants and some 97 percent of all legal foreign residents living in EU27. More>

arr Remittances in the CIS Counties: A Study of Selected Corridors
Remittance flows in the Eastern European and Central Asian countries (ECA region) are large and consistently increasing. The formal infrastructure to channel remittance flows in the ECA region is experiencing rapid developments. However, the formalization of remittance transfers remains complicated and in need of support by policymakers. More >

arr Tajikistan: Policy note - Enhancing the Development Impact of Remittances
Remittances have played an important role as one of the drivers of Tajikistan's robust economic growth during the past several years. The volume of official remittances has significantly increased since 2001 and represented close to 12 percent of GDP in 2004. More >

arrMigration and Remittances: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union 
The formal infrastructure to channel remittance flows in the ECA region is experiencing rapid developments, primarily driven by (i) the number of remittances and money transfer services providers -banks, specialized money transfer operators (MTOs) and the Postal systems, and (ii) the level of competition. (pdf Eng; pdf Rus).

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