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This Month in World Bank History: August

August 2, 2002 – This week’s edition of our Friday column, a presentation of historical events by the World Bank Group Archives (ISG), will cover the entire month of August.

"Librarian Eva Pelschek in the tape library," part of a spread in the August 1984 issue of The Bank’s World entitled "The Total Computer Center." According to the article, "It’s highly professional, environmentally controlled, easily accessible yet safe and tightly guarded."

August 13, 1946 – Morton M. Mendels appointed secretary.

August 28, 1946 – Leonard B. Rist appointed research director.

August 6, 1947 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Australia, which becomes the 44th member of the Bank.

August 7, 1947 – First funding for the Netherlands: Loan 0002 – Post-War Reconstruction Project. The loan of $195 million is the second made by the Bank. The loan was for post-war reconstruction materials, including lumber, non-ferrous metals, coal, feed grains, ships and other equipment. About one fifth of the expenditure was spent in the purchase and repair of surplus US shipping tonnage, chiefly Liberty ships.

August 11, 1947 – English language classes for Bank staff are announced.

August 22, 1947 – First funding for Denmark: Loan 0003 – Post War Reconstruction Project for $40 million. Disbursements were made for trucks and other agricultural equipment, rolling mill products, freight car equipment, laboratory and hospital equipment, and other materials affecting almost every sector of the Danish economy. It was the third loan made by the Bank.

August 28, 1947 – Announcement of $250 million loan application from Italy.

August 28, 1947 – First funding for Luxembourg: Loan 0004 – Steel Mill and Railway Project, for $12 million. The purpose of the loan was to finance imports of equipment for a hot rolling and cold rolling steel mill, and of rolling stock for the Luxembourg railways. The Luxembourg loan differed from previous loans in that it was the first "project" loan, and the first case in which the Bank recognized the need for internal financing by a member country. It was also the first instance where the Bank made use of the 18 percent subscription of a country other than the US to disburse funds: almost $1 million was disbursed in Belgian francs from the Belgian Government’s capital subscription.

August 2, 1948 – Davidson Sommers is appointed Assistant General Counsel, sharing the title with Ansel F. Luxford.

August 9, 1948 – The World Bank lends $12 million to four Dutch shipping companies (first post-reconstruction loans in Europe).

August 16, 1948 – Walter Hill is appointed assistant in Paris office.

August 27, 1948 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Austria, which becomes the 46th member of the Bank.

Economic Department starts survey

August 18, 1949 – The Bank lends $34 million to India for railway reconstruction and development (Loan 0017 – Railway Project.) The project was designed to replace obsolete locomotive stock with newer, more efficient locomotives. Obsolete locomotives, which required more repair and maintenance, were to be retired from the fleet. At the time, India did not manufacture locomotives, and all equipment was imported. The purchase of spare parts, boilers tank wagons, and freight and incidentals was an essential part of the project.

August 19, 1949 – First funding for Colombia: Loan 0018 – Agricultural Machinery Project. The project funded the importation of agricultural equipment, including the purchase of heavy, medium, and light tractors and equipment, animal drawn implements, small equipment, spare parts and export facilities.

August 23, 1949 – The Government of Denmark approves the use of Danish Krone equivalent of $125,000 for IBRD lending purposes.

August 31, 1949 – Davidson Sommers succeeds Chester A. McLain as general counsel of Bank.

August 1, 1950 – "Archery instructions and play for adults will be held Monday through Friday at 6 p.m. at the 16th and Kennedy Streets, N.W. ranges, with equipment furnished." International Bank Notes, August 1, 1950.

August 13, 1950 – The Basis of a Development Program for Colombia, a report of the June 1949 mission to Colombia, is made available to the public. This report is the outcome of nearly a year 's work by an economic mission organized by the World Bank and assigned the task of working up the framework for a comprehensive, integrated development program for Colombia. The report is based on the principle that the attack on the problem of poverty must be coordinated on many fronts, all closely interdependent.

August 22, 1950 – First funding for Australia: Loan 0029 - Agriculture, Industry, Transport and Mining (the Bank’s first program loan). The loan, in the amount of US$100 million, was for the general development of Australia’s economy and was spent on tractors and other agricultural equipment; industrial crawler tractors and earth moving equipment; locomotives and rail cars (including component parts thereof) and ancillary railway equipment; mining machinery and equipment; plants for development of productive capacity in a large number of industries including textiles, paper, steel, glass, chemicals and food processing.

Bank’s loan officer report on trip to Netherlands

August 25, 1950 – First funding for Uruguay: Loan 0030 - Power and Telephone Project. The loan financed the foreign exchange costs of a four- to five-year program of reconstructing and expanding the electric power and telephone facilities of Usinas Electricas y los Telefonos del Estado (U.T.E.) The electric power program included an increase in the effective thermal generating capacity in Montevideo from 50,000 kw to 100,000 kw; the installation of approximately 18,000 kw of additional diesel generating capacity in the Interior as well as the conversion of a number of plants in the Interior from D.C. to A.C. current. It also included the construction of 538 miles of high tension transmission lines; the expansion of the distribution systems both in Montevideo and in the Interior; and an increase in automotive equipment in order to operate and maintain the expanded power system. About 28,000 new telephones, representing an increase of roughly 40 percent in the number of instruments in use, were installed under the program.

August 29, 1950 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Ceylon, which becomes the 49th member of the Bank.

August 30, 1950 – Yugoslavia approves use of its entire 18 percent paid-in currency, subject to consultation with Bank in each case.

August, 1951 – The United Nations’ Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) adopts a resolution requesting that the World Bank consider the possible contribution that an International Finance Corporation could make to economic development, and to report back to ECOSOC. The idea of an International Finance Corporation was first brought up at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. In 1951 the US International Development Advisory Board raised the subject again. The ECOSOC resolution followed this by several months. In 1952 the World Bank presented a preliminary proposal, which went through various stages until the proposed charter for the IFC was presented to member governments in 1955. In June 1956 the IFC formally opened for business.

August 14, 1951 – A four-week Bank mission goes to Paraguay; it is headed by E. G. Burland (first Bank mission to Paraguay).

August 16, 1951 – The Report of the Truslow mission to Cuba is transmitted to the Cuban government. (A preliminary version of this report was issued in January 1951.) The report was based on the Cuban survey mission, and advocated immediate privatization of Cuba’s railways. Francis Truslow Adams, President of the New York Curb Exchange, was the chief of the survey mission, which made a comprehensive survey of the Cuban economy. The privatization issue was given some urgency by the fear that the 1951 and 1952 sugar crops might suffer from inadequate transport. The primary problems with the existing railway systems included high costs, over-age, deferred maintenance, increasing labor costs, competition from highway transportation, obsolete and inefficient equipment and over-capitalization in relation to earnings or real asset value. (Cuba withdrew from IBRD membership on November 14, 1960.)

August 31, 1951 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Sweden, which becomes the 50th member of the Bank.

August 13, 1952 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Japan, which becomes the 52nd member of the Bank.

International Bank officials visit Holland

August 14, 1952 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Germany, which becomes the 53rd member of the Bank.

August 29, 1952 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Jordan, which becomes the 54th member of the Bank.

August 24, 1953 – The Department of Technical Operations is replaced by the Agriculture Division, the Transportation Division, the Industry Division and the Public Utilities Division.

August 1, 1955 – Corbin Allardice is appointed Atomic Energy Advisor to the Bank.

August 15, 1955 – Martin M. Rosen is appointed Assistant Director, Department of Technical Operations.

August 25, 1955 – First funding for Lebanon: Loan 0129 – Litani Power and Irrigation Project. The proceeds of theloan were used to finance the cost of foreign consultants and contractors and imports of material and equipment for the project. These imports included power generation equipment, transmission lines and substations, construction equipment, some construction materials and supplies and interest and commitment charges accrued during the period of construction.

August 26, 1955 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Korea, which becomes the 58th member of the Bank.

August 26, 1955 – First funding for Algeria: Loan 0131 Electric Power Development Project. The loan financed part of the cost of the Electricite et Gaz d’Algerie (E.G.A.) program for expanding its power-generating and transmission facilities. The main items of the project were a reservoir-controlled hydroelectric system on the Oued Djen Djen having a 13,000 kw station at the foot of the dam, a 100,000 kw station at sea level, a 21,000 kw gas turbine plant in Oran, a 150 kv line from the main hydroelectric stations in the Kabylie mountains to the Algiers area, a 90 kv line from Duzerville to the Tunisian border and a new substation at Kroub.

August 30, 1955 – The Bank informs the Egyptian Government that, based upon its studies, the proposed High Dam at Aswan is technically and economically sound. Bank engineers will visit the site later in the year.

August 8, 1957 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Ireland, which becomes the 61st member of the Bank.

August 12, 1957 – IFC Articles of Agreement are signed by the Philippines, which becomes the 50th member of IFC.

August 26, 1957 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Saudi Arabia, which becomes the 62nd member of the Bank.

Legal Department checks documents and the law

August 25, 1958 – Following a deterioration in India’s balance of payments, the first meeting of India aid consortium was held in Washington, D.C.

August 1, 1961 – IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Libya, which becomes the 52nd member of IDA.

August 2, 1961 – The United Nations Special Fund, the Government of Guatemala, and the World Bank sign an agreement for a comprehensive study of electric power and irrigation in Guatemala. The World Bank is executing agency for the studies, having general responsibility for execution of the project including disbursement of the money made available by the Special Fund.

August 16, 1961 – First funding for Trinidad and Tobago: Loan 0293 – Electricity Commission Project. The project consisted of building a new thermal power plant at Port of Spain, laying a pipeline to supply the plant with natural gas from the oil fields in the south of Trinidad, and expanded transmission and distribution systems. Most of the new transmission and distribution lines included in the project would supply electricity to the less developed central and eastern parts of Trinidad. The pipeline was 41 miles long and had capacity enough to meet the requirements of the existing and the new power plants at Port of Spain and the estimated industrial needs of the city and the surrounding area for the next 20 years.

August 30, 1961 – IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Peru, which becomes the 53rd member of IDA.

August 30, 1961 – First funding for China (Taiwan): Credit 0006 – Harbor Dredging Project. The project financed dredging for the maintenance and improvement of the harbors of Keelung, Kaohsiung, and Hualien, and for the reclamation of land in the Kaohsiung port area. "Despite a heavy defense burden and a population growth rate exceeding 37 percent per year, substantial economic progress has been made in Taiwan since 1949. GNP has grown considerably faster than population. Export earnings have risen quite steadily, in spite of a fall in world sugar prices and the virtual cessation of rice exports due to rising domestic consumption and a series of rather poor harvests; the decline in earnings from sugar and rice, Taiwan's two main traditional exports, has been offset by rising earnings from exports of manufactured articles. Inflationary pressures, which were very great a decade ago, have been substantially reduced although not yet eliminated. This progress is attributable largely to a favorable combination of three main elements: a well educated and hard-working population, the presence of many able and experienced administrators and managers who emigrated from the mainland, and substantial assistance from a U.S. aid program (averaging about US $9O million per year excluding military hardware items). On the whole, the Government has followed policies, such as the very successful land reform, which have resulted in a wide distribution of the benefits of economic development. It has also announced its intention to limit defense expenditures so far as possible to the present levels so that their burden on the economy will gradually diminish as GNP increases." Staff Appraisal Report, August 26, 1961.

August 31, 1961 – IBRD and IFC Articles of Agreement are signed by New Zealand, which becomes the 70th member of the Bank, and the 60th member of IFC.

August 1, 1962 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Togo, which becomes the 76th member of the Bank.

International Bank President prepares recommendation

August 3, 1962 – IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Argentina, which becomes the 63rd member of IDA.

August 17, 1962 – First funding for Korea: Credit 0025 – Railway Project. The project financed the purchase of 115 passenger cars and 800 coal cars and the services of foreign consultants to assist in the establishment of a modern accounting and statistical system for the railroad.

August 21, 1962 – IDA Articles of Agreement signed by Togo, which becomes the 64th member of IDA.

August 28, 1962 – The World Bank and Colombia publish Plan for Improvements in National Transportation, a survey report on the transportation facilities of Colombia, recommending a 10-year program to improve highways, railroads, inland waterways, seaports, and airports.

August 28, 1962 – The World Bank announces confirmation of the death of two staff members – John Shearer and Vance Rogers – killed in a helicopter crash while on mission in Thailand.

August 30, 1962 – IFC Articles of Agreement are signed by Morocco, which becomes the 65th member of IFC.

August 31, 1962 – IBRD, IFC, and IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Senegal, which becomes the 77th member of the Bank, the 66th member of IFC, and the 65th member of IDA.

August 31, 1962 – IBRD, IFC, and IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Somalia, which becomes the 78th member of the Bank, the 67th member of IFC, and the 66th member of IDA.

August 2, 1963 – The World Bank announces that its first loan of $250 million made in 1947 to Credit National of France has been sold in its entirety and is no longer held by the Bank.

August 26, 1963 – Announcement made to staff that the Bank will be open as usual on August 28, the day of the Civil Rights March in Washington.

August 27, 1963 – IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Central African Republic, which becomes the 77th member of IDA.

August 3, 1964 – First funding for Bechuanaland (Botswana): Credit 0063 Roads and Water Project. The proposed project consisted of the design, construction and reconstruction of three roads totaling 355 miles in length, the betterment of the main north-south road, and the strengthening and expansion of Bechuanaland’s road maintenance organization.

August 18, 1964 – First funding for Sierra Leone: Loan 0388 – King Tom Power Project. The project financed the construction of a generating station equipped with two 6.6 mw slow speed diesel engines coupled to generators, associated switchgear, storage tanks, ancillary works and expansion of distribution facilities. The total cost of the project was estimated at $5.07 million equivalent. Sierra Leone, formerly a British colony, became an independent member of the Commonwealth on April 27, 1961 and joined the Bank in September 1962.

August 25, 1964 – Michael L. Lejeune is appointed director of administration to succeed the late William F. Howell, who died July 9, 1964.

August 11, 1965 – Leonard Rist heads a Bank mission to review the Gezira Irrigation Scheme. The World Bank agreed to bear the foreign exchange costs; the Sudanese government agreed to bear the local currency costs.

International Bank Executive
Directors vote

August 17, 1965 – The Government of Indonesia withdraws from membership in World Bank (bringing total IBRD membership to 102).

August 3, 1966 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Singapore, which becomes the 104th member of the Bank.

August 10, 1966 – The Bank’s capital is increased to $28.9 billion.

August 29, 1966 – Torgeir Finsaas appointed Bank’s resident representative in Pakistan.

August 4, 1967 – IFC Articles of Agreement are signed by Vietnam, which becomes the 84th member of IFC.

August 23, 1967 – First funding for Madagascar: Loan 0510 – Education Project (01). The project financed the relocation and expansion of three secondary technical institutes (public works and construction; business administration; domestic science, hotel keeping and business training) and two teacher-training institutes.

August 14, 1968 – First funding for Chad: Credit 0125 – Highway Maintenance Project (01). The project financed the foreign exchange costs of: a five-year (1968-72) highway maintenance program; consultants' services comprising (i) a feasibility study, including preliminary engineering, of the 82 km long Djermaya-Djimtilo road, (ii) detailed engineering of the same road if the economic justification of construction was confirmed by the feasibility study, and (iii) other consultants' services regarding highways.

August 14, 1968 – First public marketing of World Bank Bonds in the Middle East is announced.: $42 million of Kuwaiti dinar bonds. Bank President McNamara expressed his "pleasure and sincere appreciation to the Kuwait Government for its approval of the offering and to the Kuwait Investment Company for underwriting this issue at a time when the Bank is expanding its lending and borrowing operations".

August 19, 1968 – Lester Pearson accepts the chairmanship of an international commission to examine world development. Pearson replied to Mr. McNamara’s invitation: "I do not think it is possible to exaggerate the importance of this problem; of the danger to peace and stability of the world becoming increasingly divided into rich and poor, developed and under-developed nations. It is a privilege to take part in such a challenging and important task…"

August 20, 1968 – IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Indonesia which becomes the 100th member of IDA.

August 22, 1968 – IFC Articles of Agreement are signed by Uruguay, which becomes the 88th member of IFC.

August 7, 1969 – Lesotho becomes the 50th member of ICSID.

August 10, 1969 – Guyana becomes the 51st member of ICSID.

August 29, 1970 – Luxembourg becomes the 57th member of ICSID.

Formal signing of the loan agreements

August 10, 1972 – A major reorganization of the Bank to decentralize its operations is announced. A senior vice presidency of operations is created with five regional vice presidents and a vice president for project staff. Vice presidencies are also created for: Organization Planning and Personnel Management; Development Policy; Finance; and General Counsel.

August 17, 1972 – IBRD and IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Bangladesh, which becomes the 118th member of the Bank and the 109th member of IDA.

August 21, 1973 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by The Bahamas, which becomes the 123rd member of the Bank.

August, 1974 – The World Bank establishes Resident Mission in Ouagadougou, Upper Volta, headed by Mr. Abdallah El Maaroufi.

August 18, 1975 – The World Bank opens resident mission in Yaounde, Cameroon, headed by Mr. Michel Palein.

August 20, 1975 – IFC Articles of Agreement are signed by Upper Volta (Burkina Faso), which becomes the 101st member of IFC.

August 27, 1975 – IBRD and IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Grenada, which becomes the 126th member of the Bank and the 115th member of IDA.

August 28, 1975 – IFC Articles of Agreement are signed by Grenada, which becomes the 102nd member of IFC.

August, 1977 – A Joint Committee of the World Bank and IMF on Staff Compensation Issues is established to examine principles of staff compensation.

August 16, 1978 – The first World Development Report is published with the theme of prospects for accelerating growth and alleviating poverty and identifying major policy issues affecting those prospects. WDRs emerge as an annual flagship publication of the World Bank.

Madam Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, Indian Ambassador to the United States, is the first woman to execute a loan from the Bank, according to the September 1, 1949 edition of International Bank Notes. Here, she signs the $34 million loan agreement; to the right is Bank President Eugene Black.

August 24, 1978 – First funding for Vietnam: Credit 0845 – Dau Tieng Irrigation Project. The project financed the construction of an earth dam and its appurtenant works on the Saigon River in the southwestern part of Viet Nam; and construction of a gravity irrigation system for about 42,000 ha rainfed land, including an adequate drainage network, inspection and access roads and two low-lift pumping stations to serve about 4,000 ha within the 42,000 ha service area. The project also provided for the engagement of experts for the dam review panel; training of construction engineers and heavy equipment operators and maintenance personnel; procurement of vehicles, equipment, and construction materials and supplies; and the preparation of a comprehensive program for agricultural supporting services.

August 1, 1980 – Senior staff appointments are announced: Mr. Massaya Hattori appointed, Vice President and Controller; Georg Gabriel, Vice President, Programming and Budgeting and Vice President, Pension Fund; Heinz Vergin, Director, Programming and Budgeting Department; Joseph Wood, Director, Financial Policy and Analysis Department.

August 15, 1980 – Moeen Qureshi is appointed Senior Vice President Finance, and Ernest Stern Senior Vice President Operations.

August 10, 1981  Accelerated Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: An agenda for Action (known popularly as the "Berg Report"), the first in a series of Bank reports that focus on the development problems of sub-Saharan Africa, is published. Alarm at the dim economic prospects for the nations of sub-Saharan Africa resulted in a study of the economic development problems of these countries and an appropriate program for helping them. The report discussed the factors that explain slow economic growth in Africa in the recent past, analyzed policy changes and program orientation needed to promote faster growth, and concluded with a set of recommendations to donors, including the recommendation that aid to Africa should double in real terms to bring about renewed African development and growth in the 1980s.

August 10, 1982 – The Bank extablishes a Resident Mission in Kampala, Uganda, headed by Ms. Hillegonda Goris.

August 12, 1982 – Mexico’s finance minister, Jesus Silva Herzog, informs US Treasury Secretary Regan, Federal Reserve chairman Volcker, and IMF Managing Director Jacques de Larosiere that Mexico will not be able to meet payments on debt due on August 15. The public announcement on August 13 marks the onset of the "debt crisis."

August 24, 1982 – Sixth replenishment of IDA resources for fiscal 1981-1983, in the amount of $12 billion, becomes effective. The 26 countries that contributed to the funding of the fifth replenishment are joined by seven first-time donors: Argentina, Brazil, Greece, Mexico, Portugal, Romania, and Venezuela. US funding is spread out over four years instead of three, meaning a 35 percent reduction in IDA funding for fiscal 82.

August 31, 1982 – IBRD and IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by St. Vincent and the Grenadines, which becomes the 144th member of the Bank and the 131st member of IDA.

August 5, 1983 – First funding for Vanuatu: Credit 1407 – Agricultural Extension and Training Project. The project improved essential smallholder support services by adaptive localized research, extension services including demonstration, agricultural information services, and veterinary service together with associated improvement in training and support facilities.

Presentation of the Report of the Mission to Cuba, August 16, 1951

August, 1984 – World Bank member countries agree to a selective capital increase of approximately $8 billion and propose to increase IFC’s capital by $650 million to $1,300 million.

August 1, 1984 – Portugal becomes the 87th member of ICSID.

August 15, 1984 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by St. Kitts and Nevis, which becomes the 147th member of the Bank.

August 1, 1985 – The World Bank opens a Resident Mission in Harare, Zimbabwe, headed by Mr. Mahmud Burney.

August 14, 1985 – First funding for Sao Tome and Principe: Credit 1590 – Economic Rehabilitation and Modernization Project. The project financed $5.0 million equivalent of the foreign exchange component of priority investments in various economic sectors, including the cultivation of cocoa.

August 8, 1986 – IFC establishes a Resident Mission in Istanbul, Turkey, headed by Mr. Apinya Suebsaeng.

August, 1987 – Peru, Sierra Leone, and Zambia go into nonaccrual status.

August 1, 1987 – Round 2 of the selection process for selecting candidates for positions in the Bank reorganization begins.

August 24, 1988 – Leigh P. Hollywood is appointed MIGA Vice President Guarantees.

August, 1989 – The World Bank’s Executive Directors approve the commissioning of a new History of the World Bank Group, to be managed by the Brookings Institution and authored by John Lewis of Princeton University and Richard Webb of Peru and to be issued in 1994.

August 1, 1989 – The Debt-Reduction Facility for IDA-Only Countries, designed to ease the burden on those countries of external commercial debt, is established.

August 9, 1989 – MIGA Articles of Agreement are signed by Norway, which becomes the 52nd member of MIGA.

Ireland becomes the 61st member of the Bank and Fund on August 8, 1957. John J. Hearne, Ireland’s Ambassador in Washington with Thorsten Kalijarvi, US Acting Deputy Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs.

August 11, 1989 – Vice President William J. Cosgrove announces his retirement from the Bank after 26 years of service.

August 31, 1989 – Mr. Sune Carlsson, Vice President and Controller, retires from Bank.

August 1, 1990 – IFC establishes a Regional Mission for Southern Africa in Harare, Zimbabwe, headed by Mr. Thomas Milton.

August 2, 1990 – The Gulf Crisis begins when Iraqi forces invade Kuwait. Enhanced security measures are instituted for Bank staff in headquarters and field offices.

August 13, 1991 – MIGA Articles of Agreement are signed by Ethiopia, which becomes the 65th member of MIGA.

August 27, 1991 – The Executive Directors approve a $30 million Trust Fund to finance a program of technical cooperation to help the Soviet Union move toward a market economy.

August 29, 1991 – MIGA Articles of Agreement are signed by Luxembourg, which becomes the 66th member of MIGA.

August 5, 1992 – Lithuania becomes the 101st member of ICSID.

August 7, 1992 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Georgia, which becomes the 164th member of the Bank.

August 9, 1992 – Belarus becomes the 102nd member of ICSID.

August 11, 1992  – IBRD and IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Latvia, which becomes the 165th member of the Bank and the 14th member of IDA.

August 12, 1992 – IBRD Articles of Agreement are signed by Moldova, which becomes the 166th member of the Bank.

August 28, 1992 – Work-Family Agenda recommendations are announced to Bank staff.

August 1, 1993 – The World Bank establishes a Resident Mission in Almaty, Kazakhstan, headed by Mr. David Pearce.

US’s Kalijarvi with Ambassador for Saudi Arabia, Sheikh Abdullah Al-Khayyal on the occasion of the country’s becoming the 62nd member of the World Bank.

August 9, 1993 – IFC Articles of Agreement are signed by Estonia, which becomes the 158th member of IFC.

August 11, 1993 – MIGA Articles of Agreement are signed by the Federated States of Micronesia, which becomes the 110th member of MIGA.

August 12, 1993 – MIGA Articles of Agreement are signed by Kazakhstan, which becomes the 111th member of MIGA.

August 13, 1993 – First funding for Belarus: Loan 3640 - Institution Building Loan project. The project financed: resource mobilization and economic management; enterprise reform; banking sector reform; and social sector reform. The project provided for advisory services, studies, training, and equipment to strengthen the public sector capacity to design and implement market reforms.

August 25, 1993 – IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Armenia, which becomes the 155th member of IDA.

August 26. 1993 – The Executive Directors approve a new information disclosure policy, Expanding Access to Bank Information. The policy meant the creation of a new Project Information Document (PID), and public disclosure of Environmental Assessments (EAs), Project appraisal reports, Summaries of Evaluation reports, and country economic and sector reports. A new Public information Center will be established to provide information on Bank Group activities.

August 30. 1993 – MIGA Articles of Agreement are signed by Greece, which becomes the 112th member of MIGA.

August 31, 1993 – IDA Articles of Agreement are signed by Georgia, which becomes the 156th member of IDA.

August 23, 1995 – Oman becomes the 120th member of ICSID.

August 25, 1995 – Uzbekistan becomes the 121st member of ICSID.

August 23, 1995 – Oman becomes the 120th member of ICSID.

August 25, 1995 – Uzbekistan becomes the 121st member of ICSID.

August 14, 1996 – The World Bank announces the pricing of its new $1 billion 10-year global bond offering, with a 6.625% coupon. It is the 13th global bond in US dollars since the first global bond launch in 1989.

August 1, 1997 – Jim MacNeill is appointed by the Bank’s Executive Directors to a five-year appointment to the World Bank’s Inspection Panel, joining existing members Ernst-Gunther Vroder and Alvaro Umana Quesada.

August 11, 1997 – The World Bank announces that, for the first time in its history, it will contribute financing for the removal of landmines in post-conflict countries. Bosnia and Herzegovina are the first recipients of World Bank funding, which was instigated in part by ongoing efforts by Princess Diana of Great Britain through the Landmine Survivors Network.

David Salak at the environmental monitoring panels, which measure the room’s humidity, temperature and electrical power.

August 25, 1997 – World Bank staff participate in the 10th Annual World Conference on Tobacco and Health, in Beijing, China. In 1992 the World Bank adopted a policy of not lending for tobacco production, processing, or marketing.

August, 1998 – Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook 1998, replacing the 1988 Environmental Guidelines, is released for use in Bank Group operations.

August 3, 1998 – Ian Johnson is appointed Vice President and Head of the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network (ESSD).

August 4, 1998 – Ernst-Gunther Broder is appointed Chairman of the World Bank Inspection Panel. Mr. Broder had previously served as the President of the European Investment Bank (EIB), as a Governor of the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and a member of the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). He was also affiliated with the Asian Development Bank, and worked in the World Bank’s Technical Operations Department from 1961–1964.

August 5, 1998 – World Bank Networks finalize the procedures to be adopted in the Phaseout of the Non-Regular Staff (NRS) as a part of Human Resources Reform program.

August 6, 1998 – The World Bank approves a US$1.5 billion structural adjustment loan to the Russian Federation for economic reform. This is the largest loan ever made by the Bank in the Europe and Central Asia region.

August 20. 1998 – The General Services Department Security Division announces increased security vigilance at World Bank headquarters and field offices due to actions stemming from the bombings of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. The alert was in response to US military actions following the bombings. The security alert was in response to a general security alert notice from the United Nations which stated "In light of the various acts of violence which have taken place around the world in the past few weeks, directed against not only United Nations staff but also diplomatic missions, I wish to reiterate in the strongest possible terms the need for all staff members of the United Nations system to exercise much greater caution than usual and to closely review all security practices. In particular, I would request that you pay special attention to the security of staff members whose nationality might make them vulnerable to increased security risks." KIOSK August 20, 1998.

August 21, 1998 – MIGA Articles of Agreement are signed by Latvia, which becomes the 146th member of MIGA.

August 28, 1998 – Geoffrey Lam is appointed Vice President, Resource Mobilization and Cofinancing, following the resignation of Mr. Hiroo Fukui.

August 28, 1998 – The World Bank approves a loan to Bangladesh to assist in the control of arsenic poisoning caused by arsenic contamination in alluvial and deltaic groundwater. The project provided alternative water supplies and emergency medical relief to people living in areas where arsenic-contaminated groundwater causes public health hazards.

August 4, 1999 – The World Bank Security Division sends notice to staff that a demonstration by a neo-Nazi group from South Carolina may disrupt access to Bank Group facilities. The demonstration is not targeted against the Bank or Bank staff, but there is concern that confrontations between the neo-Nazi group and counter-demonstrations could erupt. Bank Staff are urged not to come to work on Saturday afternoon, when the march is to take place.

August 9, 1999 – Mats Karlsson is appointed Vice President for External Affairs and UN Affairs. Karlsson succeeded Mark Malloch Brown, who was appointed to the position of Administrator of the United Nations Development Program.

August 16, 1999 – An earthquake in Turkey devastates Marmara region.

August 18, 1999 – Bank President James Wolfensohn pledges that the World Bank will reallocate substantial funds and mobilize further assistance to help the citizens of Turkey to recover from the recent earthquake.

Peter Malin checks status of one of the computers managed by the Office Automation Center.

August 18, 1999 – The World Bank and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) sign a Memorandum of Understanding agreeing on closer cooperation in areas of common interest, particularly natural disaster prevention and mitigation, climate change, and phenomena such as El Nino.

August 26, 1999 – President Wolfensohn pledges that the Bank will complement staff donations for the Turkish earthquake relief effort (at a rate of 50 percent).

August 27, 1999 – The General Services Department Security Division warns staff of possible demonstrations regarding Tibetan actions at the Main Complex in Washington.

August , 2000 – The Former Yugoslavia is dropped from ICSID, bringing total ICSID membership to 131.

August 8, 2000 – The World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO) issue a joint publication, Tobacco Control in Developing Countries, arguing that curbing tobacco use is a major component of efforts to improve global health conditions.

August 8, 2000 – World Bank President James Wolfensohn issues a statement on the recent sentencing of Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim. "Anwar is not only a friend and a valued colleague, he was a distinguished chairman of our Development Committee and a man who believed in speaking his mind…Two years ago we expressed the hope that he would get a fair chance to state his case. This sentence is very troubling." World Bank Press Release, August 8, 2000. Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and human rights organizations joined the Bank in denouncing the sentence.

August 2, 2001 – Graeme Wheeler is appointed Vice President and Treasurer, succeeding Afsaneh Beschloss.

August 10, 2001 – The World Bank and IMF issue a statement regarding the 2001 Annual Meetings. "The Meetings are being consolidated after consultation with the U.S. Government. The World Bank and IMF fully share the interest of the U.S. authorities, in their role as host of the event, in ensuring the conduct of all essential business with the least possible disruption to the people who live and work in Washington, D.C. We will conduct all of the necessary and essential business of the Annual Meetings during these two days." World Bank Press Release, August 10, 2001. (The 2001 Annual Meetings were ultimately postponed due to the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York, Washington, and Pennsylvania.)

August 23, 2001 – Vice President and Controller Fayezul Choudhury announces that an office in Chennai, India has been staffed to manage many of the Bank’s Accounting functions. Accounts Payable, Receivables & Travel, Imprest Accounting, Payroll, and Trust Fund Accounting were to be managed from the off-shore office, which employed approximately 100 staff.

August 23, 2001 – The World Bank/IMF India Club announces that over $237,000 has been raised from Bank and Fund staff members for the Gujarat Earthquake Relief Fund.

Without Records there is no History. Courtesy of ISG’s World Bank Group Archives.

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