The global AIDS epidemic is fueled by risky sexual behavior. Prevention programs appear to have been fairly successful in increasing awareness of how safe sexual practices can reduce infection risk. But there is little evidence that awareness reduces risky sexual behavior. Devising the right strategies may require targeting the economic and behavioral factors that drive risky behavior, while developing strategies for ensuring that HIV-infected patients adhere to treatment programs. Impact evaluations seek to help us understand what is most effective.
Questions we hope the evaluations will help answer include:
- What are the impacts of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) on the welfare of patients and their family members, including lives saved, health outcomes, labor participation, hours worked, and schooling of children?
- What effects does ART access have on HIV transmission and prevention?
- What are the most cost effective means of preventing HIV/AIDS and/or sexually transmitted infections?
- How does sexual behavior change in response to HIV prevention interventions?
Tanzania: The impact evaluation of Tanzania’s cash payment program sought to measure the effectiveness of paying participants aged 18 to 30 to abstain from risky sexual behavior as determined by their remaining free of specific sexually transmitted diseases for a specific time period.
Lesotho: The impact evaluation of Lesotho’s financial incentives program sought to assess whether giving lottery tickets to young people who tested negative for specific curable sexually transmitted diseases would alter sexual behavior and reduce HIV incidence among youth.
Malawi: The impact evaluation of Malawi’s HIV prevention program sought to measure the effectiveness of paying for school fees and providing cash to girls who stayed in school with the goal of reducing the incidence of HIV in girls aged 13 to 22.
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