The Commission on Growth and Development comprises 22 members, who are distinguished practitioners from government, business and policy making committed to the goals of fostering faster convergence of incomes between rich and poor countries.
The role of the Commission members is to provide inputs, advice, and guidance to the preparation of the final report, which they will ultimately endorse. The report's goal is to bring forth the best understanding of the growth challenges faced by developing countries, and transform what is now known about growth into a framework that can be used by those who make economic policy decisions.
Michael Spence (Chair) is senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and Philip H. Knight Professor Emeritus of Management in the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University. In 2001, he was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He served as Philip H. Knight Professor and dean of the Stanford Business School from 1990 to 1999. Since 1999, he has been a partner at Oak Hill Capital Partners in Menlo Park.From 1975 to 1990, he served as professor of economics and business administration at Harvard University.
Spence was awarded the John Kenneth Galbraith Prize for excellence in teaching in 1978 and the John Bates Clark Medal in 1981 for a "significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge." Spence was named chairman of the Economics Department at Harvard in 1983 and served as the dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences from 1984 to 1990. At various times, he has served as a member of the editorial boards of American Economics Review, Bell Journal of Economics, Journal of Economic Theory, and Public Policy. Among his many honors, Spence was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1983 and was awarded the David A. Wells Prize for outstanding doctoral dissertation at Harvard University in 1972.
He is a member of the boards of directors for General Mills. From 1991 to 1997, he was chairman of the National Research Council Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy. He is a member of the American Economic Association and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Econometric Society.
He was awarded a B.A.summa cum laude degree from Princeton University in 1966, a B.A.-M.A. degree from Oxford University in 1968 and a Ph.D. degree in economics from Harvard in 1972.
Danny Leipziger (Vice-Chair) is Professor of International Business, George Washington University, and former Vice President for Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM) and Head of the PREM Network of the World Bank. PREM Network united more than 700 economists and other professionals working on economic policy, lending, and analytic work for the World Bank's client countries. In this capacity he provided strategic leadership and direction to Regional PREM units as well as groups working on economic policy formulation in the area of growth and poverty, debt, trade, gender, and public sector management and governance. He was heavily involved in positioning the Bank on major economic policy issues and in managing the Bank's overall interactions on these issues with key partner institutions – including the IMF, OECD, regional development banks and the European Union. He worked closely with Regional Vice Presidents on leading edge and cross-country economic matters.
Previous Bank assignments include Director for Finance, Private Sector and Infrastructure in the Latin America and Caribbean Region and managerial assignments at the World Bank Institute and in the East Asia and Pacific Region of the Bank. Career highlights include leading the Bank's first ($3 billion) economic recovery loan for Korea in 1997, managing the program of bank restructuring in Argentina in the post-Tequila financial crisis in 1995, and opening the economic dialogue with Vietnam in 1989-1990. Dr. Leipziger previously served in the Economic Bureau of the U.S. Department of State and on its Policy Planning Staff, where he was an economic advisor to the Secretary of State, as well as in USAID. Dr. Leipziger was Adjunct Professor, Graduate School of International Economics and Finance, Brandeis University (2001-2004).
Dr. Leipziger, a Ph. D. in economics from Brown University, has written extensively on development economics and finance, and has lectured widely on industrial policy, financial crisis management, and development experience. He has authored several books on Korea and East Asia, including Lessons from East Asia (University of Michigan, 1997), Preventing Banking Crises (1998), Korea: Transition to Maturity (1988), and Chile: Policy Lessons (1999). He has published more than 30 articles in economic journals and spoken often to various audiences on development policy and global economic issues. Recent published work has dealt with Privatization of Infrastructure Services, Moral Hazard Behavior in International Lending, and the Role of Infrastructure in Achieving the MDGs.
He is fluent in Spanish and German.
Montek Singh Ahluwalia is Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, India. An Economics graduate with honours from Delhi, he studied for his Master's and M. Phil degrees at the Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar.
He has held numerous prestigious positions both in India and abroad, beginning his career as an Economist with the World Bank, Washington DC in 1968. For the next eleven years he served the World Bank as Deputy Division Chief in the Public Finance Division and as the Chief of the Income Distribution Division in the Development Research Centre respectively.
Returning to India in 1979, he worked as Economic Advisor in the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance from 1979 to 1985. The following five years saw him first as Additional Secretary and then as Special Secretary to the Prime Minister. In 1990 he became the Commerce Secretary for a year before assuming charge of Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs in the Ministry of Finance for two years. Thereafter, he served as Finance Secretary until 1998, following which he was appointed as Member, Planning Commission and also as Member, Advisory Council to the Prime Minister.
Before joining as Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission in July 2004, he also served as Director, Independent Evaluation Office, International Monetary Fund, Washington DC for three years.
He has published a number of articles on various aspects of economics, in prominent international journals and books. He co-authored ‘Re-distribution with Growth: An Approach to Policy', published in 1975, and in 2004 he wrote ‘Reforming the Global Financial Architecture', Economic Paper No. 41, Commonwealth Secretariat, London.
Mr. Ahluwalia is married to Isher Judge Ahluwalia and they have two children.
Edmar Bacha is Director of the Casa Das Garças Institute for Economic Policy Studies in Rio de Janeiro since 2003.
Mr. Bacha started his academic career as a Research Associate at the Center for International Studies at M.I.T. (1968-69) and Visiting Researcher at the Institute for International Development of Harvard University (1975-77). He has served as Professor in multiple Brazilian institutions since 1971, including the Universidade Federal and Pontifícia Universidade Católica in Rio de Janeiro. He was also Visiting Professor in the department of economics of various U.S. universities including Yale University (1984), Columbia University (1983-1984), and University of California at Berkeley and Stanford (1988-1989).
Mr. Bacha has held several positions in Brazilian government agencies. In 1970 he worked in the Planning Office Economic Research Institute [IPEA]. In the early 1990s he was appointed Senior Adviser to the Minister of Finance in the implementation of the "Plano Real", and later became Presidente of the National Development Bank (BNDES).
Mr. Bacha has also worked in the private sector with a focus on banking and finance. Since 1997, he has been a partner of VivaCred, a micro-credit agency in Rio de Janeiro. He is Senior Consultant of Itaú BBA Bank since 1996, and between 2001 and 2005 was board member of the privatized National Steel Company (CSN).
Mr. Bacha has published articles and books related to economic development and international finance with focus on Brazil and Latin-America. He holds a B.A. degree in economics from Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil (1963) and a Ph.D. degree in Economics from Yale University (1968).
Dr. Boediono is currently Vice President of Indonesia (assumed office on October 20, 2009). He is a former Governor of the Central Bank of Indonesia, and former Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs. He is a highly respected economist from the University of Gadja Mada. He holds a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania (Wharton). As Minister of Finance in the Megawati administration he was a central figure in restoring Indonesia's macroeconomic stability, and is universally recognized as such. He has had a distinguished career in economics serving as senior Deputy for Monetary and Fiscal Affairs at Bappenas (the Planning Agency) in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and as a Director at Bank Indonesia in the mid 1990s. In May 1998 he was appointed Head of the Planning Agency under President Habibie where he served until October 1999. He was appointed Finance Minister in August 2002 under President Megawati where he served until late 2004. He joined the Yudhoyono cabinet as Coordinating Minister for the Economy in December 2005.
Lord John Browne is Former CEO of British Petroleum p.l.c.. He joined BP in 1966 as a University Apprentice. Between 1969 and 1983, he held a variety of exploration and production posts in Anchorage, New York, San Francisco, London and Canada. In 1984 he became Group Treasurer and Chief Executive of BP Finance International. In April 1986, he took up the position of Executive Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer of the Standard Oil Company in Cleveland, Ohio.
In 1987, following the BP/Standard merger, he was appointed CEO of Standard Oil Production Company. Two years later, he became Managing Director and CEO of BP Exploration in London. In September 1991, he joined the board of BP as a Managing Director and in 1995 was appointed CEO.
He participates as Non-Executive Director of the Intel Corporation and Goldman Sachs. He is Chairman of the Advisory Board of the Cambridge Judge Business School and the Chairman of the International Advisory Board of School of Economics and Management at Tsinghua University in Beijing. He is also Emeritus Chairman of the Advisory Board of the Stanford Graduate School of Business, and a member of the board of the Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum. He is a Trustee of the Eisenhower Fellowships and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He is President Elect of the Royal Academy of Engineering.
Mr. Browne has received a number of prestigious awards like the Prince Philip Medal for his outstanding contribution to the field of Engineering by the Royal Academy of Engineering (1999), the Ernest C. Arbuckle Award in recognition of excellence in the field of management leadership by the Stanford Business School Alumni Association (2001), the Gold Medal by the Institute of Management and The Society of Petroleum Engineers Public Service Award (2002), and the Institution of Chemical Engineers Commemorative Medal (2003),the World Petroleum Congress Dewhurst Award (2005), the Dwight D Eisenhower Leadership Award from the Business Council for International Understanding (2005), among others. He was voted Most Admired CEO by Management Today in 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. He was knighted in the 1998 Queen's Birthday Honours and made a Life Peer in 2001.
John Browne holds a degree in Physics from Cambridge University and an M.S. in Business from Stanford University.
Kemal Derviş is Vice-President and Director, Global Economy and Development, The Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.). He is Former Executive Head of the of the United Nations Development Programme. He was Turkey's Minister for Economic Affairs and the Treasury and is now the head of the United Nations Development Programme, the UN's global development network. He is also the Chair of the United Nations Development Group, a committee consisting of the heads of all UN funds, programmes and departments working on development issues, and was recently appointed as a member of the High Level Panel on UN System-wide Coherence in the Areas of Development, Humanitarian Assistance and the Environment.
Prior to his appointment with UNDP, Mr. Derviş was a member of the Turkish Parliament representing Istanbul from 2002 to 2005, after he had been Minister for Economic Affairs and the Treasury from 2001-2002. During his time as a parliamentarian he represented the Turkish Parliament in the Constitutional Convention on the Future of Europe. From 1977-2001 Mr. Derviş held various positions at the World Bank including Vice-President for the Middle East and North Africa Region and Vice-President for Poverty Reduction and Economic Management.
Kemal Derviş has been an active participant in various European and international networks and taskforces including the Global Progressive Forum and the Progressive Governance Network. He earned his Bachelor and Master's degrees in economics from the London School of Economics and his Ph.D. from Princeton University where he wrote his thesis on Computable General Equilibrium Growth Models. He has taught at the Middle East Technical University, and Bilkent and Princeton universities. He has published many articles in the fields of international trade, economic development and international affairs. His latest publication is "A Better Globalization: Legitimacy, Governance and Reform” published by Brookings Press (2005) for the Center for Global Development.
Alejandro Foxley is former Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Chile. He previously served as a member of the Senate of the Republic of Chile between 1998 and 2006. During this period he was also appointed chairman of the Finance Committee and of the Joint Budget Committee of the Chilean Congress.
As part of his political experience, Mr. Foxley was appointed Minister of Finance during the government of President Patricio Aylwin. During 1990-94 he was also Governor of the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank. In the next two years, he was the head of the Chilean Democratic Party. He was also co-President of the Inter-American Dialogue in Washington DC between 1994 and 1999; and member of the board of directors of this institution from 1999 to 2005.
Regarding his academic career, he served as visiting professor at the following institutions: Institute of Development Studies of Sussex University (1973), Oxford University (1975), M.I.T. (1978), University of California Berkeley (1981), and University of California San Diego (1985). In addition, from 1982 to 1989 he was Helen Kellogg Professor of economics and international development at Notre Dame University. He published numerous books in economics, development, and democracy in Latin America; and received numerous prestigious academic awards in different countries such as Doctor of Laws from University of Wisconsin (1993), and from Notre Dame (1991).
Minister Foxley holds a B.A. degree in engineering from Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile; and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin.
Goh Chok Tong is Senior Minister in Cabinet and Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore since 2004. He served as the Prime Minister of Singapore for fourteen years (1990-2004).
Mr. Goh worked for Neptune Orient Lines, a global transportation company, between 1969 and 1977, as a Planning and Projects Manager, Financial Director, and Managing Director. Before becoming Prime Minister of Singapore, he had a remarkable political career in different ministries. He was appointed Senior Minister of State for Finance (1977-1979), as well as Minister for Trade and Industry, Minister for Health and Minister for Defense (1979-1990). He held the appointment of First Deputy Prime Minister from 1985 to 1990.
Since 1976 he is a Member of Parliament (Marine Parade GRC), and since 1979 he is a Member of the People's Action Party Central Executive Committee. He served the party holding different positions during the last 25 years: Second Assistant Secretary-General (1979-1984), Assistant Secretary-General (1984-1989), First Assistant Secretary-General (1989-1992), and Secretary-General (1992-2004). He led the Party to victory in three General Elections in 1991, 1997 and 2001.
Senior Minister Goh holds a B.A. in economics with honors from University of Singapore (1964) and an M.A. degree in development economics from Williams College in the U.S. (1967).
Han Duck Soo is former Prime Minister and former Minister of Finance and Economy. Mr. Han holds a Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University (1984) and a B.A. in Economics from Seoul National University (1971).
Mr. Han's career spans over 35 years, starting at the National Tax Service in 1970 and the Economic Planning Board four years later. In 1982 he moved to what is now the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, where he rose to Vice Minister in 1997-1998, during the Asian financial crisis and later became Minister of Trade Affair (1998-2000), handling trade negotiations with foreign governments.
Mr. Han served as presidential secretary of economic affairs under two presidents, first in 1993 and more recently in 2002 under former president Kim Dae Jung. In 2001, he also served as the senior presidential secretary for policy and planning. Other posts include Ambassador to the OECD in 2001, President of the Korea Institute for Industrial Economics & Trade (KIET) in 2003 and Minister, Office for Government Policy Coordination in 2004.
Danuta Hübner is the European Commissioner for Regional Policy since 2004. Her professional career has been a combination of academic and political positions. In the Polish Government, she has served as Under-Secretary of State in the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Chief Negotiator for Poland's accession to the OECD, Head of the Office of the Committee for European Integration (UKIE), Minister Head of the Chancellery of the President, Secretary of State at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2001-03), and Minister for European Affairs (2003-04). In 2000-01 she was United Nations Under-Secretary General and Executive Secretary of the UN Economic Commission for Europe in Geneva.
The academic side of her career started in the early 1970s when she was a Scholar at the Warsaw School of Economics, visiting Scholar at the Universidad Autonóma in Madrid, and visiting Scholar at the Centre for European Studies at the University of Sussex. Between 1988 and 1990 she was a Fulbright scholar at the University of California Berkeley. She was also Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the Ekonomista, Polish bi-monthly publication (1991-1997). In 1992 she received the scientific title of Professor from the President of the Republic of Poland, and in 2005 an Honorary Degree in Law from Sussex University.
In addition to political and academic positions, she has served in numerous institutions and foundations such as the Programme Council of the European Business Academy for Enterprises in Warsaw and the Global Public Policy Institute in Berlin.
Ms. Hübner holds M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Economics and a post-doctoral degree in international trade relations from the Warsaw School of Economics.
Carin Jämtin is former Minister for International Development. She started her political career in the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League, and was a board member of this organization from 1990 to 1992, thereafter serving as Treasurer (1992-94) and Acting Secretary (1994-95). In 1995 she joined the Swedish Social Democratic Party as an official for one year. She was also member of the Reference Group on a New Swedish Africa Policy between 1996 and 1997. Prior to her appointment in 2003, she worked at the Olof Palme International Center as a Policy Officer (1996-99) and Deputy Secretary General (1999-2003).
She has also participated as a board member at the following institutions: National Council of Swedish Youth Organizations (1990-93), Lotteribyrån, Frihets förlag and Bommersvik, the training centre of the Social Democratic Youth League (1990-95), and the Stockholm Consumers Cooperative Society (2001-2003).
Ms. Jämtin studied at the University of Stockholm.
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski began his career at the World Bank in 1961. In the private sector he was chairman of First Boston International in 1982-1992, and ran three private equity funds specializing in Latin America in 1992-2001. In the 1970s he ran an international mining company and was a partner of investment bank Kuhn Loeb International.
He was Prime Minister of Peru in 2005-2006 after having served as Finance Minister since 2001. He was previously Minister of Energy and Mines and Deputy Director of the Central Reserve Bank.
Since 2007 he is Senior Adviser and Partner of the Rohatyn Group, a firm specializing in emerging market investment. He is also chairman of AMG, a company in special metals related to solar energy, and of Agualimpia, an organization in Peru that helps poor towns and villages set up their water systems.
Trevor Manuel has been appointed a Minister in the Presidency: Planning (South Africa) in May 2009. Prior to that, he held a post of Minister of Finance (since June 1996). He has held several positions in the public sector during the past 25 years. His political career started as the Secretary of the Cape Areas Housing Action Committee (1981). After only two years he helped found United Democratic Front, becoming its Regional Secretary and National Executive Member in 1983.
In May 1989, Mr. Manuel was employed by the Mobil Foundation as a Policy Manager on Entrepreneurial and Community Development but after a couple of years he returned to public office when he was elected to the African National Congress (ANC) in 1991. During his tenure at the ANC he was involved in several economic planning committees, and was appointed as Head of the ANC's Department of Economic Planning (1991-1994), where he was responsible for the shaping of the ANC's economic policy.
Mr. Manuel has held several positions in multilateral institutions including appointments as Governor on the Board of the World Bank and the African Development Bank Group, among others. He was also a member of the Advisory Committee of the United Nations Initiative for Trade Efficiency (August 1994). Mr. Manuel has received numerous awards and recognitions over the years: he was selected by the World Economic Forum as a Global Leader for Tomorrow (January 1994), awarded the Africa Prize by the German Africa Foundation, jointly with the then South African Minister of Finance, Derek Keys (September 1994), inducted as a member of South African Academy of Engineering (February 2001), as well as having received several honorary doctorates from South African universities.
Mahmoud Mohieldin is the Minister of Investment of the Arab Republic of Egypt since 2004. The Ministry of Investment is responsible for Investment Policy; Management of state-owned assets including privatization and restructuring of public enterprises, and joint ventures; and the non-banking financial services including capital market, insurance, and mortgage finance.
Dr. Mohieldin is a Member of the General Secretariat of the National Democratic Party, the majority Party in the Arab Republic of Egypt; he is also a member of the Policies Secretariat; and the Co-Chairman of Economic Committee of the Party. He is a Member of the Board of Trustees of the British University in Cairo; and Member of the Board of Benha University. In 2005 Dr. Mohieldin was nominated a Young Global Leader of the World Economic Forum; and a member of the Commission on Growth and Development. In addition, Dr. Mohieldin is the Governor of the Arab Republic of Egypt to the World Bank; the Alternate Governor to the African Development Bank; and the Alternate Governor to the Islamic Development Bank.
Prior to his Ministerial appointment Dr. Mohieldin was a Professor in Financial Economics, Faculty of Economics & Political Science, Cairo University. Dr. Mohieldin is a Member of the board of the Arab Society for Economic Research; Senior Research Associate of the Economic Research Forum of the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey; Member of Middle East Studies Association of North America; Fellow of the British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, UK; Member of the Royal Economic Society, UK; and Member of the Egyptian Society for Political Economy, Cairo.
In addition to the academic career, Dr. Mohieldin worked as an Economic Advisor to the Minister of State for Economic Affairs from 1995 to 1997; Senior Economic Advisor to the Minister of Economy & Foreign Trade from 1997 to 1999; and Senior Advisor to the Minister of Foreign Trade from 1999 to 2002.
Dr. Mohieldin served as a Member of the Board of the Directors of the Central Bank of Egypt; a Member of the Board of the Directors of HSBC-Egypt; a Member of the Board of Directors of Telecom Egypt; and a Member of the Board of Directors of the Diplomatic Institute. He was also an Advisor to the Board of the Egyptian Center for Economic Studies; and the Director of Cairo Economics & Finance.
Dr. Mohieldin was born in Egypt in 1965. He received his Bachelor of Science in Economics, with highest Honors, First in Order of Merit, from Cairo University, Egypt. In 1989 he received a Diploma in Quantitative Development Economics, from Warwick University, England and in 1990, he received a Master of Science in Economic and Social Policy Analysis from University of York, England, and in 1995, he received his Ph.D. in Economics from University of Warwick, England.
Ngozi N. Okonjo-Iweala is a Managing Director at the World Bank. Prior to this appoint, she was the MD/CEO of NOI Global, a Financial Advisory and Development Consulting Services Company based in both Nigeria and the United States. From June to August 2006, Dr. Okonjo-Iweala was Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Federal Republic of Nigeria, overseeing Nigeria's international relations. She headed Nigeria's acclaimed Presidential Economic Team, responsible for implementing President Obasanjo's sweeping economic and social reform agenda for Nigeria.
From July 2003 to June 2006, Dr. Okonjo-Iweala, served as Minister of Finance and Economy for the Federal Republic of Nigeria. As Finance Minister, Dr. Okonjo-Iweala managed the finances for Africa's largest country of over 150 million people, with federation revenues of over $45 billion (2005). Dr. Okonjo-Iweala led the work and the negotiations that resulted in an $18 billion or 60% cancellation of Nigeria's $30 billion Paris Club debt, the second largest debt cancellation in the Paris Club's 50 year history. As a result of the debt cancellation and an innovative Debt Buy Back Scheme, Nigeria exited the Paris Club April 2006, thereby bringing the country's external debt burden down from $35 to $5 billion. Dr. Okonjo-Iweala also spearheaded the drive to get Nigeria's first ever BB- Credit rating in January 2006 from international ratings agencies Fitch and Standard & Poors, a rating that placed Nigeria in the league of several emerging market countries such as Brazil, Venezuela, Vietnam, Philippines and Turkey.
Prior to becoming Finance Minister, Dr. Okonjo-Iweala was Vice President and Corporate Secretary of the World Bank Group where she pursued a 21 year career as a development economist. Dr. Okonjo-Iweala graduated with an A.B. magna cum laude in Economics from Harvard University and holds a Ph.D. in Regional Economics and Development from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She is the recipient of numerous awards including an Honorary Doctorate of Laws from Brown University in 2006, one of America's premier universities, an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Northern Caribbean University, Mandeville Jamaica, Global Finance Minister of the year 2005 award, from Euromoney Magazine and Time Magazine European Heroes 2004 award. Dr. Okonjo –Iweala is married to surgeon Dr. Ikemba Iweala, and they have four children.
Robert Rubin is former Secretary of the U.S. Treasury. He graduated summa cum laude from Harvard College in 1960 with an A.B. in economics. He received a L.L.B. from Yale Law School in 1964 and attended the London School of Economics. He was an attorney at the firm of Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton in New York City from 1964-1966. He began his career in finance as an associate at Goldman, Sachs & Company in 1966, became a general partner in 1971 and joined the management committee in 1980. Mr. Rubin was Vice-Chairman and Co-Chief Operating Officer from 1987 to 1990 and served as Co-Senior Partner and Co-Chairman from 1990 to 1992. He joined the Clinton Administration in 1993, serving in the White House as Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and the first Director of the National Economic Council. Mr. Rubin served as our nation's 70 th Secretary of the Treasury from January 10, 1995 until July 2, 1999.
He joined Citigroup on October 26, 1999 as Director, Chairman of the Executive Committee and Member of the Office of the Chairman and also serves as Chairman of the Board of the Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), the nation's leading community development support organization. He also serves as a member of the Board of Directors of the Ford Motor Company and on the Board of Trustees of Mount Sinai-NYU Health. In March 2000 he became a member of the advisory board of Insight Venture Partners, a New York-based private-equity investment firm that specializes in e-commerce business-to-business companies. He is also a member of the Harvard Corporation. In October 2003 he was named Vice Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations.
Mr. Rubin is the author of In An Uncertain World: Tough Choices from Wall Street to Washington [Random House, 2003, with Jacob Weisberg], which was a New York Times bestseller as well as being named one of Business Week's ten best business books of the year.
Robert Solow is Professor Emeritus at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was awarded the 1987 Nobel Memorial Prize in economics for contributing to what is still the standard method of analyzing the mechanics of economic growth, and for exhibiting the importance of research and technological innovation in improving economic productivity. In 1961, he received the John Bates Clark Award, given to the best economists under age 40. In 2000, he was awarded the National Medal of Science.
Mr. Solow received his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from Harvard University. He began teaching economics at the M.I.T in 1949, becoming a full professor there in 1958, and Institute Professor in 1973.
One of Mr. Solow's main contributions to the advancement of economics came in the late 50s when he showed that about half of the U.S. economic growth until then cannot be accounted for by capital accumulation and labor increases. He attributed this unaccounted-for portion to technological innovation. Solow's studies have had a great impact in governments' policies to augment funding towards technological research and development to spur economic growth.
Mr. Solow also served on the staff of President John F. Kennedy's Council of Economic Advisors during the 1960s and was president of the American Economic Association in 1979. He published numerous articles in the most salient journals of economics as well as several books. Since 2000, Solow has been a Foundation Fellow at the Russell Sage Foundation where his current focus is a comparative study of low-range work in the U.S. and Europe.
Professor Solow received his B.A. (1947) and Ph.D. from Harvard University.
Sir K. Dwight Venner is Governor of the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank, a position he has held since December 1989.
Prior to that, he served in the position of Director of Finance and Planning in the St Lucian Government between November 1981 and November 1989.
Sir Dwight is an Economist by training and was educated at the University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica where he obtained both a Bachelor of Science (BSc) and a Master of Science (MSc) Degree in Economics. He served as a Junior Research Fellow at the Institute of Social and Economic Research at the University of the West Indies and then as a Lecturer in Economics from 1974 to 1981.
He has written and published extensively in the areas of Monetary and International Economics, Central Banking, Public Finance, Economic Development, Political Economy and International Economic Relations.
Selected publications include Monetary Policy and a Stable EC Dollar, 1996; Surmounting the Barriers to Development, 1996; The Prospects for a Unified Caribbean in the New International Economic Order, 1996; and Prospects and Policy Options for the ECCB Area, 1997.
Sir Dwight received the award of Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1996 in St Lucia and was recognised as a Distinguished Graduate of the University of the West Indies on its 50th Anniversary in July 1998. In June 2001 he was awarded Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (KBE) in St Vincent and The Grenadines for services to the financial sector. In October 2002, Sir Dwight was recipient of an honorary degree, the Doctor of Laws from the University of the West Indies.
Hiroshi Watanabe is President and CEO of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) which made a new start in October 1st, 2008, as the international finance wing of the Japan Finance Corporation (JFC), Japan's premier policy-based financing institution. As the leader of the new JBIC, Mr. Watanabe is steering its international finance operations to fulfill JBIC's mission of contributing to the sound development of the Japanese and international economies.
In the past, he served as Vice Minister of Finance for International Affairs in the Ministry of Finance (MOF). In that capacity, he was responsible for conducting all international affairs of MOF, including foreign exchange stabilization, foreign development assistance and the international monetary system, and attended a number of international conferences across the world, ranging from G7 summits to the meetings of the World Bank, IMF, APEC and other official international organizations.
After joining MOF in 1972, his professional career centered around taxation and international affairs. He also served as executive secretary to Minister of Finance Kiichi Miyazawa in the late 1990s. After leaving MOF, he took to teaching as professor of the Graduate School of Commerce and Management, Hitotsubashi University.
Mr. Watanabe received LLB at the University of Tokyo and MA in Economics at Brown University.
Zhou Xiaochuan is the Governor of the People's Bank of China, in charge of the monetary policy, since 2003.
Mr. Zhou served as Assistant Minister of Foreign Trade (1986-89), and between 1986 and 1991, he was a member of the State Economic System Restructuring Committee. He became Vice-President of the Bank of China in 1991 and stayed in that position until he was appointed Director of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange in 1995. From 1996 to 1998, he was Deputy Governor of the People's Bank of China and Director of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange. He became President of the China Construction Bank in 1998 and Chairman of the China Securities Regulatory Commission in 2000. In December 2002, he was appointed to his present position as Governor of the People's Bank of China.
Mr. Zhou graduated from Beijing Chemical Engineering Institute in 1975 and holds a Ph.D. in economic system engineering from Tsinghua University (1985).
Ernesto Zedillo is the Director of the Center for the Study of Globalization, Professor in the Field of International Economics and Politics, and Professor Adjunct of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University.
He was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. He earned his undergraduate degree at the National Polytechnical Institute of Mexico and his master and doctoral degrees at Yale University. After leaving office, Mr. Zedillo became Chairman of the UN High Level Panel on Financing for Development and was a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the London School of Economics. He served as Co-Coordinator of the UN Millennium Project Task Force on Trade and was Co-Chairman of the UN Commission on the Private Sector and Development along with Prime Minister Paul Martin of Canada. He is currently Chair of the Global Development Network, Co-Chairman of the International Task Force on Global Public Goods and serves on the High-Level Commission on the Legal Empowerment of the Poor. In April 2005 he was appointed by the UN Secretary-General to serve as his Envoy for the 2005 World Summit in which heads of state and government reviewed implementation of the Millennium Declaration.
Mr. Zedillo is a member of the Trilateral Commission, serves on the International Advisory Board of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Board of Directors of the Institute for International Economics and is a trustee of the World Economic Forum. With decorations from the Governments of 32 countries, he is the recipient of Honorary Doctor of Laws degrees from Yale and Harvard Universities and served as Harvard's Commencement Speaker for 2003. He holds an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from the University of Miami and an Honorary Degree from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He is the recipient of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Freedom from Fear Award, the Gold Insigne of the Council of the Americas, the Tribuna Americana Award of the Casa de America of Madrid, and the Berkeley Medal, UC Berkeley's highest honor.
In February of 2006 he received the Sustainable Development Leadership Award presented by the Energy Resources Institute (TERI) in New Delhi.