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Figures

Chart Data 1.1Channels of growth spillovers from a growth pole
Chart Data 1.2Historical evolution of simple growth polarity, selected economies, 1–2008
Chart Data 1.3Modern evolution of multidimensional growth polarity, selected advanced and emerging economies, 1969–2008
Chart Data 1.4Evolution of multipolarity, alternative indexes, 1968–2008
Chart Data 1.5Global distribution of growth poles, 1994–98 and 2004–08
Chart Data 1.6Total factor productivity contribution to growth, selected potential poles
Chart Data 1.7Technological innovation, selected potential emerging economy poles
Chart Data 1.8Technological adoption, selected potential emerging economy poles, 1971–2003
Chart Data 1.9Export and consumption contribution to growth, selected potential poles
Chart Data 1.10Dominance of consumption to exports in growth, selected potential emerging
economy poles, 1977–2006
Chart Data 1.11Evolution of saving, selected potential growth poles, by sector
Chart Data 1.12Incremental capital-output ratios, selected potential emerging economy poles, 1965–2008
Chart Data 1.13Investment shares of growth, selected potential emerging economy poles, 1972–2006
Chart Data 1.14Global distribution of research and development expenditure and researcher
shares, average over 2004–08
Chart Data 1.15Global distribution and selected evolution of consumption share by per capita income
Chart Data B1.4.1Evolution of consumption and export shares, Botswana and Mauritius
Chart Data 1.16Global real output shares, 2010 and 2025, baseline scenario
Chart Data 1.17Output growth for emerging and advanced economies, 15-year average,
1996–2010 (historical) and 2011–25 (baseline scenario)
Chart Data 1.18Consumption and investment shares of output, current and potential growth poles, 2011–25 baseline
Chart Data 1.19Global import and export shares of global trade, advanced and emerging economies, 2004–25 baseline
Chart Data 1.20Net international investment positions, advanced and emerging economies,
and selected net asset countries, 2004–25 baseline
Chart Data 1.21Evolution of multipolarity, economic size and simple polarity index, 1968–2025 (projected)
Chart Data 1.22Shares of total LDC bilateral trade, selected advanced and emerging economies, 1991–2010
Chart Data 1.23Dominant LDC merchandise exports to and imports from selected emerging economies
Chart Data 1.24Net ODA from DAC countries to LDCs as share of LDC GDP, 1960–2008
Chart Data B1.6.1Commodities price index, 1948–2010, and commodity intensity of demand, 1971–2010
Chart Data 1A.1Nominal GDP overtaking scenarios, selected emerging and advanced economy poles, 2009–25
Chart Data 1A.2Real output growth in divergent productivity scenario, advanced economies and
high- versus low-productivity emerging economies, 2005–25
Chart Data 1A.3Marginal productivity of capital and imports under various unbalanced growth scenarios, China, 2011–25
Chart Data 1A.4Investment share of output under various external balance scenarios, selected potential emerging economy poles, 2004–25
Chart Data 2.1Total cross-border M&A deals by firms from advanced economies and
emerging-market economies, 1997–2010
Chart Data 2.2Total cross-border greenfield investment by firms from advanced economies and emerging-market economies, 2003–09
Chart Data 2.3Total cross-border greenfield investment and M&A deals by emerging-market firms, 2003–10
Chart Data 2.4Geographic distribution of the top 1,000 firms by R&D spending
Chart Data 2.5Cross-border patents granted worldwide to residents of emerging economies, 1995–2008
Chart Data 2.6Technology and institutional environment in developing and developed countries
Chart Data 2.7Top source countries of emerging-market firms’ cross-border M&A deals in emerging economies and advanced economies
Chart Data 2.8Top destination countries for emerging- market firms’ cross-border M&A deals in emerging economies and advanced economies
Chart Data 2.9South-South cross-border greenfield investments and M&A deals, by value, 2003–10
Chart Data 2.10South-North cross-border greenfield investments and M&A deals, by value, 2003–10
Chart Data 2.11Cross-border M&A investment to low-income countries, 1997–2010
ChartData B2.1.1Selected bilateral M&A flows from home to host economies, 2007
Chart Data 2.12Projected emerging-market outbound cross-border deals through 2025
Chart Data B2.2.1Global expansion of cross-border economic transactions, 1983–2008
Chart Data B2.2.2Stronger growth in international trade of financial assets than in goods trade, 1987–2008
Chart Data 2.13New cross-listings by foreign firms on U.S. and European international stock exchanges, 2005–10
Chart Data 2.14Share of cross-listed firms that announced acquisitions of foreign firms
Chart Data 2.15Equity financing raised on the LSE, NYSE, and NASDAQ by emerging-market
acquirer firms, 1995–oct 2010
Chart Data 2.16International bank lending to low income countries, 1995–2010
Chart Data 2.17International bond issues emanating from emerging economies, 1998–2010
Chart Data 2.18International debt financing by emerging-market firms, 2000–10
Chart Data 2.19Average at-issue spreads of international private corporate bonds, by currency, 2003–07
Chart Data 2.20Private bond spread versus GDP per capita
Chart Data 2.21Private bond spread versus sovereign risk rating
Chart Data 2.22U.S. dollar corporate bond spread to benchmarks, 2000–10, average by year
Chart Data 2.23Total number of active bilateral investment treaties, 1980–2007
Chart Data 2.24Number of bilateral investment treaties signed by advanced economy countries, as of 2007
Chart Data 2.25The number of newly signed South-South BITs rose rapidly in the 1990s, ahead of the actual surge in South-South investment
Chart Data 2A.1Source of ADR issues on U.S. exchanges, 2000–10
Chart Data 2A.2Breakdown of tallies for new foreign company listings on the LSE AIM, 2000–10
Chart B3.1.1Historical Timeline of Dominant International Currencies
Chart Data 3.1Currency denominations of banks’ international assets and international bonds outstanding, by percentage, 1999–2010
Chart Data 3.2Global foreign exchange market turnover, by currency (net of local, cross-border, and double counting), 1998–2007
Chart Data 3.3Composite indicator of international currency shares, 1999–2009
Chart Data 3.4Global currency shares relative to trade share and economic size
Chart Data B3.2.1Gains from the international status of currency
Chart Data 3.5Foreign residents’ U.S. asset holdings, 1980–2007
Chart Data 3.6U.S. balance of payments, 1946–2008
Chart Data 3.7The geographic distribution of trade concentration relative to China, the European Union, and the United States, 2005–09 period average
Chart Data 3.8Share of global manufacturing exports
Chart Data B3.3.1Evolution of net international investment positions, advanced and emerging economies, 2004–25
Chart Data 3.9Implied U.S. fiscal balances and global economic sizes, dollar standard and
multipolar currencies scenarios
Chart Data 3.10Membership in major international organizations, 1945–2010
Chart Data 3.11Macroeconomic policy disparities, selected actual and potential growth poles
among advanced and emerging economies
Chart Data 3.12Exchange rate arrangements of developing countries, 2000 and 2010
Chart Data 3.13SDRs as a percentage of the world’s foreign exchange reserves, 1970–2010
Chart Data 3.14Distribution of foreign exchange reserves, 1999 and 2008

Tables

Table Data 1.1Multidimensional polarity index, top 15 economies, 2004–08 average
Table Data B1.2.1Regional simple polarity index, top three countries, 2004–08 average
Table Data 1.2Current account balances, current and potential growth poles, 2004–25
Table Data 1.3Key perturbations for alternative growth and external balance scenarios
Table Data 1.4Measures of growth poles, top 15 countries, 2021–25 baseline average
Table Data 1A.1Principal components index (with and without migration subindex) for growth poles, top 10 economies, 2004–08 average
Table Data 1A.2Estimates for proximate determinants of growth polarity
Table Data 1A.3Estimates for fundamental determinants of growth polarity
Table Data 1A.4Correlations for consumption, investment, and exports with output, and changes in consumption, investment, and exports with change in output, current and potential pole
Table Data 1A.5Estimates for empirical current account balances model, by country group
Table Data 1A.6Additional current account balances, potential poles, 2004–15
Table Data 2.1Regional distribution of cross-border mergers and acquisitions, by number of deals and value, 1997–2010
Table Data 2.2Top emerging-market multinationals in cross-border mergers and acquistions,
by number of deals, 1997–2010
Table Data B2.4.1Detailed econometric results for regressions on spread determinants
Table Data 2A.1Summary statistics of corporate bond issuance by emerging-market countries, 1995–2009
Table Data 2A.2Definitions of key variables included in the database
Table Data 2A.3Determinants of cross-border outbound M&A investments
Table Data 3.1Currency shares of foreign exchange reserve holdings, by percentage, 1995–2009
Table Data 3.2Importance of selected national fi nancial markets
Table Data 3.3International debt securities outstanding, by currency, 1999–2010
Table Data 3.4Renminbi local currency swap arrangements, July 2010
Table Data 3.5Currency denominations of the external balance sheets of the United States and China, end-2009
Table Data 3A.1Estimates of long-run global money demand for the U.S. dollar, euro,pound sterling, and yen
Table Data 3A.2Principle factor analysis of international currency use



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