The LGAF methodology is based on the methodology adopted in developing the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA, see www.pefa.org) assessment framework. The framework is made up of a range of indicators that are then ranked as a performance measure relevant to a specific theme.
The Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) is focused on five key thematic areas that have been identified as major areas for policy intervention in the land sector, namely:
|Legal and institutional framework |
|These indicators are designed to assess the extent to which the range of existing land rights is legally recognized, the level of enforcement and cost of enforcing or upgrading these rights, and whether the regulation and management of land involves institutions with clear mandates as well as policy processes that are transparent and equitable.|
|Land use planning, management and taxation|
|These indicators assess whether land use restrictions are justified on the basis of the public interest while necessary exemptions are granted promptly and transparently, if the process for land use planning is efficient, and taxation on land and real estate transparently determined and efficiently collected.|
|Management of public land |
|These indicators assess the extent to which public land holdings are justified and transparently inventoried and managed, that expropriation procedures are applied in the public interest through clear, transparent and fair processes involving the compensation of all those who lose rights, and that the transfer of State land is transparent and monitored|
|Public provision of land information |
|This set of indicators serves to assess whether land information systems provide sufficient, relevant, and up-to-date data, at a cost affordable to the general public, and if land administration services are accessible, affordable and sustainable.|
|Dispute resolution and conflict management |
|These indicators assess whether there are affordable, clearly defined, transparent and unbiased mechanisms for the resolution of land disputes, and if these mechanisms effectively function in practice.|
This set of indicators which forms the standard LGAF can be completed by optional thematic modules for an in-depth assessment of other land-related issues. A module on large-scale land investments (comprising 16 additional indicators) is available. A module on forestry is currently under preparation.
The assessment of land governance indicators within the LGAF relies on a combination of independent expert analyses and gathering of expert panels providing consensual ranking. The results are synthesized into a final structured report that allows for progress monitoring and cross-country comparisons where relevant.
The methodology has been tested in four pilot countries (namely Peru, Georgia, Tanzania and the Kyrgyz Republic) and the results showed that the LGAF can be implemented over a relatively short period of time (around 3 to 4 months) at a reasonable cost. The use of independent local experts provides ownership and credibility to the exercise and results in an objective diagnosis that can lay the basis for better informed policy.