The World Bank’s World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development (WDR ‘11) proposes a renewed framework to guide the international community’s work in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS). The WDR ’11 calls for a paradigm shift based on the premise that the legacy of violence, weak institutions and the multiple challenges plaguing FCS cannot be resolved by short-term or partial solutions in the absence of institutions that provide people with security, justice and jobs.
The World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development provides the analytical foundations for improving the Bank’s operating model in fragile and conflict-affected situations. It concludes that building capable and legitimate institutions, ensuring citizen security and justice, and creating jobs are essential to reducing violence—and providing optimal support requires better coordination among external actors.The Bank will build on the Report analysis in at least six ways:
1. Work to make country assistance strategies for fragile and conflict-affected Situations (FCS) more focused on fragility. The Bank will seek to identify more clearly the stresses that lead to conflict; assess the capability of key national institutions to effectively deal with citizen security, justice, and development; and identify transition opportunities that may help break the cycles of violence and protracted fragility.
2. Strengthen partnerships on development, security, and justice. The Bank will work more closely with other partners, in the spirit of the Paris and Accra agendas, and particularly with international agencies that possess expertise the Bank does not, or on areas that are outside its mandate. The Bank will also partner with others to look at how to fill current gaps in the international effort and response to FCS, and build upon its partnerships to strengthen the links between security and development.
3. Increase attention to jobs and private sector development. The Bank will develop an approach to employment in FCS, in partnership with others, that develops a range of interventions to support jobs and livelihoods— both through public and community-based employment that can provide “quick wins” and through the necessary investments and research that support private sector development and job creation over time.
4. Realign results and risk management for FCS, away from risk avoidance. The Bank will review its definitions of risk tolerance, risk management, and expected results and will examine how it can better balance fiduciary and other risks in FCS against the risks of inaction or slow action, which may lead to a resurgence of violence and conflict.
5.Reduce financing volatility. Institutional development requires longterm and sustained support. Going forward, the Bank will work to ensure that essential institutions in FCS receive sustained support over several years, and will explore options for maintaining minimum levels of support to core institutions and basic services even in the context of governance or other setbacks.
6. Strive for global excellence in FCS work. The Bank recognizes the need for a different organizational approach—both in its internal organization and in its work with regional and global partners—in fragile and conflict-affected situations. It has been working to put in place the processes, organizational structure, and staff skill mixes and incentives to encourage innovation and informed risk taking. In an effort to bring resources closer to the field, it has created a Global Center for Conflict, Security, and Development. The center, in Nairobi, will conduct research on economics and public policy matters, and provide substantial support to country teams across all regions on issues related to security, justice, and development in crisis prevention and recovery.