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2010 Spring Meetings - Civil Society Policy Forum

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Civil Society Policy Forum
Washington, DC
April 22 - 25, 2010

The Civil Society Policy Forum was held from Thursday (April 22) to Sunday (April 25), prior and during the 2010 Spring Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group. It was organized by the WBG and IMF Civil Society Teams. The Forum brought together Bank and Fund staff, CSO representatives, government officials, and others to exchange views on a variety of topics ranging from the global economic crisis and energy, to information disclosure.

Please find below the schedule of sessions held during the Policy Forum.

Thursday Friday   Saturday  Sunday


Civil Society Forum Events

Photo Gallery

 Thursday, April 22



8:30 – 9:00
MC C1 - 100
(Basement Level 1
World Bank Main Complex Building)


Welcome Breakfast for CSOs

Sponsors: World Bank Group/ International Monetary Fund

Speakers: Edith Ssempala (World Bank) Karla Chaman (IMF), Aaron Rosenberg (IFC)

Staff from the Civil Society Teams at the IMF and WBG will welcome accredited CSOs, present the schedule of the Civil Society Policy Forum, and discuss the policy agenda for the Spring Meetings.


9:00 – 10:30
MC C1 - 100

Governance Challenges in Financing Green and Sustainable Energy Policies

Sponsor: Friedrich-Ebert Foundation

Speakers: Michael Clark (Research Assignment to UNCTAD), Zhou Qi (Director, Research Office of Political Science, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences), Martha Delgado Peralta (Secretary of the Environment, Government of Mexico City), Ian Dunlop (Fellow, Centre for Policy Development) Werner Puschra (Director, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, New York Office) - CHAIR

The financial crisis that began in the fall of 2008 came on the heels of great turbulence in the energy sector, with increased global demand for oil pushing prices to record highs. The burden of mitigating and adapting to climate change complicates matters further in terms of financing a green recovery. These inter-related crises show that the global economy needs a new paradigm for growth, one in which better financial regulation and green-jobs creation can ease the impact of the financial crisis while at the same time enabling policies to promote investment in sustainable and efficient energy systems for countries at all levels of development.

This panel discussion provides a report-back from key figures involved in an April 21, 2010 Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung/Brookings Institution experts roundtable on governance challenges in financing green and sustainable energy policies and offers the opportunity for dialogue with representatives gathered for the IMF/World Bank Spring Meetings Civil Society Forum.

Participants List 


9:00 – 10:30
MC C1 - 200


Philantropication through Privatization: Origins of the Italian Banking Foundations

Sponsors: Associazione di Fondazioni di Casse di Risparmio Spa, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Torino (CRT), World Bank

Speakers: Lester M. Salamon (Director, Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies and Director of the Philanthropication thru Privatization Project, East-West Management Institute); Stefano Marchettini (General Manager Associazione di Fondazioni e Casse di Risparmio Spa); Angelo Miglietta (Secretary General, Fondazione CRT); Jennifer Barsky (Head of Foundation Team, WB) - CHAIR

Italian foundations of banking origin were formed after the Italian government passed legislation in 1990 to convert the country's network of non profit savings banks into joint stock companies, giving great impetus to philanthropic initiatives. Similar phenomena, whereby public assets are used to set up foundations or other philanthropic activities, have occurred in other countries often in conjunction with important privatization initiatives. Dr. Lester M. Salamon has called this phenomenon “philanthropication thru privatization,” (PtP) and has launched a project to identify best practices and promote the model around the world.

This session will discuss the following issues:

  • What is the rationale behind the PtP project?
  • What are potential applications of the PtP concept in regions where the World Bank is involved?
  • What are the main initiatives of the Italian Foundations of banking origin?
  • Which lessons can be drawn from their PtP experience?

Participants List
Lester Salamon Presentation


11:00 – 12:30
MC C1 - 200

Special Drawing Rights for Climate Finance

Sponsors: The Nature Conservancy / Action Aid

Speakers: Hugh Bredenkamp (Deputy Director, Strategic and Policy Review Department, IMF), Mark Weisbrot (Co-director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research), Ilana Solomon (Policy Analyst, ActionAid), Jorge Gastelumendi (The Nature Conservancy) – CHAIR

There is an urgent need to transfer significant resources to support developing countries adapt to the impacts of climate change and to transition to clean energy economies. Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), reserve assets created by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), have recently gained attention from policymakers and from civil society advocates as a mechanism to generate finance for adaptation and mitigation. Most recently, the IMF released a Staff Position Note on “Financing the Response to Climate Change,” which included SDRs as a piece of the financing puzzle.

In this session, panelists will discuss views on the IMF staff paper, present other proposals for use of SDRs for climate finance, and will discuss what role, if any, the IMF should play in climate finance.

Participants List
Hugh BredenKamp and Catherine Pattillo Presentations


11:00 – 12:30
MC C1 - 110

High Risks – High Rewards? Ten Years After Approval of the Chad-Cameroon Oil & Pipeline Project, What are the Lessons?

Sponsors: Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Urgewald (Germany), Relufa (Cameroon)

Speakers: Valery Nodem (Relufa), Korinna Horta (Ugewald), Monika Huppi (Manager, Sector Evaluations, IEG-WB), Stoyan Tenev (Head, Macro-Evaluations, IEG-IFC), Werner Kiene (former Inspection Panel Chairman) – CHAIR.

This event will debate the project’s key lessons for World Bank Group support of extractive industries and other high-risk projects. An excerpt of a recent documentary film of the Chad-Cameroon project will be shown by Relufa. The session will feature a new report by a coalition of German NGOs on the evaluation carried out by the World Bank Group’s Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), which addresses the strengths of that evaluation and points out some of the missing elements.

Participants List
Korina Horta Presentation
Valery Nodem and Brendan Schwartz Presentations   


12:30 - 2:00
MC C1 - 100

Strengthening Partnerships: Lessons from Haiti

Sponsors: World Bank / German Marshall Fund / Inter-American Dialogue

Speakers: Auguste Kouame (Lead Economist for Caribbean Countries, WB), Russell Porter (Deputy Coordinator, Haiti Task Team, USAID), Corinne Delechat (IMF Mission Chief for Haiti), Kathleen Campbell (Associate Director, Aid Effectiveness Project, Save the Children), Geraldine Dufort (Counselor, European Union Delegation to the United States of America), Jim Kunder (Senior Resident Fellow, The German Marshall Fund of the United States) - CHAIR

Haiti illustrates just how vital U.S., European, and developing / host-country partnerships are to ensuring effective post-disaster revitalization and development outcomes. There is an increasing recognition that international actors must - in partnership with the Haitian government and citizens - better organize their efforts. An unprecedented level of policy and public attention has been focused on one of the most under-developed countries in the world.

But, what have we learned from Haiti? How can we catalyze this attention and channel it toward better development practices? What are the lessons learned? What kinds of collaborative partnerships or frameworks could be employed to help jump-start the Haitian economy? How do we ensure international synergy during the transition from disaster relief to longer term capacity building, where Haitians can be the masters of their own destiny? Do we need a NATO-like group for humanitarian relief to enhance cooperation among international donors, local governments, and civil society in the aftermath of and the run up to such catastrophes? ‪ ‪

This session will be webcast live. Please click on the links below to view:

mms:// (for WM streaming) (for Flash streaming)

Participants List


12:30 - 2:00
MC C1 - 200

The Value and Implications of CAO's Compliance Work

Sponsor: Compliance Advisor and Ombudsman (CAO)

Speakers: Meg Taylor (Vice-President, CAO), Henrik Linders (Senior Specialist, Compliance, CAO)

Every CAO compliance case involves an appraisal of IFC / MIGA's environmental and social due diligence, and if it meets the criteria, goes to a full audit. While some appraisals may conclude that a case does not merit an audit, they are useful in identifying potential shortcomings and emerging risks in a project, and strive to identify underlying causes that may have contributed to a complaint to the CAO. This session will analyze CAO's compliance process, looking at projects from India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Uruguay, and prompt discussion with civil society on the value and effectiveness of CAO's compliance work, and how we can strengthen this role.

Specifically, we will discuss:

  • Who and what is "appraised"
  • The implications of appraisals for IFC / MIGA project teams and local stakeholders
  • The value of compliance interventions in holding project teams accountable to promises made at the Board
  • Leveraging audit findings to foster better outcomes on the ground, and systemic institutional change
  • The strengths and challenges civil society see in CAO's compliance process
Participants List


2:30 – 4:00
MC C1 - 100

15 years of Inspection Panel Cases: What has been Learned and how can this Help Strengthen the World Bank's Development Effectiveness and Accountability

Sponsor: Inspection Panel

Speakers: Giovanni Majnoni (Chair, Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE) and World Bank Executive Director for Albania, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Timor-Leste); Jeffrey Gutman (Vice President, Operations Policy and Country Services); Eduardo Abbott (Founding Executive Secretary, Inspection Panel); Lori Udall (Executive Director, Montpelier Consulting); Roberto Lenton (Chairperson of the Inspection Panel) – CHAIR

The development literature increasingly affirms that successful poverty reduction programs put people living in poverty at the center of their efforts. The Inspection Panel has proven to be an important avenue for project stakeholders and their communities to identify and resolve problems that arise when there is noncompliance with the World Bank’s social and environmental safeguards. The effective operation of the Inspection Panel as an accountability mechanism is intended to make the World Bank a better institution, and help in its continuing work to achieve its mission of poverty reduction, use its resources well, and support the development needs of borrowing countries.

This session will focus on how the Panel, by addressing issues of compliance with World Bank operational policies, has been instrumental in ensuring that the Bank’s development work is sustainable and how the World Bank, which is in the midst of many internal reform efforts, can be accountable to multiple stakeholders, including project affected persons, in the years ahead. In particular, the seminar will review what has been learned from 15 years of Inspection Panel cases and how this learning can be used to strengthen the World Bank’s development effectiveness and accountability.

The event will also feature the Washington launch of the Inspection Panel’s flagship publication "The Inspection Panel at 15 Years: Accountability at the World Bank".



2:00– 3:30
MC C1 - 200

An IMF for the 21st Century - The Low-Income Country Perspective

Sponsor: Oxfam International

Speakers: Dr. Samura Kamara (Minister of Finance and Development, Sierra Leone), Dominique Desruelle (Strategy, Policy and Review Department Advisor, IMF), Matthew Martin (Director, Development Finance International), Ray Offenheiser (President, Oxfam America) - CHAIR

The IMF is discussing what its mandate and size should be in a post-crisis world, but the debate is mostly focused on advanced countries. Meanwhile the majority of IMF programs continue to be in low income countries, where the Fund's role in the policy dialogue is vital: it can make - or break - a country's ability to attract the billions of dollars needed to fight poverty. This session will consider how the Fund performed during the global economic crisis in developing countries, and what steps are necessary to ensure an IMF for the 21st century which can effectively support low income countries.

Participants List


3:30 – 5:00
MC C1 - 200

State of Global Education Aid; Update on FTI Reform Process and Suggestions from Civil Society

Sponsor: Global Campaign for Education (GCE)

Speakers: Sarah Beardmore (RESULTS/USA); Katie Malouf (Oxfam International), Anda Adams (Center for Universal Education, Brookings Institution); David Edwards (National Education Association / Education International); Robin Horn (World Bank); Amy Gray (IFI Policy Officer, GCE) - CHAIR.
This panel will assess the Fast Track Initiative, the multilateral funding mechanism established to achieve the Education For All goals as articulated at the World Education Forum in Dakar Senegal 2000. The EFA goals, like the MDGs, are supposed to be achieved by 2015 yet there are serious obstacles.

The FTI recently went through an independent evaluation. The evaluation's findings, along with areas not addressed by the evaluation but crucial to the fulfillment of the EFA goals, will be addressed by representatives from CSOs, FTI, and the WB with special attention to labor issues, and challenges and opportunities related to reaching populations in conflict-affected or failed state settings. Recommendations for FTI reforms will also be presented and discussed.

This session will be webcast live. Please click on the links below to view:

mms:// (for WM streaming) (for Flash streaming)

Participants List


5:00 – 6:00
MC 13-121

Roundtable on Post-Crisis Economic Recovery

Sponsor: World Bank

Speakers: Robert Zoellick (WB President), Sam Worthington (CEO, InterAction), Andrew Kumbatira (Executive Secretary, Malawi Economic Justice Network) – CHAIR

This session will examine the impacts of the global economic recession on the poor, and discuss the steps the international community has taken to promote post-crisis recovery. It will further analyze the efforts undertaken by the World Bank Group to assist low-income countries build a foundation for growth and continued poverty reduction. It will also discuss the Bank’s request for additional financial resources and internal governance and policy reform.

The session will be followed by a reception offered by the Bank and Fund.

  • Interpretation to be Provided in Arabic, English, French, Spanish

Summary Notes
Session Recording 


6:00 – 7:00
12th Floor Gallery

Reception for Civil Society Representatives

Sponsors: World Bank / IMF

Marwan Muasher (Senior Vice President for External Affairs, WB) and Caroline Atkinson (Director for External Affairs Departmen, IMF) are hosting this welcome reception for CSO leaders and representatives.



 Friday, April 23

9:00 – 10:30
MC C1 - 100



IMF GOVERNANCE: Issues, Timeline, Leverage Points

Sponsor: New Rules Coalition for Global Finance

Speakers: Domenico Lombardi (Director, Oxonia), Ranjit Teja (Deputy Director of the Strategy, Policy and Review Department, IMF), Ralph Bryant (Brookings Institution), Fraser Reilly-King (Halifax Initiative), Jo Marie Griesgraber (Executive Director, New Rules) - CHAIR

The G20 Communique from the Pittsburgh Summit, September 24-25, 2009, stated: “we are committed to a shift in quota shares to dynamic emerging market and developing countries of at least five percent from over-represented to under-represented countries using the current IMF quota formula as the basis to work from. We are also committed to protecting the voting share of the poorest in the IMF.” Earlier, in London, the G20 called for the quota reallocation to be completed by January 2011. The decision of Pittsburgh has been interpreted as deliberately ambiguous; and now, the rumors are that the timeline for quota reallocations has been moved up to the Seoul G20 meeting in late 2010.

As demonstrated by the high quality and intensity of CSO engagement in the Fourth Pillar Consultation on IMF Governance Reform, many individuals and organizations care deeply about this issue. Fund governance impacts the quality of the lives of affected people in developing countries; it also will have an increasing role in preventing future global financial crises, and financial sector oversight and regulation.

This session will address the following questions: what issues are on the table? What is the timeline? How are IMF member states aligned on these issues? What are the leverage Points?

Participants List


9:00 - 10:30
MC C1 - 110

Food Security and Development Aid

Sponsor: German Marshall Fund

Speakers: Claude Fontheim (Trade Aid and Security Coalition, TASC); Katrin Kuhlmann (German Marshall Fund); Modibo Makalou (Advisor to the President of Mali on Development and Cooperation Issues).

Following the food crisis of 2007-2008, the issue of food security has become a high priority on the international policy agenda. At both the U.S. – EU Summit and G8 meeting in L’Aquila, Italy in 2009, communiqués were issued stressing the need for increased donor commitment to tackle the problem. The United States has taken the lead by establishing an interagency process, the Global Hunger and Food Security Initiative, led by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, in order to develop a comprehensive strategy, yet food security has not been as well developed as other elements of the administration’s strategy in the areas of agricultural production, nutrition and humanitarian relief activities.

However, in order to break the cycle of poverty among smallholder farmers and producers, it is essential to expand farmers’ access to markets at all levels—national, regional and international—and identify and address barriers that constrain growth in the agricultural sector. Moving forward it is important to explore the proper role for business, government and civil society, both in donor and host countries.

This session will discuss a number of underlying questions:

  • How can these entities work better together and achieve better coordination?
  • How can trade / market-led policies help to break the cycle of poverty and food insecurity in developing countries?
  • How can governments and other public and private organizations best coordinate efforts to identify and eliminate barriers facing businesses of all sizes in the agricultural sector?
  • What should be the role of multilateral organizations in this process?


9:00 – 11:00
MC C1 - 200

Civil Society Roundtable Discussion on the World Bank Group's Role in Trade

Sponsor: World Bank

Speakers: Otaviano Canuto (Vice President, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management /WB), Serdar Altay (Program Officer, German Marshall Fund), Philip Schuler (Senior Economist, WB) Aldo Caliari (Director, Rethinking Bretton Woods Project, Center of Concern) - CHAIR

The World Bank Group is preparing a long-term trade strategy in order to support developing countries’ efforts to create opportunities for the poor and help economies grow sustainably. The strategy is being prepared against a backdrop of significant changes in international trade, increasingly complex trade agreements, and the global economic crisis. The crisis has highlighted the need for countries to diversify their products and services, cooperate with each other on trade, and develop social safety nets. Civil Society Organizations will offer their perspectives on the future direction for the World Bank Group on trade issues. View the trade strategy approach and relevant information on the trade strategy website.

Among the issues the panel will discuss: How should the World Bank Group allocate its activities between work at the global level and work at the country level? How can the World Bank Group help address regional integration challenges?

Presentation 1
Presentation 2  
Summary Notes 


10:00 - 11:00
Room 400
(1800 G St., 12th Floor)

MIGA Open House

Sponsor: Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

This session will provide an opportunity for CSO representatives to meet with MIGA Senior Management and to discuss with them any issues of concern.


10:30 – 12:00
Room L-101
F Building
(2121 Penn. Av.)

IFC Policy Review Update and Discussion

Sponsors: International Finance Corporation (IFC), Center for International Environment Law (CIEL), Bank Information Center (BIC)

Speakers: Greg Radford (Director, IFC Environment and Social Department), Anuradha Mittal (Oakland Institute), Meg Taylor (Vice President, CAO), Nigel Twose (Director IFC-IDA Secretariat) – CHAIR

This session will update stakeholders on the review process, and promote discussion of the IFC Performance Standards and Disclosure Policy Review. A panel consisting of representatives from IFC, the private sector, civil society, and the CAO will each share their perspectives, followed by a group discussion and Q&A.


10:30 – 12:00
MC C1 – 110

The IMF and Capital Controls: Policy Implications

Sponsor: Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR)

Speakers: Reza Baqir (Deputy Chief, Strategy, Policy, and Review Department, IMF), Mark Weisbrot (Co-Director, CEPR)

Short-term capital flows are once again increasing in developing countries, as the word economy recovers. In February 2010, IMF economists published a paper which concluded that under certain conditions, the use of capital controls "is justified as part of the policy toolkit to manage inflows." In the past, short-term and speculative capital inflows have made it more difficult for governments to manage their most important macroeconomic policies, including monetary and exchange rate policies; and rapid outflows have contributed greatly to economic and financial crises in many countries. This session will focus on these issues and implications for IMF policies.

Participants List 


11:00 – 12:30
MC C1 - 200

Evaluation as a Critical Tool for Accountability

Sponsors: Independent Evaluation Group (WB), Bank Information Center (BIC), Ugerwald

Speakers: Vinod Thomas (Director-General of Evaluation, World Bank Group), Korinna Horta (Urgewald), Vince McElhenny (Bank Information Center), Ian Solomon (US Executive Director) - CHAIR

This dialogue session will highlight the critical importance of evaluation results for improving the quality of World Bank Group lending. Using IEG’s efforts and recommendations on safeguards and environmental sustainability as an example, this session will seek to explore IEG’s role in learning processes at the World Bank Group.

This session occurs at a critical period for the IEG and other World Bank Group compliance mechanisms, as their terms-of-reference are currently under review.

Participants List 
Vinod Thomas Presentation
Korinna Horta Presentation   


11:00 – 12:30
MC C1 - 100

The Financial Transfer Tax: Is it Feasible? Would it Reduce Volatility in Financial Markets?


Speakers: Pamela Gomez (Oxfam International), Victoria Perry (IMF), Peter Wahl (WEED - Weltwirtschaft, Ökologie & Entwicklung), Janet Redman (Institute for Policy Studies), Paul-Bertran Barets (French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs), John Ruthrauff (InterAction) - CHAIR

A Financial Transfer Tax (FTT) is a very small tax that would be levied on all financial market transactions in stock and futures exchanges. The proposed tax would include transactions involving stocks, bonds, foreign exchange, derivatives, and hedge funds. The concept has been supported by the French and British governments and may be considered at the next G20 Summit in June.

The FTT is being considered by the IMF for their recommendations to the June G20 Summit.

Participants List 


12:00 – 1:30
Room L-101
F Building
(2121 Penn. Av.)

CAO Advisory Work for IFC's Policy Review and Update

Sponsor: Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman's (CAO)

Speakers: Julia Gallu (Specialist, CAO), Amar Inamdar (Principal
Specialist, CAO)

This session will present the Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman's (CAO) new
advisory work in the context of IFC's update of its Policy and Performance
Standards on Social and Environmental Sustainability and Disclosure Policy
("Sustainability Framework"). In order to assess the quality of implementation of IFC's policy framework to date, CAO carried out a portfolio review of IFC investments and commissioned an in-depth study of local stakeholder perceptions of five IFC investments.

The Advisory Note will be disclosed publicly in early May after it has been considered by IFC's Board of Directors, and in time for IFC's public consultation phase. CAO will discuss their approach, core findings, and recommendations.

Lunch and refreshments will be served. For more information visit our website:


12:30 – 2:00
MC C1 - 200

The Domestic Debt Crisis and Economic and Social Impact: The Cases of Senegal, Malawi and Zambia

Sponsors: IMF / African Network on Debt and Developmetn (AFRODAD) / Jesuit Centre for Theological Reflection (JCTR) / Malawi Economic Justice Network (MEJN)

Speakers: Tirivangani Mutazu (AFRODAD), Chilufya Chileshe (JCTR), Andrew Kumbatira (MEJN), Fiona Chipunza (AFRODAD) - CHAIR

Since the mid-Nineties there have been increasing efforts by IFIs and governments to develop domestic markets for government securities. As an alternative source of financing to external borrowing and banking credit, domestic markets can reduce a country’s vulnerability to reversals in capital flows and external shocks. Most importantly however, is their potential to spur growth and economic development in developing countries. In spite of the important role domestic markets play in the economy and especially to the government as a source of development finance, AFRODAD research shows that resources from these markets are increasingly consuming huge chunks of the national budget in the form of debt servicing. While domestic debt has been rising over the years, policy makers and international institutions have given it far less attention than it deserves.

Participants List 


12:30 – 2:00
MC C1 – 100

The International Monetary System: Looking for Future Directions 

Sponsor: Center of Concern

Speakers:  Rishi Goyal (Strategic, Policy and Review Department, IMF) Jomo KS (Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development, UN / DESA), Aldo Caliari (Center of Concern/ CIDSE)

Several experts, high level government officials, the United Nations and the IMF itself have voiced concerns about the role that gaps and shortcomings of the current global monetary and reserve system have played in the recent crisis. At the same time, some of these concerns register broader and longstanding issues concerning the development implications of such a system, such as the need to address the volatility of exchange rates and to provide a reliable store of value.

This session will discuss the following issues: What should be the main features and criteria of a renewed world monetary system? What reforms are technically and politically feasible given the current momentum? What role should SDRs and regional reserve currencies play in such a system? What reforms will enable these different currencies to play such roles? What implications does this have for the IMF future directions?



1:30 - 4:30 p.m.
IFC Auditorium
2121Pennsylvania Avenue, NW.

Global Challenges in the New Decade

Sponsor: Independent Evaluation Group (IEG)

Speakers: Vinod Thomas (IEG), Irene Khan (Amnesty International), Nancy Roman (World Food Program), Jason Clay (World Widlife Fund), Kenneth Chomitz (IEG), Anna Mwalagho (Actress), Kojo Nnamdi (National Public Radio) - CHAIR 

The event will engage a mix of World Bank Group staff and outside experts to talk about global challenges facing the international community including gender, agriculture, water, and climate change.

To register, please click here. 


2:00 – 3:30
MC C1 - 200

Role of Public Financing for Agriculture. Case Studies: Kenya, Uganda, and Malawi

Sponsor: Action Aid

Speakers: Peter O’Driscoll (Executive Director, ActionAid/US), Tewodaj Mogues (Development Strategies and Governance Division, IFPRI), Rob Townsend (Agriculture and Rural Development Department, WB), Ian Solomon (US Executive Director), Neil Watkins (ActionAid/USA) - CHAIR

The 2008 global food crisis has refocused the attention of the development community on the importance of investment in agriculture in developing countries. Promises by G-8 leaders at the L'Acquila summit, the creation of the Global Agriculture & Food Security Program (GAFSP) as a trust fund hosted by the World Bank, commitments by the World Bank to increase support for agriculture, and the U.S. pledge for a food security initiative offer both opportunities and challenges. The World Bank and others with a stake in re-making global support for food production and rural development must be sure they have learned the lessons of past failures in public financing for agriculture and the most promising avenues for ending hunger and creating vibrant rural economies. Without real change, the world will move further away from meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to halve hunger by 2015.

ActionAid is launching a new report which examines public financing of agriculture in Kenya, Uganda, and Malawi. The report takes a critical look at government and donor policies and suggests alternative policies that would benefit women and smallholder farmers. The case studies and recommendations provide timely input to the development of World Bank policy on agriculture.

Participants List 


2:00 – 3:30
MC C1 - 100

A Sustainable World Bank Energy Strategy: Perspectives from Various Stakeholders

Sponsors: World Resources Institute (WRI), Center for American Progress (CAP), Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), and International Rivers

Speakers: Jake Schmidt (International Climate Policy Director, NRDC), Shannon Lawrence (Senior Policy Analyst, International Rivers), Kirsty Hamilton (Associate Fellow, Chatham House), Richard Caperton (Policy Analyst, CAP), Bishop Geoff Davies (Anglican Church).

The World Bank is currently undergoing the review of its energy strategy and is in the process of holding worldwide multi-stakeholder consultation to seek input on their approach to assistance for energy development. As the basis for this discussion, the World Bank has authored an Energy Strategy Approach Paper outlining the Bank’s planned approach for energy sector lending. They propose a renewed focus on improving access and reliability of energy supply and facilitating a shift to more environmentally and sustainable energy sector development. At the same time, they hope to improve operational and financial performance and strengthen the governance systems in their client countries to achieve the twin objectives of greater access to energy and a sustainable energy supply. While this renewed focus is encouraged and supported by diverse stakeholders, the Bank must greatly improve upon their past performance and ensure they assist developing countries in transitioning to a low carbon, sustainable energy future.

This session will convene a panel of civil society energy and climate change experts on how the Bank can meet these proposed new objectives. The panel will address the following questions:

• Is there a role for the Bank’s in expanding sustainable energy access in developing countries?
• The Bank states that there is a trade-off between addressing climate change while meeting poverty and development objectives, is this a trade-off or an opportunity?
• Is there a role for the Bank in addressing regulatory and governance issues to increase the investments in clean energy?
• How can the Bank create an enabling environment to catalyze and leverage the private sector to scaling up investments in clean energy?

Participants List 


2:00 - 3:30
MC C1 – 110

Strengthening CSOs Capacity for Effective Monitoring of Government Economic Policies and Implementation

Sponsors: Civil Society Consultative Group (Nigeria), World Bank, IMF

Speakers: Virginia Ifeadiro (Civil Society Consultation Group), Timothy Aniebonam (Global Agenda for Total Emancipation, GATE) , Andrew Kumbatari (Malawi Economic Justice Network), Prof Jan Aart Scholte (University of Warwick), Edith Ssempala (WB), Vasuki Shastry (IMF).

This session will discuss the advances made by CSOs in their effort to engage government and donor agencies in the areas of policy formulation and implementation. The session will discuss the experience of the World Bank – Civil Society Consultative Group activities in Nigeria in the past four years. It will analyze the role of of CSOs in ensuring effective monitoring of Government Economic Policies and Implementation. At the core of the session will be a review of the capacity of the CSOs to deliver on this task and what can be done to improve their capacities for even better delivery of the task.

The session is expected to further give voice to the non state actors in the design and implementation of Government Economic Policies and Implementation. It will also work to stimulate ideas on how to build and utilize the inert capacity of CSOs in adding value to IMF interventions in Nigeria and other countries.

Participants List 


4:00 - 5:30
MC C1 – 100

Sub-Saharan Africa Regional Economic Outlook: Back to High Growth?

Sponsor: International Monetary Fund

Speakers: Abebe Selassie (Head, Regional Studies Division, African Department, IMF), Andrew Kumbatira (Director, Malawi Social Justice Network), Dickson Kahinga (Head of Macroeconomics, Kenya Institute for Policy Research)

The economic slowdown in sub-Saharan Africa seems to have been fortunately brief. Poverty reduction in the region was held back in 2009 and employment opportunities shrank, but most low income countries experienced only a small decline in growth. This year, output is already rising strongly and growth looks set to approach 5 percent. How did sub-Saharan Africa escape so lightly, when so often in the past it has been dragged down heavily by global downturns? And how can governments in the region best facilitate a return to the high growth rates of the mid-2000s?

Macroeconomic policies are an important part of the puzzle. Good policies heading into the 2008-2009 crises gave economies a head start and policy-makers room for action. Strong macroeconomic responses in the subsequent downswing -- primarily higher government spending in the face of weakening revenue -- softened the external blow and protected some of the poor. And restoring these policy buffers will be good insurance against further shocks.


4:00 - 5:30
MC C1 - 200

Bottom lines, Better lives: Re-thinking Multilateral Financing to the Private Sector

Sponsors: Bretton Woods Project / Christian Aid / ActionAid / European Network on Debt and Development (EURODAD) / Camapgna per la Riforma Della Banca Mondiale (CRBM)

Speakers: Jesse Griffiths (Coordinator, Bretton Woods Project), Neil Gregory (Chief, Strategy and Operations in the Financial and Private Sector Development Network IFC/WB), Maria-José Romero Duarte (Instituto Del Tercer Mundo)

Since 1990, financing to the private sector by Multilateral Development Banks has increased ten-fold from $4 billion to $40 billion per year, with growth particularly marked at the World Bank Group's International Finance Corporation (IFC). This area of operations have significant impacts on poverty, environmental sustainability and human rights, yet is little known and under-examined. These are the findings of a new report by the Bretton Woods Project called "Bottom Lines, Better Lives: Rethinking Multilateral Financing to the Private Sector in Developing Countries."

This will be an open discussion, with all attendees invited to participate to share views on if and how lending to the private sector by MDBs should be reformed. It will also be an opportunity to get a copy of the new report from the co-sponsors, which argues that the MDB's approach to private sector and development has been controversial and not always sufficiently focused on promoting poverty reduction and sustainable development.

Participants List 


4:00 - 5:30
MC C1 – 110

Safeguards at the World Bank: Evolution? Devolution? Dissolution?

Sponsors: Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL), Bank Information Center (BIC)

Speakers: Anne Perrault (Program Officer, CIEL), Stephen Lintner (Sr. Safeguards Advisor, WB), Vince McElhinny (Latin America Program Manager, BIC), Fadia Saadah (Operational Services Manager, WB)

The World Bank Group has a range of lending instruments, some of which are undergoing reforms (for e.g. IL Reform). The session will focus on better understanding these changes and how this may impact
environmental and social safeguards.

Participants List 
Vince McElhinny Presentaion 


4:30 – 6:30
(J Building
701 18th St)

World Bank Group Energy and Environment Strategies: Ways of Seeing

Sponsor: World Bank

Speakers: Katherine Sierra (Vice President of Sustainable Development, WB); Dr. Abdul Hafeez Shaikh (Head of the Ministry of Finance, Pakistan); Hamed Diane Semega (Minister of Equipment and Transportation, Mali); Christopher Flavin (President, World Watch Institute); Jamal Saghir (Director, Energy, Transport, and Water, WB); Warren Evans (Director, Environment, WB)

You are invited to a presention on the current approaches to the World Bank Groups’s energy and environmental strategies for the next decade. The Bank presenters will share the current state of thinking on the two strategies and provide some of the initial feedback. Panelists will offer their perspectives, and the audience will be invited to ask questions and offer comments on the strategies.

* A wine and cheese cocktail will follow.


5:00 – 6:30
MC 10 - 507
(10th Floor World Bank MC Building)

Inspection Panel Open House for CSO Representatives and World Bank Staff

Sponsor: Inspection Panel

The Inspection Panel is the independent accountability mechanism of the World Bank. The Panel invites all civil society organizations attending the Spring Meetings and Bank Management and staff to its Open House in the Panel's offices. Please come and share your experiences and hear stories and anecdotes about Panel operations.



Saturday, April 24

9:00 – 12:00
MC C1 - 200

Consultation on the World Bank’s Education Strategy

Sponsor: World Bank

Speakers: Elizabeth King (Education Sector Director, WB), Marta Cumbi (Executive Director, Foundation for Community Development / Mozambique), Caroline Pearce (Regional Advocacy Manager for West Africa, OXFAM/GB), John Garrison (Senior Civil Society Specialist, WB) - CHAIR

The World Bank is developing a new Education Strategy (2010-2020) which will shape the overall direction of the Bank's work for the next decade. The World Bank is in the early stages of this work, and aims to draft a strategy that reflects the views and perspectives of key stakeholders. For this reason, the Bank will be consulting with a wide range of stakeholders throughout the development of the strategy.

The objective of this consultation meeting is to gather input and suggestions from both local and international CSOs who will be participating in the 2010 World Bank/IMF Spring Meetings. It will provide CSOs an opportunity to share their views on how the World Bank Group can improve its work in the education sector going forward. The comments and recommendations collected will be used to inform the drafting of the World Bank's new education strategy. The draft strategy will be shared in the second phase of the consultation process, which will consist of an electronic comment period of about two months, along with a document outlining how the issues raised during the first phase of consultations were addressed in the drafting of the strategy paper. The strategy is scheduled for discussion by the World Bank Group Board of Executive Directors in late 2010.

For more information on the education strategy consultation process please visit our website:


9:00 – 10:30
MC C1 - 100

Global Financial Crisis, Debt Vulnerabilities and Development Assistance in Low-income Countries

Sponsors: IMF / Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA)

Speakers: Herve Joly (Chief for Debt Policy Division, IMF), Dickson Khainga (Head of Macroeconomics, KIPPRA).

The global financial crisis has had a significant impact on low-income countries (LICs)’ Debt vulnerabilities. The global crisis, however, is not expected to result in systemic debt difficulties across LICs. The share of LICs that face higher debt vulnerabilities is significant but has not increased with the crisis. Addressing the situation of countries with higher debt vulnerabilities will require sustained efforts from both debtors and their donors/creditors. In this regard, increasing the volume and quality of aid and improving its terms are important, and more generally in helping LICs mitigate the impact from the financial crisis.

Participants List 
Herve Joly Presentation 


11:00 – 12:30
MC C1 – 100


A Recovery with a Human Face

Sponsor: UNICEF

Speakers: Sir Richard Jolly (University of Sussex UK), Isabel Ortiz
(Associate Director UNICEF), Nuria Molina (Director EURODAD)

Children and poor households are being hard hit by the accumulative effects of economic shocks. Governments face increased social demands, but decreasing fiscal resources to address them. Achievement of the MDGs and other internationally-agreed development goals is at stake. Further, there is a need to guard against premature fiscal tightening or exit from stimulus, and watch out for a post-crisis adjustment scenario. In the 1980s, UNICEF work on Adjustment with a Human Face was a world-recognized milestone that helped to ensure that children and their families were not treated as collateral damage, but as recipients of necessary and adequate development investments. The same arguments remain valid in current times: Recovery with a Human Face is an urgent priority.


12:30 – 2:00
H Auditorium
(600 – 19th St.
Basement Level 1)

Unveiling of BIC’s Energy Strategy

Sponsor: Bank Information Center (BIC)

Speakers: Bishop Geoff Davies (Anglican Church), Dr. Amory Lovins (Rocky Mountain Institute), Ikal Angelei (Friends of Lake Turkana), Athena Ballesteros (Bank Information Center), Representative of the Government of Mali (TBC)

In the aftermath of the approval of a controversial loan to increase coal based power in South Africa and alongside the consideration of a General Capital Increase, the World Bank is reviewing its strategy for investment in the energy sector. After extensive discussion with civil society leaders and energy experts, Bank Information Center has created a model for what the Bank’s eventual policy should look like. Central to the conception of this model was the recognition that providing energy access for the poor and combating climate change does not need to be a zero sum game. Panel members will discuss how the model policy achieves these goals, the experiences of the poor with dirty energy, the type of projects that the World Bank should be investing in, and some problematic projects that show how the current policy has failed.

  • Interpretation to be Provided in English, French, Spanish, Arabic

Participants List 


2:00 – 3:30
MC C1 - 200

Financial Services in the WTO: A Threat to Financial Stability?

Sponsor: International Working Group on Trade-Finance Linkages

Speakers: Todd Tucker (Public Citizen), Kevin Gallagher (Boston University)

The Great Recession has seen unprecedented bank bailouts and new interest in policy tools to stabilize capital and trade flows. While IMF policies allow certain policy space to conduct such operations ((and the IMF has recently validated the need for many countries to rely on capital controls), WTO rules on financial services have the potential to be much more restrictive. Moreover, WTO cases brought against financial sector policies could result in cross-retaliation on sectors of the real economy.

This panel will explore the WTO disciplines that restrict financial stability policies, and the steps that governments and civil society groups are taking to fix them.

Participants List 
Todd Tucker Presentation 


2:00 – 4:00
H Auditorium
(600 – 19th St.
Basement Level 1)

Briefing on World Bank’s Access to Information Policy Implementation

Sponsors: Bank Information Center (BIC), Center for Environment and Human Rights (CEDHA), International Budget Project (IBP), AidData Initiative, World Bank (External Affairs, Development Economics Department, World Bank Institute).

Speakers: Amy Ekdawi (Middle East and North Africa Program Manager, BIC), Peter Stephens (Communications Director, EXT), Harika Masud (Program Officer, IBP), Aleem Walji (Manager, Innovation Practice Team, WBI), Dan Nielson (Senior Researcher, AidData), Neil Fantom (Senior Statistician, DEC), Soren Gigler (Senior Governance Specialist, WBI) - CHAIR

In late 2009, the World Bank approved a new Policy on Disclosure of Information, providing unprecedented access for civil society to the documents that shape Bank operations. To translate this policy from theory to reality, the Bank convened the Access to Information Working Group (AIWG) whose 7 sub-groups are setting the needed implementation plans for the policy to become effective in July 2010.

The AIWG has brought civil society to the table for this process, asking three organizations Bank Information Center (BIC), International Budget Partnership (IBP), and Centro de Derechos Humanos y Ambiente (CEDHA) of Argentina to meet regularly with the group and disseminate information to partners. This session will bring the AIWG and civil society representatives together to discuss the progress so far, how citizen participation can affect development, and remaining concerns about the policy.

The session will also highlight the recent launch of the Bank’s Open Data Initiative (, which provides free, open and easy access to statistics and indicators about development as a case study of a first concrete step on the implementation of the new Access to Information Policy. Finally, the session will explore the ‘Apps for Development Challenge’ the Bank will launch later this year.

  •  Interpretation to be Provided in Arabic, English, and French,

Please note that Interpretation services will end 30 minutes before the end of the session.

Participants List 
Presentation 1
Presentation 2  
Summary Notes 


2:00 – 3:30
MC C1 - 100

New Models to Negotiate Sovereign Debt, Options and Opportunities

Sponsors: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Protestant Development Service Germany (EED), Norwegian Church Aid (NCA), Government of Norway

Speakers: Peter Lanzet (EED), Henrik Harboe (Norwegian Foreign Ministry), Yuefen Li (UNCTAD), Collins Magalasi (AFRODAD), Jostein Hole Kobbeltvedt (NCA) – CHAIR

The global financial crisis has hit emerging markets and developing countries with different intensity. While some have managed to weather the crisis relatively unhurt, others have been hit hard. In most countries, however, external sovereign debt has risen substantially, giving rise to a threat of new debt crisis. Unlike previous debt crisis, the profile of creditors tend to be more complex which generate greater problems, and there are no pre-existing debt reduction mechanisms such as HIPC available for countries to tap into. This session will discuss what options are available for countries possibly facing, once again, unsustainable debt burdens, and what lessons can be learned from the strengths and weaknesses of past debt mechanisms such as HIPC and MDRI?

Participants List 
Peter Lanzet Presentation
Nancy Alexzander Presentation   


4:00 - 5:30
MC C1 - 200

Regulating U.S. Commodity Markets or Not: Consequences for Developing Countries

Sponsor: Institute for agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP)

Speakers: Patrick Woodall ( Director of Research, Food and Water Watch), Tyson Slocum (Energy Program Director, Public Citizen), Steve Suppan (Senior Policy Analyst, IATP)

The FAO Food Index Report in December noted that agricultural prices remain vulnerable to price volatility induced by non-agricultural markets. In structurally volatile markets, price risk management tools become too unreliable for commodity users, including developing country agricultural and energy importers. This panel will discuss proposed U.S. regulation and legislation that would reduce volatility and provide greater price predictability for agricultural and energy commodity users.

The session will also review how the “financialization of the commodities markets” (UNCTAD Trade and Development Report 2009) has affected developing country price risk management capacity, whether through direct participation in the futures markets or through forward contracting informed by futures price signals.

Participants List 


4:00 - 5:30
MC C1 - 100

Future of the World Bank: Major Reforms, or a series of Minor Adjustments?

Sponsor: New Rules for Global Finance, G-24 Secretariat

Speakers: Amar Bhattacharya (Director, G-24 Secretariat), Jo Marie Griesgraber (Executive Secretary - New Rules), Carlos Braga (Acting Vice President for Corporate Secretariat), Victor Murinde (Professor of Development Finance, University of Birmingham, UK).

The World Bank is at a critical moment for deciding its future. Decisions can and will be made—overtly, or by attrition—about the World Bank’s future direction. While the focus has been on reform of its governance, this moment also presents an opportunity to create a much larger development funder, or to retain the current size and programs. What are the costs and benefits of these options? What will become of the social and environmental protections many NGOs have struggled for? Whose interests are best served with any changes? Who might suffer? This is a time for serious reflection and possibly for dramatic action. The panel will bring a range of views for your consideration and discussion.

Participants List


Sunday, April 25

10:30 – 12:30
MC C1 - 100

Confronting the New Fiscal Challenges Ahead: Stability and Resilience in Global Financial Market

Sponsor: Researchers Alliance for Development (RAD)

Speakers: Ibrahim Canakci (Undersecretary of the Treasury of Turkey), Carlo Cottarelli (Director of the IMF's Fiscal Affairs Department), Dr. M. Ibrahim Turhan (Deputy Governor, the Central Bank of Turkey), Hassan Y. Aly (Chief Research Economist, The African Development Bank), Faruk Aysan (Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Bogazici University) - CHAIR 

As the problems in the global financial markets unfolded and intensified, governments and central banks have taken several measures to contain the adverse effects of the global financial turmoil on their economies and financial markets. Governments with some measure of ‘fiscal space’ initiated economic stimulus packages including tax cuts, increasing public spending, and purchasing troubled assets to alleviate the pressure on the balance sheets of financial institutions. On the other hand, bailouts have caused budget deficits and public debt to reach unprecedented levels. Countries that accumulated huge amount of foreign debts during the pre-crisis period or governments that were unable to put their house in order by reducing public debt during boom years are in danger of rising risk perceptions.

Fiscal and monetary authorities that failed to restrain assets bubbles or excessive borrowing by households and financial institutions are likely to face meager growth rates in the near future. These problems will be compounded in many developed countries by aging populations and an increase of social security payments. This session will focus on the new fiscal challenges facing most countries, and provide a forum to discuss the fiscal policy option for both developed and developing countries.

Participants List 
Hassan Y. Aly Presentation
Carlo Cottarelli Presentation 
M. Ibrahim Turhan Presentation    


11:00 – 12:30
MC C1 - 200

Boom, Bust and Hard Lessons for Extractive Sector Management: What Oil- and Mineral-Rich Countries Have Learned from the Financial Crisis

Sponsor: Revenue Watch

Speakers: Ernest Aryeetey (Director, Africa Growth Initiative, Brookings Institution), Karin Lissakers (Director, Revenue Watch Institute, and former U.S. Executive Director to IMF Board), Rabah Arezki (IMF Institute), Brian Pinto (Adviser to the Managing Director) - CHAIR

Governments highly dependent on oil and mining revenues are still reeling from the global financial crisis and the commodities price bust that followed. Even though commodity prices began to rebound over the course of 2009, the destabilizing impact in many resource rich countries laid bare weaknesses of policy, structure, and practice in the management of revenues from the volatile extractive sector. This panel will discuss the lessons learned from the crisis, and the steps that actors can take to insulate themselves from future shocks and generate long-term benefits from extraction.

Experts from resource rich countries will discuss the strategies employed during the crisis, and analysts will unveil the results of a new policy paper series examining the impact of the downturn and the tools that have shaped countries’ varying degrees of resilience.

Participants List

Monday, April 26

FL - 101
F Building
(2121 Penn. Av.)

World Bank Group Palm Oil Strategy Development Consultation with CSOs

Sponsor: IFC

The World Bank Group has started the consultative phase of the Palm Oil Strategy development process to seek multiple stakeholders’ input into developing a framework and a set of principles to guide World Bank Group’s future engagement in the palm oil sector. For more information on the palm oil strategy development process please visit a dedicated web site:

This is a first consultative workshop in a series of meetings planned in East Asia, Western Africa, Central America and Western Europe with the representatives of civil society organizations. The workshop will be guided and facilitated by an independent team knowledgeable in agriculture and development issues, but who have no direct association with the palm oil sector. The participants registered for the workshop will receive more focused questions to guide the workshop, along with a detailed program. To underpin the consultations, an issues paper is being written by palm oil sector expert Mr. Cheng Hai Teoh. The first draft of the issues paper will be available for distribution to stakeholders prior to initial consultation taking place in Washington, D.C. Mr. Cheng Hai Teoh will present the key findings of the issues paper at the workshop.

Please register for the workshop by sending your name and organization to by April 22.



Tuesday, April 27

8:30 am – 4:00 pm
Eugene Black Auditorium
H Building
600 19th St.

Yes Africa Can: Success Stories From a Dynamic Continent

Moderator: Sebastian Mallaby, Director of the Maurice R. Greenberg Center for Geo-economic Studies and Paul A. Volcker Senior Fellow for International Economics, Council on Foreign Relations

PANEL II: “Perspective on success stories”

Chair: Yifu Lin, Senior Vice President & Chief Economist, Development Economics Group, World Bank

Speakers: Shanta Devarajan, World Bank Group; Alan Gelb, Center for Global Development; John Page, Brookings Institution

PANEL I: “Development successes”

Chair: Obiageli K. Ezekwesili, Vice President, Africa Region, World Bank Group

Speakers: Steve Radelet, Senior Advisor on Development, U.S State Department; Ali Mansoor, Finance Secretary, Mauritius; Sarah Alade, Deputy Governor of Economic Policy, Central Bank of Nigeria; Haroon Bhorat, University of Cape Town; Hassan Aly, African Development Bank


Keynote Speaker: Paul Collier, Oxford University

The economic landscape of Africa has changed dramatically since the mid-1990s, as stagnation has given way to dynamism in a broad swath of African countries. From Mozambique’s impressive growth rate (averaging 8% p.a. for more than a decade) to Mali’s success in exporting mangoes and from M-PESA’s mobile phone-based cash transfers to Rwanda’s gorilla-based tourism, Africa is seeing a dramatic transformation. This favorable trend is spurred by, among other things, stronger leadership, better governance, an improving business climate, innovation, market-based solutions, a more involved citizenry, and an increasing reliance on home-grown solutions. More and more, Africans are driving African development. This forum will address these issues.

To RSVP or call 202 473 7494. For more information visit:

9:00 – 5:30
IMF HQ1 – Events Hall
(700 19th St. NW)

Managing Volatility and Increasing Resilience in LICs

Sponsors: International Monetary Fund, International Growth Centre Conference

Speakers: Paul Collier (Professor, Oxford), Francois Bourguignon (Professor, Paris School), Guillermo Perry (Senior Fellow, Centre for Global Development), Eduardo Borensztein (Regional Economic Advisor, IDB), Benno Ndulu (Governor, Central Bank of Tanzania), Louis Kasekende (Deputy Governor, Central Bank of Uganda).

The IMF and the International Growth Centre (with hubs in LSE and Oxford University) invite you to a one-day conference that will bring together leading academics, researchers, interested IMF and World Bank staff, CSOs, and think tanks, to examine policy options to mitigate and manage risks associated with economic volatility and crises in low-income countries (LICs).

Additional information can be accessed using the following links:

CSOs and the general public encouraged to RSVP as early as possible but before April 25 to: NMWASE@IMF.ORG.



Last updated: 2010-05-26

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