Bioenergy Development: Issues and Impacts for Poverty and Natural Resource Management
This brief is based on the report Bioenergy Development: Issues and Impacts for Poverty and Natural Resource Management (forthcoming). The last five to ten years have seen a strong resurgence of interest in bioenergy along with the gradual development of more modern and efficient bioenergy production systems. This has been driven by several factors including instability in oil producing regions, financial market shift of investments in 2007-2008 to commodities and oil, extreme weather events, and surging energy demand from developing countries. Bioenergy developments present both opportunities and challenges for socioeconomic development and the environment and have a number of potential impacts on forests and the rural poor who depend on forests for their livelihoods.
Reduced Emissions and Enhanced Adaptation in Agricultural Landscapes
This brief is based on the key messages of a conference held on January 23, 2009 at the World Bank to review the State of the Art on “Agriculture and Climate Change – Investing now for a Productive and Resilient Future.” It is not the formal position of any one academic institute or organization, but sets out the key issues on:
· Carbon as an integral part of sustainable land, water and biodiversity management in developing country agricultural landscapes and in any post-2012 framework and market mechanisms. Agricultural emissions reductions are already eligible under the Kyoto mechanisms for Annex I (industrialized) countries;
· Agricultural soil carbon measurement, modeling and monitoring capabilities;
· Challenges and opportunities in estimating soil carbon stocks and changes;
· A robust and integrated measurement and monitoring system; and
· Further action steps to ensure objective consideration of agricultural soil carbon in post-2012 climate change solutions.
Sustainable Land Management Sourcebook
The Sustainable Land Management Sourcebook is a resource of good practice information on land and natural resource management issues that will be of operational relevance to practitioners in the tropics and sub-tropics. The Sourcebook covers a comprehensive range of topics on technical issues of land and natural resource management and is presented in a way that will facilitate use by both experts and lay readers. Part I. ‘Sustainable Land Management: Challenges’ identifies the need and scope for SLM and food production in relation to cross-sector issues such as freshwater and forest resources, regional climate and air quality, and interactions with biodiversity conservation and increasingly valuable ecosystem services. Part II. ‘Major Farming Systems: Investment Options and Innovations’ categorizes the diversity of land management systems globally and the strategies for improving household livelihoods in each system type. It presents a range of investment notes that summarize good practice, as well as innovative activity profiles. Part III. ‘Web-based Resources’ identifies easy-to-access Web resources relevant for land and natural resource managers. The Sourcebook is intended to be a ready reference for practitioners, including World Bank stakeholders, clients in borrowing countries, and World Bank project leaders, seeking state- of- the- art information about good land management approaches, innovations for investments, and close monitoring for potential scaling up.
The Forests Sourcebook is a practical guide on how to manage and use the world’s shrinking forests, while reducing the poverty of the millions of people who depend on them. It is divided into two parts. The first part looks at issues that are priorities for the forest sector and addresses the operational aspects of these issues. It covers topics associated with using forests in ways that contribute to poverty reduction, improving forest governance, mainstreaming forest considerations in macro policy dialogue, engaging the private sector, meeting the growing demand for wood, optimizing forest functions at the landscape level, and monitoring sector activities. The second part of the book offers guidance on implementing the World Bank’s Operational Policy on Forests (OP 4.36). It is intended for World Bank clients, task managers, and other stakeholders to better design and implement projects in line with the World Bank’s Forests Strategy.
Climate Change Response Strategies for Agriculture: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century
Agriculture will face significant challenges in the 21st century, largely due to the need to increase global food supply under the declining availability of soil and water resources and increasing threats from climate change. Nonetheless, these challenges also offer opportunities to develop and promote food and livelihood systems that have greater environmental, economic and social resilience to risk. It is clear that success in meeting these challenges will require both the application of current multidisciplinary knowledge, and the development of a range of technical and institutional innovations. This paper identifies possible climate change responses that address agricultural production at the plant, farm, regional and global scales. Critical components required for the strategic assessment of adaptation capacity and anticipatory adaptive planning are identified and examples of adaptive strategies for a number of key agricultural sectors are provided. Adaptation must be fully consistent with agricultural rural development activities that safeguard food security and increase the provision of sustainable ecosystem services, particularly where opportunities for additional financial flows may exist, such as payments for carbon sequestration and ecosystem conservation. We conclude by making interim recommendations on the practical strategies necessary to develop a more resilient and dynamic world agriculture in the 21st century.
Minding the Stock: Bringing Public Policy to Bear on Livestock Sector Development
Driven by population growth, urbanization, and increased income, the demand for animal-source food products in developing countries is rapidly increasing. Livestock, which already constitutes 30 percent of the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the developing world, and about 40 percent of the global agricultural GDP, is one of the fastest-growing subsectors in agriculture. Growing demand presents real opportunities for economic growth and poverty reduction in rural areas. It could directly benefit the one billion poor people who depend on livestock as a source of income and subsistence. Livestock also provides traction for about 50 percent of the world's farmers and is a source of organic fertilizer for most of the world's croplands, converting waste products into inputs in the production of high-value food. For these reasons, the sector has a critical role to play in making agriculture sustainable, in reducing poverty, and in contributing to economic growth. This report presents an analysis of the issues related to market failures in the livestock sector, and an examination of policy and investment options that can be used to overcome them. Its principal intended audience includes policy makers and development practitioners. Much of the analysis will focus on identifying the needs of the public sector as it sets out to redress the imbalance between public and private investment and to begin establishing an enabling environment in which private sector livestock development can take place in a way that is consistent with public health, poverty reduction, and environmental sustainability. While the report focuses on developing countries, much of its treatment pertains to industrialized countries as well, particularly with respect to issues of crosscutting global significance, such as greenhouse gas emissions and emerging highly infectious diseases.
Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook
The Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook provides an up-to-date understanding of gender issues and a rich compilation of good practices and lessons learned to guide practitioners in integrating gender dimensions into agricultural projects and programs. Through case studies and best practices, the Sourcebook addresses today’s development reality which includes, persistent underinvestment in women and agriculture along with gender disparities in knowledge, technology, access to credit, and land. The Sourcebook also calls for strengthening property rights, asset ownership, access to financial services for women, and natural resource management. The target audience includes key actors within international and regional development agencies and national governments. It can also be an important resource to the research community and nongovernmental organizations.