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Issue 7 - March 2012 
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Feature Story

Investing in Landscape Approaches

Integrated "landscape approaches" to sustainable development were a focus of the recent Rio+20 conference in Brazil. Why? Read more on Landscape Approaches 

New ARD Publications

Quick Facts! Why Landscape Approaches are Important

The Journey of Forest Governance

The Partnership between ARD and the Gates Foundation Continues to Grow

Noteworthy and Forthcoming Events

Agriculture and Rural Development at CGIAR

Partnership Websites 

Read this issue as a PDF 


It's all Connected: Landscape Approaches in Sustainable Development

As World Bank Group staff dashed from meeting to meeting at Rio+20 late last month, they were struck by the undeniable connectivity of agriculture, water, forests, and food security.  The bottom line is becoming increasingly clear:  we have to tackle these issues together if we are to have a chance of ensuring adequate resources for future generations. 

To achieve global food security we must preserve the ecosystem services that forests provide.  To sustain our forests we must also think of how we will feed a growing population.   And we can’t grow food without enough water.  End of story.

“Ok,” some might say, “but what does this mean in practice?” 

It means that we must invest in “integrated landscape approaches” to achieve sustainable development.  We all know that to feed our growing population we need to intensify agricultural production.   We need to produce more on less land, and we need to make agriculture more sustainable. 

At the same time, we must become less dependent on resources like water and forests.  We must learn how to cultivate ecosystem services such as water purification, water retention, soil fertility, carbon sequestration, and coastal protection, and farm in ways that will have reduced environmental impact.

A “landscape approach” means taking both a geographical and socio-economic approach to managing the land, water and forest resources that form the foundation – the natural capital – for meeting our goals of food security and inclusive green growth.

By taking into account the inter-actions between these core elements of natural capital and the ecosystem services they produce, rather than considering them in isolation from one another, we are better able to maximize productivity, improve livelihoods, and reduce negative environmental impacts. 

Put more simply:  we can “use natural capital without using it up.”

The good news is that many of the world’s leading experts in these fields are already engaged in how to successfully apply landscape approaches.  They were in Rio to brainstorm and share knowledge at events like the 4th Agriculture and Rural Development Day, and the launch of the Global Partnership for Oceans.  Perhaps most importantly, the agriculture community is coming together to advocate that any decision or vision on sustainable development must articulate the importance of working across entire landscapes to more efficiently address our most vexing development challenges.

The World Bank Group is on the leading edge of this effort.  We are increasingly using landscape approaches to implement strategies that integrate management of land, water, and living resources, and that equitably promote sustainable use and conservation.

Silvo Pastoral

Silvo-pastoral system in Colombia: Integrating livestock, trees and crops
Photo credit: Neil Palmer (CIAT). environment

On Colombian hillsides, the landscape approach is integrating livestock, trees and a range of crops, depending on the slope of the land and the direction of the streams, to increase incomes while conserving the landscape.

In Ethiopia’s Great Rift Valley, the landscape approach has included establishing forest cooperatives that sustainably manage and reforest the surrounding land using Farmer-Managed Natural Forest Regeneration technique, thus addressing deforestation that threatens groundwater reserves that provide 65,000 people with potable water.






The Loess Plateau Watershed rehabilitation project in China has returned the devastated Loess Plateau to sustainable agricultural production, improving the livelihoods of 2.5 million people and securing food supplies in an area where food was scarce in the past.  But don’t just take my word for it.  Several  television documentaries demonstrate the almost unbelievable impact that an integrated approach can have.

China's Loess Plateau before an intergrated landscape approach

China's Loess Plateau after an integrated landscape approach





China's Loess Plateau before and after and integrated landscape approach.
Photo credits: Till Niermann, Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0); Erick Fernandes/World Bank

What is abundantly clear is that considering critical sectors like water, forests, and agriculture in isolation will not help us meet future needs.  We must first collectively visualize how a landscape needs to look and function in order to meet growing demand in a shrinking natural capital base.  Then we must work backward to make sure it happens.

It’s all connected. Read more about Landscape Approaches in Sustainable Development 






ESWs include original analytic effort and provide a foundation for carrying out the policy dialogue with external clients, building country analytic capacity, formulating effective lending programs, or influencing the development community. 
Download all ARD ESW Publications 

Carbon SequestrationIncreasing agricultural productivity, enhancing resilience to climate change, and reducing the emissions from agriculture are triple imperatives that require scaling up of sustainable land management practices that purposefully sequester carbon. Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils describes the productivity and climate benefits of such land management technologies, and improves the knowledge base that informs investment decisions in these technologies.Spacer 
Volatile Food PricesFollowing the recent world food price spikes, there has been increased attention on better understanding the drivers of food prices, their impacts on the poor, and policy response options.  Responding to Higher and More Volatile World Food Prices provides a framework around which analysis of the drivers of food price levels and volatility are derived, with suggested responses to reduce average food price levels and volatility, and to reduce the negative impact of food price shocks on food security.Spacer 
people Pathogens Vol 2People, Pathogens, and Our Planet - Volume 2: The Economics of One Health makes the case for controlling zoonotic diseases (i.e. diseases transmitted between animals and humans). More specifically, the report provides information on the costs and benefits of the One Health approach, which refers to the collaborative efforts of medical, veterinary and environmental professionals to more efficiently and effectively control these diseases.
Hidden HarvestHidden Harvests: The Global Contribution of Capture Fisheries provides a disaggregated profile of the world’s small- and large-scale fisheries and an estimate of their contributions to the gross domestic product, food security, and rural livelihoods. The study is directed at decision makers, the development community, and professionals to uncover the hidden importance of the fisheries sector with a view to increasing its economic and environmental contributions in a sustainable manner.
ABI AfricaAgriculture represents a large share of gross domestic product in most Sub-Saharan African countries, and development of the agribusiness system depends on increases in agricultural productivity and access to services and markets. Three new reports covering Agribusiness Indicators in GhanaEthiopia, and Mozambique benchmark key indicators in six areas, which influence the ease of doing agribusiness in these countries.
Discussion papers raise issues for exploration and debate within the broader development community. They describe ongoing research and/or implementation experiences from the World Bank and draw implications for policy-makers and project teams where appropriate.
Download all ARD discussion papers
FPIsEvaluation of New Fishery Performance Indicators (FPIs): A Case Study of the Blue Swimming Crab Fisheries in Indonesia and Philippines provides an overview of the new Fishery Performance Indicators, which are used for evaluating and comparing the world’s fisheries management systems for their ecological, economic and social sustainability. The report tests the FPIs as an effective evaluation tool by applying them to the blue swimming crab fisheries in Indonesia and the Philippines.Spacer 

Partnership publications are joint collaborations of ARD and other World Bank departments; ARD and partner development organizations; or publications focusing on Agriculture and Rural Development, produced by other World Bank departments.
Download all Partnership Publications

Biosafety RegulationThe Status and Impact of Biosafety Regulation in Developing Economies since Ratification of the Cartagena Protocol explores how the Cartagena protocol and other important drivers have affected the regulation of genetically engineered (GE) crops in developing countries. The paper examines the impact of biosafety regulation on research and development of GE crops and on product approvals, and identifies opportunities to advance biosafety regulation.Spacer 
ARD Notes are four-page briefs addressing one issue. The Notes are made to be accessible for all audiences, including the media, busy policy makers and non-technical specialists. ARD Notes can be a stand-alone document on one issue or a summary of a longer Economic and Sector work document. Download all ARD notes

Scaling up effective agricultural development projects is a necessary component in the fight to reduce global poverty. ARD Joint Notes on “Lessons from Scaling Up” present three case studies that help identify key lessons and recommendations which can offer guidance in this process:

Scaling upRecycling Cassava Waste – Triple Win for Development: A Case Study From Nigeria  explores the innovative features of a cassava waste intervention being implemented in Nigeria.

Value chainsDeveloping Value Chains for Wool – Lessons from Mongolia presents a project which focused on improving the quality of Mongolian wool, strengthening linkages within the entire value chain, and increasing the international competiveness of firms.

Post harvest lossesReducing Postharvest Loss through Mini Cold Storage Technology – Lessons from India presents a project which sought to reduce postharvest vegetable waste and to increase farmer incomes by enabling small farmer access to Mini Cold Storage Units.Spacer 
Gender in Rural KenyaFilling the Data Gap on Gender in Rural Kenya   describes the process of gender-disaggregated data collection that has been employed in Kenya, and presents the lessons learned from the preliminary results of the data analyses. The study concludes that the distinction between a ‘primary farmer’ and a ‘head of household’ proved to be relevant because women in most cases were the primary farmers in their households, but seldom headed their households. Interviewing two individuals in a household further provided critical information on the different opportunities and constraints that men and women face in agriculture.
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Did you know?

….By 2050, there will be more than 9 billion people in the world. Agricultural production must increase by 70% in order to feed the growing population, with little increase in available land and water.
....By 2025, nearly two-thirds of countries will be water-stressed and 2.4 billion people will face absolute water scarcity. About 70% of freshwater use is for agriculture.
....Agriculture accounts for about 14% of global green house gas emissions, and approximately 30% when considering land-use change, such as deforestation driven by agricultural expansion for food, fiber, and fuel.
....Forests cover 25-30% of the earth’s land surface and absorb about 15% of the planet’s GHG emissions. Deforestation has slowed in some countries but net forest loss averages 5 million hectares annually.
....Worldwide, about 18% of cropland is irrigated, producing 40% of all crops and 60% of all cereals. Large parts of the world are already living beyond their means by supporting agriculture based on unsustainable use of groundwater. About 50% of the world’s irrigated agriculture uses groundwater.

The Journey of Forest Governance
Corruption and illegal logging were once impossible to mention in public meetings. Thanks to a series of global efforts, forest governance has come a long way. The most recent step forward is an effort to measure the quality of forest governance, by blending factual and perception-based information gathered through multi-stakeholder consultation, to foster an appetite for reform. The Program on Forests (PROFOR) hosted in ARD has recently published a guide to assist countries on this journey toward improved forest governance. Read more about Assessing and Monitoring Forest Governance: A User’s guide to a diagnostic tool, in a blog by Nalin Kishor, Senior Natural Resources Economist and co-author of the guide.Spacer 
The Partnership between ARD and the Gates Foundation continues to Grow
As major investors in agricultural development, ARD and the Gates Foundation maintain strong linkages in supporting agricultural development, not only through dialogue but through the implementation of projects. Currently, ARD is the recipient of approximately $25 million worth of Gates grants which focus on enhancing data/indicators to foster investment in agriculture and strengthening services for agricultural development. For all three projects - Agribusiness IndicatorsLivestock Data Innovation in Africa, and the Agriculture Finance Support Facility (AgriFin) - the priority focus is Africa.


AgriFin announced its first annual conference, “Financing Agriculture Forum 2012,” near Kampala, Uganda, from March 28 to 30, 2012. The Forum, focusing on major market segments and products in Agriculture Finance, brought together 110 participants from 60 organizations and 30 countries, of which 70 were banking professionals from 32 financial institutions. The Forum was co-hosted by Centenary Rural Development Bank (Uganda), an AgriFin partner, and the World Bank’s country office. The event agenda and presentations can be viewed here. Spacer

A group of 27 Bank staff along with staff from the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) visited Western Sumatra in Indonesia from May 6-11 for an immediate, in-the-field appreciation for the challenges of managing forests, trees and agro-forestry systems in complex and dynamic landscapes. The learning exchange entitled: Forests, Trees, Landscapes: Synergies, Trade-offs and Challenges was organized jointly by ARD and CIFOR. The exchange was organized to provide colleagues a better understanding of the main challenges related to enhancing the contribution of forests, trees and agro-forestry within wider rural landscapes to climate change adaptation and mitigation, in ways that ensure effective, efficient and equitable outcomes. Participants also learned about the complex dynamics of reforms which involve multiple national, regional and local institutions, surrounding palm oils and other tree crops. For more information please visit: ARD Homepage,  (for staff), CIFOR.  

On May 31 - 1 June, the Agricultural and Rural Development Department hosted the International Workshop on Investing and Strengthening Agricultural Innovation Systems. The event brought together both external and internal experts to discuss the findings of the AIS Sourcebook, as well as issues of implementation and recent examples of application of the approach to different country and agricultural sector contexts. For presentations from panelists: click here. For the agenda: click here [PDF]. For the list of participants: click here. [PDF] Video recordings and take away messages will be made available soon on the same site.  Spacer

Scaling up Agriculture
Scaling up successful agricultural initiatives is becoming an increasingly more important aspect in the global fight against poverty. Replicating, adapting and expanding effective projects and components which work for agricultural development is vital for implementing effective poverty reduction interventions and attaining the Millennium Development Goals. Recognizing the importance of the scaling up agenda, ARD has recently developed a series of tools and guidelines which can be utilized to help practitioners recognize scaling up potential along the development spectrum - from innovation to best practice. As part of this continued effort to help facilitate scaling up among practitioners, a team from ARD attended a global learning and outreach event on scaling, hosted by IFAD in Rome on June 14-15, 2012. The event featured presentations, discussions and working sessions by several international organizations, including the World Bank, IFAD, FAO, the Brookings Institution and others. Among the features of the discussion was the latest publication (and accompanying videos, notes and case studies) by ARD on scaling up - Lessons from Practice: Assessing Scalability. Read more on Scaling up at ARD 

The Forum for Agriculture Risk Management in Development (FARMD), managed by ARMT, is preparing for its second annual conference: Risk & Rice in Asia, to be held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam on October 17-18, 2012.
The two day conference will bring together individuals and institutions from across Asia, and the rest of the world, who are active in the rice sector to focus on the range of risks facing Asia’s rice industry and discuss the opportunities and challenges for implementing improved risk management strategies. Work is underway to finalize the conference agenda and select leading industry participants to act as presenters, panelists and contributors. Registration will go live within the next two weeks and we expect to share a draft agenda and tentative list of speakers and presenters within the next few weeks. Further information can be found at the FARMD website.

Find out more about ARD highlights and events by visiting the ARD Website.

Agriculture and Rural Development at CGIAR

Tapping the Potential of Agriculture to tackle Malnutrition and Poor Health
On June 5, the CGIAR Fund Office hosted the presentation “Leveraging Agriculture to Enhance Nutrition and Health: Research for Development” as part of its new BBL Seminar Series. Drawing on research in four key areas—value chains, biofortified crops, control of agriculture-associated diseases, and integrated agriculture, nutrition and health programs and policies—John McDermott, director of the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health, led a panel discussion on how development projects can benefit from research at both the conceptualization and implementation stages. Panelists also discussed how improving collaboration between researchers, policymakers, and development practitioners is critical to ensuring that research outcomes are relevant and timely and ultimately lead to results on the ground.

CGIAR at Rio+20

“Agricultural research is essential to substantially increasing agricultural output and feeding the world’s growing population without damaging the environment, especially as threats to food security intensify under climate change, land degradation, and water scarcity,” said Jonathan Wadsworth, Executive Secretary of the CGIAR Fund Council, speaking in Rio during Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD), which brought together more than 600 global experts to highlight the vital role of agriculture in sustainable development. CGIAR’s comprehensive research portfolio was specifically developed to tackle major global development challenges for the benefit of the poor and the planet.

In advance of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development, the CGIAR issued a Call-to-Action at Rio+20, [PDF] outlining a seven-point plan for how agricultural research for development can contribute to a more sustainable, food-secure future. The plans calls for a focus on the entire agricultural landscape as an integrated system, harmonizing food security and environmental sustainability through agricultural R&D, and increasing investment in agricultural research to increase productivity while safeguarding critical natural resources.
CGIAR Appointment
On May 29, Frank Rijsberman became the new CEO of the CGIAR Consortium.
These are online platforms dedicated to themes and topics related to ARD work. These are supported by ARD’s partnership with other organizations.


ARD’s next Newsletter will be available September 2012

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