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Public-Private Partnerships in Education - Publications


Impact Evaluation of Private Sector Participation in Education (pdf, 564 KB)
Harry Patrinos and Laura Lewis. 2012
from the Foreword by Elizabeth King, Education Director, World Bank:
"This paper is hugely important because it recognizes the role that the private sector can play, not only as a provider of auxiliary services in school systems, such as transportation for students or school meals, but also as a provider of core learning services alongside state schools.... The paper is also important because it illustrates how impact evaluation methods can be applied to private provision in order to provide the kind of rigorous evidence that could be useful for program design and policy choices, and it summarizes the findings of key
examples of impact evaluation."

Emerging Evidence on Vouchers and Faith-Based Providers in Education: Case Studies from Africa, Latin America, and Asia (pdf, 1MB)
Felipe Barrera-Osorio, Harry Patrinos Anthony, and Quentin Wodon. 2009
The case studies in this book provide useful information on the characteristics of students and the performance of various types of schools that benefit from public-private partnerships. While these case studies are empirically grounded, their results are not necessarily of universal application, because context also matters. The authors are careful to point out that while one of the case studies is based on an experiment, the other case studies use instruments or matching methods that have their limitations.

The Role and Impact of Public-Private Partnerships in Education (pdf, 1.2MB)
Harry Anthony Patrinos, Felipe Barrera-Osorio and Juliana Guaqueta. 2009
This study presents a conceptualization of the issues related to Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in education, a detailed review of studies with rigorous evaluations, and guidelines on how to create successful PPPs. The report shows how PPPs can facilitate service delivery and lead to additional financing for the education sector as well as expanding equitable access and improving learning outcomes.

The Evolving Regulatory Context for Private Education in Emerging Economies (pdf, 553KB)
John Fielden and Norman LaRocque
The authors of this publication have drawn upon international examples of requlatory policies for private providers and have set out a series of 'propositions for good practice' for national policy makers to consider as they address the 'evolving regulatory context'.

Mobilizing the Private Sector for Public Education : A View from the Trenches (pdf, 1.2MB)
Harry Anthony Patrinos and Shobhana Sosale. 2007
This book explores the burgeoning number of public-private partnerships in public education in different parts of the world. The partnerships differ in form and structure, in the extent of public and private participation, and in the forms of their engagement. The essays in this book are written mainly from the provider's perspective and offer valuable insights into the purpose, trend, and impact of public-private partnerships, and an understanding of the barriers they face.

Background papers prepared for the International Seminar on the Empirical Evidence of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in Education. June 7-8, 2007

Enhancing Accountability in Schools: What Can Choice and Contracting Contribute (pdf, 2.9MB)
Harry Anthony Patrinos and Norman LaRocque. 2007
Governments around the world, particularly those in developing countries, face significant educational challenges. Today, about 77 million children from the developing world are not enrolled in school and most children who complete school find they are not sufficiently prepared for the world of work. A number of governments have responded to the twin challenges of getting and keeping more children enrolled in school, while simultaneously ensuring that learning outcomes improve, by introducing policies that emphasize choice, managerial autonomy and accountability for results.

Public-Private Partnerships: Contracting Education in Latin America (pdf, 175KB)
Harry Anthony Patrinos. 2006
While there are different types of PPPs, or contracting arrangements, in education, few have been subject to rigorous evaluation. In the case of Latin America, the only innovative PPP experience with a randomized experiment is the case of secondary school vouchers in Colombia. Still, the review of experiences is instructive. In Latin America, the private sector has been shown to run schools efficiently and educate disadvantaged youth. The evidence is especially strong for Colombia’s targeted vouchers and privately managed public schools. While some countries in Latin America have a long history of contracts between government and the private sector, there is a real scarcity of rigorous evidence of impact.

Papers presented at A PEPG - World bank Conference on Mobilizing the Private Sector for Public Education are available at 2005

Private sector involvement in education : a review of World Bank activities in East Asia and Pacific, 1996-2002
The purpose of the study is to review the lending activities, and Analytical and Advisory Activities (AAAs) in the East Asia and Pacific Human Development Sector Unit (EASHD) since 1996, including Economic and Sector Work (ESW) and Public Expenditure Reviews (PERs) in order to: a) Document how the private sector developed; b) Assess whether the way it has evolved led to policy options in the case of non-lending services; and, in the case of lending operations whether interventions if any, have worked; c) Assess potential future opportunities where educational outcomes could be further enhanced by an explicit engagement with the private sector. Examples might include public-private partnerships, school choice/vouchers, capitation funding in the case of public support of private providers, student loans, regulatory and legal reforms, contracting, etc.; d) Discuss the appropriate roles of the public and private sectors, distinguishing between finance and provision.

Handbook on Public Private Partnerships
This Handbook was created as a guide to facilitate Public Private Partnerships in Education. It contains case studies, models and Handbook Table of Contents and Introduction - (HandbookTOC) PPP Handbook Part One (Handbook1) PPP Handbook Part Two (Handbook2)

Investing in Private Education in Developing Countries (pdf, 49KB)
IFC. 1999.
Also available in French and Spanish.

The Business of Education: A look at Kenya (pdf, 97KB)
Yannis Karamokolias and Jacob Van Lutsenburg Maas.
This case study surveys the educational services provided by the private sector in Kenya, identifies the major issues and discusses a possible role for the World Bank Group, especially IFC.
The demand for all types of education at all levels has greatly outpaced the capacity of the public school system. This has allowed “edupreneurs” to provide academic and vocational education, catering to many socioeconomic segments of the population. Although enrollment in private schools has been increasing rapidly, the supply-demand gap continues to grow. Many private schools wish to expand, but faced prohibitive constraints, primarily related to scarcity of financial resources and inadequate management skills. Development institutions, including IFC, can help alleviate these
constraints, provided that they are ready to comprehensively address the particular issues faced by private educational institutions.

Trends in Private Sector Development in World Bank Education Projects
Shobhana Sosale. 1999.
Emerging trends in education show that the private sector is playing an increasingly important role in financing and providing educational services in many countries. Private sector development in education has not arisen primarily through public policy design though it has, of course, been affected by the designs and limitations of public policy. This paper traces trends in private sector development in World Bank education projects. In this paper, 11 out of a total of 70 World Bank education projects during the period 1995-97 have been studied to trace the trends. The 11 country examples reveal that the Bank’s interest in private sector development is fundamentally in capacity-oriented privatization to address excess demand for education. World Bank lending for private sector development in education does not vary widely from the Bank’s overall strategy for education lending: promoting access with equity, focusing on efficiency in resource allocation, promoting quality and supporting capacity building. The Bank’s focus on private sector development in education emphasizes increasing private sector access to public funding and opportunities for capacitybuilding,
especially teacher training for primary and secondary levels, and overall institutional capacity building
at tertiary and vocational levels. The underlying principle being that strengthening the private sector’s role over time at the non-compulsory levels of education will release public resources to be utilized at the compulsory, primary level. The 11 country examples help to demonstrate that the role of the private sector in education is emerging as a large force that governments, donors, and other technical assistance agencies cannot ignore.

Private Education in West Africa: The Technological Imperative (pdf, 185KB)
Ayesha Yaqub Vawda and Harry Anthony Patrinos. 1999.
The paper considers the growth of private education in four West African countries: Mauritania, The Gambia, Côte d’Ivoire and Senegal. All four countries are undertaking measures to improve educational outcomes by including the private sector (for- and non-profit, as well as community, mission and NGO schools). The education market in each country is analyzed and the development of the private sector is assessed. Government policy is reviewed and the prospects for future growth are discussed. Information from the World Bank Group initiative to facilitate education investment information, EdInvest, will be used to discuss demand for and efforts by educational institutions to maintain access to new technologies and encourage wider ownership and partnerships in information technology. A discussion of the EdInvest program will shed light on the role of external finance in strengthening science and technology capacity and shared ownership of technologies. These developments are placed within the context of the World Bank Group's new initiative on the global education market.

Education With and Without the State (pdf, 156KB)
Edwin West
Since today's prosperous nations were once "developing" countries, it is useful to compare their historical circumstance with those of current developing countries. The characteristics of education in 19th century Britain (then a developing country) turn out to be remarkably similar to those now reported for countries such as Belize, Mauritius and Chile. First, the growth of education is associated with increases in per capita income; second, parents voluntarily spend more (directly from their own pockets) on education as their incomes rise; third, the growth of education combats the Malthusian specter of overpopulation. These findings appear to be independent of education being with or without the state.

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