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School to Work Transition - Publications


More and Better Jobs in South Asia 
Reema Nayar, Pablo Gottret, Pradeep Mitra, Gordon Betcherman, Yue Man Lee, Indhira Santos, Mahesh Dahal, and Maheshwor Shrestha. 2012

Skills, Not Just Diplomas: Managing Education for Results in Eastern Europe and Central Asia 
Lars Sondergaard, Mamta Murthi, Dina Abu-Ghaida, Christian Bodewig, Jan Rutkowski. 2012

Skills for the 21st Century in Latin America and the Caribbean 
Cristian Aedo, Ian Walke. 2012

Education in a Changing World: Flexibility, Skills, and Employability 
Yidan Wang. 2012

Putting Higher Education to Work: Skills and Research for Growth in East Asia 
Emanuela di Gropello. 2011

Stepping Up Skills for More Jobs and Higher Productivity 
Arup Banerji, Wendy Cunningham, Ariel Fiszbein, Elizabeth King, PHarry atrinos, David Robalino, Jee-Peng Tan. 2010
This report presents a framework - Skills Toward Employment and Productivity (STEP), that provides a simple yet comprehensive way to look at skills development. It brings together research evidence and practical experience from a range of areas-from research on the determinants of early childhood development and learning outcomes, to policy experience with the reform of vocational and technical education systems and labor markets-and provides a set of powerful messages to policymakers, researchers, and practitioners.

Linking Education Policy to Labor Market Outcomes (pdf, 463KB)
Tazeen Fasih. 2008
This study indicates that in addition to early investments in cognitive and noncognitive skills--which produce a high return and lower the cost of later educational investment by making learning at later ages more efficient--quality, efficiency, and linkages to the broader macro-economic context also matter.

Education, Skills, and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Ghana (pdf, 492KB)
Geeta Kingdon, Mans Soderbom. 2008
This paper investigates the education-earnings relationship in Ghana, drawing on the Ghana
Living Standards Survey for 1998–99. The analysis has three main goals: to examine the labor
market returns to education among wage-employed, self-employed, and agricultural workers; to
examine the labor market returns to literacy and numeracy skills for these categories of workers;
and to analyze the pattern of returns to education along the earnings distribution. It also investigates
the shape of the education-earnings relationship.

Education, Skills, and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Pakistan (pdf, 599KB)
Geeta Kingdon, Mans Soderbom. 2008
This paper investigates the education-earnings relationship in Pakistan, drawing on the Pakistan
Integrated Household Surveys 1998–99 and 2001–02. The analysis has three main goals: to examine
the labor market returns to education among waged, self-employed, and agricultural workers;
to examine the labor market returns to the literacy and numeracy skills for these categories
of workers; and to analyze the pattern of returns to education along the earnings distribution.
The shape of the education-earnings relationship is also investigated. Finally, the paper examines how key results have changed between the 1998–99 and 2001–02 surveys.

Youth in Africa’s Labor Market (pdf, 2.6MB)
Marito Garcia and Jean Fares, Editors
This report examines the challenges Africa’s youth face in their transition to working life and proposes policies for meeting these challenges. It presents evidence from case studies of 4 countries—Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Uganda—and from household data on 13 countries. The four case studies include a stocktaking of existing policies and programs to address youth employment and labor markets.

Skills Development in India: the Vocational Education and Training System
World Bank Working Paper. 2008
This paper stresses that despite the fact that India is a fast developing economy difficulties have led the Government to conclude that far more needs to be done to engender more employment opportunities for the majority of Indians, to enable them to participate in the benefits of growth and to contribute to that growth.

The Knowledge Economy and Education and Training in South Asia 
Michelle Riboud, Yevgineya Savchenko, and Hong Tan. 2007
How education and training systems respond to the sweeping changes brought about by globalization and the knowledge economy can have far-reaching implications for developing countries in terms of sustainability of growth, competitiveness, job creation, and poverty reduction. This issue is especially pertinent to the countries of South Asia, which are currently growing at a rapid pace and are gradually becoming more integrated into the world economy. This regional study is a first attempt to address these questions. Its main objective is to document and compare trends in education and training in the countries of South Asia, as well as the associated changes in earnings and employment. It draws upon household, labor force, and firm-level surveys from 1990 to the most recent year available. The analysis focuses on Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (countries with well-developed surveys), with some references to Bhutan, the Maldives, and Nepal, along with comparisons with countries in East Asia and with other regions.

School and Work: Does the Eastern Caribbean Education System Adequately Prepare Youth for the Global Economy
World Bank Working Paper. 2007
This report is organized into six chapters. After this brief introduction, the second chapter makes the argument for why skills matter to the OECS countries. The subsequent three chapters emphasize how education (school) is intrinsically linked to the labor market, both in providing initial preparation and training and in updating workers' skills throughout adulthood. Thus, the third chapter discusses how adequately the schools in the OECS prepare youth for the labor market. The fourth chapter focuses on the transition from the education system to the labor market. The fifth chapter analyzes the opportunities for workers to continue learning while in the labor force. The final chapter summarizes the main policy recommendations for improving education and training in the OECS.

World Development Report 2007: Development and the Next Generation
The WDR 2007discusses priorities for government action across five youth transitions that shape young people's human capital: learning, working, staying healthy, forming families, and exercising citizenship.

The Role of Youth Skills Development in the Transition to Work: A Global Review
Arvil Van Adams. 2007
The focus of this paper is on the schools' influence on the transition of youths to adulthood. Similarly, it brings attention to labor market policies and programs that have an impact on the youth's access to jobs and their further preparation for the world of work.

Vocational Education in the New EU Member States: Enhancing Labor Market Outcomes and Fiscal Efficacy
Mary Canning, Martin Godfrey, Dorota Holzer-Zelazewska. 2007
This report explores the fiscal aspects of vocational education reform in the context of secondary education as a whole and considers the implications of any changes in the vocational education (VE) system for post-secondary and other modes of skill development.

Meeting the Challenges of Secondary Education in Latin America and East Asia: improving efficiency and resource mobilization
di Gropello, E (eds). 2006
This report seeks to undertake a detailed diagnostic of secondary education in these two regions, understand some of the main constraints to the expansion and improvement of secondary education, and suggest policy options to address these constraints, with a focus on policies that improve the mobilization and use of resources.

Estimating the Returns to Education: Accounting for Heterogeneity in Ability
Patrinos, Harry, Cristobal Ridao-Cano and C. Sakellariou. 2006
Typically estimates of the benefits of education investments show average private rates of return for the average individual. The average may not be useful for policy. An examination of the distribution of the returns across individuals is needed. The few studies that have examined these patterns focus on high-income countries, showing investments to be more profitable at the top of the income distribution. The implication is that investments may increase inequality. Extending the analysis to 16 East Asian and Latin American countries the authors observe mixed evidence in middle-income countries and decreasing returns in low-income countries. Such differences between countries could be due to more job mobility in industrial countries, scarcity of skills, or differential exposure to market forces.

Argentina – Building a Skilled Labor Force for Sustained and Equitable Economic Growth: Education, Training and Labor Markets in Argentina
World Bank Working Paper. 2006
The purpose of the study and of this report is to contribute to the ongoing dialogue in Argentina on how to build skills for achieving more sustained and equitable economic growth. Instead of presenting recommendations for policy action, the goal is to provide analytical information to enrich the ongoing discussions around improving education quality and raising equity in Argentina.

School-to-Work Transition and Youth Inclusion in Georgia
Furo Rosati, Zeynep Ozbil, Diana Marginean. 2006
This paper represents a starting point for more detailed analysis of youth labor market status in Georgia. It analyzes the composition, timing and duration of the school-to-work transition and, based on this analysis, offers policy recommendations to address the challenges of this transition.

Expanding Opportunities and Building Competencies for Young People: A New Agenda for Secondary Education
Ernesto Cuadra and Juan Manuel Moreno. 2005

Caribbean Youth Development – Issues and Policy Directions
World Bank Country Study. 2003
This report examines youth development in the Caribbean today. The objectives of the report are threefold, it aims to 1) identify the risk and protective factor and determinats of youth behaviors and development, 2) demonstrate that the negative behaviors of youth are costly, not only to the youth themselves but to society as a whole, and 3) identifies key intervention points for youth development, taking into account identified risk and protective factors for the Caribbean.

Lifelong Learning in the Global Knowledge Economy: Challenges for Developing Countries
World Bank Publication
Also available in Russian, Spanish

Closing the Gap in Education and Technology (pdf - 16.2MB)
David De Ferranti, Guillermo E. Perry, Indermit Gill, J. Luis Guasch, William F. Maloney, Carolina Sanchez-Paramo, Norgert Schady. 2003
This report focuses not only on the gaps facing Latin America in both education and technology, but especially on the interactions between the two. The central premise of the report is that skills and technology interact in important ways, and this relationship is a fundamental reason for the large observed differences in productivity and incomes across countries. This report argues that skills upgrading technological change, and their interaction are major factors behind total factor productivity growth.

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