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Education and Fragility - Publications


PDF Armed Conflict and Schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan Genocide (pdf, 2.66MB)
Richard Akresh, Damien de Walque. 2008
Civil war, and genocide in particular, are among the most destructive of social phenomena, especially for children of school-going age. In Rwanda school enrollment trends suggest that the school system recovered quickly after 1994, but these numbers do not tell the full story. Two cross-sectional household surveys collected before and after the genocide are used to compare children in the same age group who were and were not exposed to the genocide - and their educational outcomes are substantially different. Children exposed to the genocide experienced a drop in educational achievement of almost one-half year of completed schooling, and are 15 percentage points less likely to complete third or fourth grade. Sustained effort is needed to reinforce educational institutions and offer a "second chance" to those youth most affected by the conflict.

PDF Establishment of a State and Peace-Building Fund (pdf, 1.62MB)
On July 1, 2007, to communicate greater clarity on its overlapping fragility and conflict agendas, the World Bank's conflict prevention and reconstruction unit and its fragile states unit merged into a new unit, the Fragile and Conflict-Affected Countries Group (OPCFC).  At that time, management launched an assessment of the two trust funds that have been financing fragility and conflict work, the Post Conflict Fund (PCF) and the Low-Income Countries Under Stress (LICUS) Implementation Trust Fund (LICUS TF).  Careful consideration of the purposes of and experiences with the two trust funds, and a series of interviews with country teams and other stakeholders, led to a recommendation for a new integrated fund, the State- and Peace-building Fund (SPF). On December 18, 2007, the PCF/LICUS Trust Fund Committee endorsed this recommendation.

PDF Education in Sierra Leone: Present Challenges and Future Opportunities (pdf, 1.5MB)
The purpose of this report is to provide an analysis of the education sector that enables a shared understanding among stakeholders, and thus lays a foundation for the preparation of an Education Sector Plan. With this objective in mind, the study outlines the current status of the education sector and highlights issues that policy makers need to address to move the sector forward. It also simulates a few policy scenarios and their financial implications to facilitate discussions about future feasible, affordable, and sustainable policy options. The coverage of this report -- a stock-taking exercise based on data, studies, reports, and documents available up to the 2004/05 school year -- is limited to key factors, including access, quality, equity, management, and finance, and has an emphasis on basic education.

PDF Engaging Civil Society in Conflict-Affected States: Three African Case Studies (pdf, 440KB)
Civil society organizations (CSOs) play a prominent role in conflict-affected and fragile states. In the absence of capable or credible public institutions due to conflict or weak policy environments, CSOs tend to substitute for public institutions and become primary providers of basic social services. At the same time, the international donor community has increased its involvement in countries affected by conflict and instability, often relying increasingly on CSOs to reach the poor. While the prominent role of CSOs in social service delivery and other development activities is often seen as an interim solution, it may extend for years, even decades. Recognizing that reliance on CSOs is likely to prevail for the foreseeable future in many countries, there is a need to consider how to make CSO engagement more effective and sustainable. The objective of this report is to identify approaches to more effectively engage CSOs in the context of weak public institutions in conflict-affected and fragile states. Key findings are presented from pilots of the Civil Society Assessment Tool (CSAT) in Angola, Guinea Bissau, and Togo. The pilots were carried out from January 2004 to February 2005.

PDF Reshaping the Future: Education and Post Conflict Reconstruction (pdf, 1.89MB)
Peter Buckland. 2005
The aim of this volume is to draw international attention to the key role that education can play in both preventing conflict and in reconstructing post-conflict societies. The author also hopes to alert developing countries and donors alike to the devastating consequences of conflict on a country's education systems and outcomes, as well to emphasize the importance of maximizing the opportunities to reform education systems presented by a reconstruction setting, adopting a long-term development perspective, and emphasizing equity and quality in the delivery of education services. Every education system has the potential to exacerbate the conditions that contribute to violent conflict. Based on this notion, the author argues that education warrants high priority in both humanitarian response and post-conflict reconstruction. The central message of this book is that education plays key role in both conflict prevention and in the reconstruction of post-conflict societies. It highlights significant findings on education and post-conflict reconstruction drawn from thorough research and literature review, a survey and database of key indicators for 52 conflict-affected countries, and a review of 12 country studies.

PDF Parallel Worlds: Rebuilding the Education System in Kosovo
Marc Sommers and Peter Buckland. 2004

PDF Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy (pdf, 17MB)
Paul Collier, Elliott, V. L. Elliott, Havard Hegre, Anke Hoeffler, Marta Reynal-Querol, Nicholas Sambanis. 2003
Civil war conflict is a core development issue. The existence of civil war can dramatically slow a country's development process, especially in low-income countries, which are more vulnerable to civil war conflict. When development succeeds, countries become safer; when development fails, countries experience greater risk of being caught in a conflict trap. Ultimately, civil war is a failure of development. This book identifies the dire consequences that civil war has on the development process and offers three main findings: (i) civil wars have adverse ripple effects, which are often not taken into account by those determine when to start or end a war; (ii) some countries are more likely than others to experience civil war conflict and therefore the risks of civil war differ considerable according to a country's characteristics including its economic stability. Finally, this book explores viable international measures that can be taken to reduce the global incidence of civil war and propose a practical agenda for action.
Also available in Spanish

PDF Children, Education and War: Reaching Education for All (EFA) Objectives in Countries Affected by Conflict (pdf, 3.36MB)
Marc Sommers. 2002
Conflict's path of devastation and chaos has dramatically slowed the ability of war-torn countries to reach the Education for All (EFA) goals adopted in Dakar in April 2000. This paper sketches the situation confronting children, their families and governments in conflict countries and describes the challenges of reaching universal primary education. Far more could be done to support education in countries suffering from conflict. The most logical starting point lies in supporting emergency education where it exists and dramatically expanding access to education where it doesn't. Yet, most primary-school-age children in war-affected areas are not in school and have no realistic hope of enrolling in one. In addition, education for and efforts to engage with youths, remain limited. This creates a volatile and dangerous situation. Youth programming, when it does exist, is usually poorly supported, and may not offer much hope in terms of opening employment and income opportunities. It generally faces stiff competition from aggressive military or criminal operatives who recruit (or abduct) children and youths into their militia or gangs, promising rich and immediate rewards. More than any other circumstance, war makes the case for providing appropriate educational responses to the needs of children and youth at risk, and exposes the dangers of neglect.