Definitions of Fragility and criteria for identification of Fragile situations cover a wide range of contexts ranging from deteriorating states to countries in prolonged political crisis to those emerging from conflict but still vulnerable. The Bank criteria currently identify as fragile 47 countries, of which 27 are “Core” Fragile States with a with a Country Policy and Institutional Performance Assessment (CPIA) score of 3.0 or lower and 10 countries as “Marginal” Fragile States with a CPIA scores between 3.0 and 3.25. Also included are 3 countries with no CPIA available, 2 territories and another 11 ‘fragile situations’ designated by the presence of International Peacekeeping or political missions.
While the fragility and conflict present major challenges to progress towards MDGs, they also present some opportunities for accelerated progress. In the period between 1995 and 2005, for example, fragile states increased primary completion rates faster than non-fragile states: from 40% to 72% in fragile states and 70%-79% in non-fragile IDA states.
Summary of Education and Non-Education Projects in Fragile States
As of April 2009, there are 58 active Bank projects financed in 34 of the 47 fragile and conflict affected countries. The total IBRD/IDA financial commitment for these projects is $3.3 billion out of a total of $8.4 billion for all active projects. To this should be added the commitment for non-education projects with education components (such as social fund programs that finance schools), bringing a total of over $3.5 billion.
Almost 43% of this amount is committed to activities to address issues of access, with over 25% on school construction and rehabilitation. Another one third targets quality related activities such as teacher training, textbooks and curriculum reform. About one quarter of the funds are committed for education management support and project implementation, with the heaviest investment in building policy and management capacity. The chart below summarizes expenditure distribution.
Some Fragile states receive support from the State and Peace-building Fund (SPF). The SPF has funded projects with unique approaches to peace-building in areas such as leadership training, conflict-sensitive education reform, and dialogue and reconciliation programs. These projects focused on vulnerable population groups: youth, children, women, former combatants, refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs).