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Notes on the Data


Background Indicators

This category includes indicators that are directly related to education expenditures such as pupil/teacher ratios, teaching/non-teaching ratios, pupil/classroom ratios, percentages of contract teachers, annual hours of instruction, single/double/triple shift schools, etc.

Data from Charts

In cases where valuable data was included in charts but not in the text, EdStats extracted data from the charts and labeled it as a World Bank EdStats estimate with page reference.

Data Years

When data was presented across two years (e.g. 1996/97), the figure was entered as the second year; When document did not state a year for data, it was included as the most recent data year in the document with a note.

Educational Levels

EdStats did not attempt to make the educational systems internationally comparable. If the country's document defines primary education as grades 1-10 (for example), it was included exactly as stated in the document. Please see the notes on each indicator or refer back to the background documents to determine which grades are included in each educational level.

General Education

Some documents report on "general education" or all pre-tertiary educational levels as an aggregate. This was included under "basic education" with an explanatory note.

Government vs. Central Government

Government Sources includes aggregate government expenditures (in contrast to international expenditures) while Central Government Sources includes only public expenditures on the highest level of government (in contrast to subnational level data).

Overall Aggregates

This category includes indicators that reflect the entire educational system not divided by an educational level.


When data was presented as a range, the lower figure of the range was included with the entire range stated in the notes.

Repetition/Drop-out Inefficiency CostTo calculate this indicator, divide the actual cost per student in the current system by the theoretical cost per student in a system with no repetition or dropouts. In most cases, the calculation is explained in the notes.
Repetition/Dropout Inefficiency Annual Resource Input RatioTo calculate this indicator, divide the total number of years of resource inputs necessary to complete the level of education in the current system by the number of years of resource inputs that it theoretically should take. For example, if primary education is 5 years long and it takes 20 years of resource inputs, the ratio is 4. In most cases, the exact calculation is explained in the notes.
Sources of DataAll data in this database is drawn from World Bank public expenditure documents. To view data sources that are not specified, refer to the documents for the selected country.
Wastage Index (%)This indicator is the percentage of total/recurrent expenditures wasted through all forms of inefficiency (dropouts, repetition, corruption, etc).
World Bank EdStats CalculationsEdStats occasionally calculated basic percentages from raw data presented in the documents. For example, if a document listed the total expenditures and recurrent expenditures in local currency, we calculated the % of total expenditures for recurrent expenses. A note was included with all calculations, "World Bank EdStats calculation" with a page number and document year for users' reference.

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