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Discussion Papers

The Discussion Paper Series  explores a wide variety of issues related to implementation of energy sector reform. The Papers are prepared by experts inside and outside the World Bank and their purpose is to encourage discussion and comment within the development community.

little blue triengle Closing the Electricity Supply-Demand Gap (25mb pdf), Energy and Mining Sector Board Discussion Paper No. 20 by Venkataraman Krishnasawamy and Gary Stuggins. The investment needs of the power sector in the developing countries are immense and growing. The recent surge in oil prices will push up the investments costs even higher. In this context, the present study reviews the experience of nine developing countries focusing on the factors that enabled some countries to close the demand-supply gap in the power sector, as well as the factors that inhibited progress in others. Based on the case study approach, the study identifies six key lessons, which should be of interest to those engaged in the electricity business in the developing countries and to the World Bank staff in their attempt to close the widening gap between demand and supply.

little blue triengle Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries: What Have We Learned?  (1.3 MB pdf)Discussion Paper No. 19 by John E. Besant-Jones. September 2006. This paper compiles the lessons of experience from the reforming of power markets of developing countries and transition economies. The paper acts a sourcebook of about 240 references to this documented experience and complements the World Bank’s Operational Guidance Note for Public and Private Roles in the Supply of Electricity Services (OGN; World Bank 2004b) by compiling lessons of this experience that help in applying the Note’s guidance.


little blue triengleElectrification and Regulation: Principles and a Model Law (269k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 18 by Kilian Reiche, Bernard Tenenbaum, and Clemencia Torres de Mästle. July 2006. This paper proposes some general principles for creating regulatory systems that will “help” rather “hurt” electrification, with emphasis on off-grid electrification. A “helpful” regulatory system is based on two “golden rules of regulation”: 1) regulation is a means to an end. What ultimately matters are outcomes - not regulatory rules; and 2) the benefits of regulation must exceed the costs of regulation. The paper's main conclusions is that successful electrification often requires that the traditional functions of regulation must be performed in non-traditional ways.


little blue triengleEnergy Policies and Multitopic Household Surveys: Guidelines for Questionnaire Design in Living Standards Measurement Studies (350k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 17, by Kyran O’Sullivan and Douglas F. Barnes. April  2006. Accurate data on household energy use, combined with other data on household well-being (including consumption, income, health, and education), is essential to monitor progress in the household energy transition from traditional biomass fuels to modern fuels and electricity and to evaluate the effect of government energy policies on living conditions. Multitopic socioeconomic household surveys, such as the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS), can provide data with which to make these measurements. Designers of LSMS and other multitopic household surveys can use these guidelines to help ensure that their surveys provide more extensive and reliable data on household energy use than they do at present.


little blue triengleCentralized Purchasing Arrangements: International Practices and Lessons Learned on Variations to the Single Buyer Model (184k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 16, by Beatriz Arizu, Defne Gencer and Luiz Maurer. March 2006. Developing countries often pose the question of whether or not the Single Buyer is the only remaining alternative to attract private capital when a comprehensive restructuring of their power sectors is not technically feasible or politically desirable. This paper tries to give a fresh perspective and examine how this concept was implemented, what objectives it served, how it changed over time, and what arrangements have been introduced to overcome its drawbacks, while preserving its positive attributes.


little blue triengleWorld Bank Framework for Development of a Power Market in South East Europe (237k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 15, by David Kennedy. March 2006. This paper updates the Bank’s Framework for Development of Regional Energy Trade in South East Europe published in March 2004. It focuses on the power sector where significant reform has been undertaken in the context of the Athens process, and where previous Bank advice has been incorporated in the evolving legal and institutional framework.


little blue triengleLessons from the Independent Private Power Experience in Pakistan (170k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 14, by Julia M. Fraser. May 2005. As part of the World Bank’s ongoing work to identify barriers to increased investment in the power sector in developing countries this paper was produced as a case study on workouts for projects under stress.


little blue triengleWorld Bank Framework for Development of Regional Energy Trade in South East Europe (372k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 12, by David Kennedy and John Besant-Jones. March 2004. This paper draws on the Bank’s experience of energy market liberalization and regional energy markets.


little blue triengleSome Options for Improving the Governance of State-Owned Electricity Utilities (296k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 11, by Timothy Irwin and Chiaki Yamamoto. February 2004. This paper looks at options governments have for improving the performance of state-owned utilities,
short of privatizing them. It focuses, in particular, on improving the relationship between state-owned electricity companies and governments as their owners.


little blue trienglePass Through of Power Purchase Costs. Regulatory Challenges and International Practices (472k pdf).  Discussion Paper No. 10, by Beatriz Arizu, Luiz Maurer, and Bernard Tenenbaum. February 2004. This paper examines the alternatives available to regulators in establishing rules for the pass through of power purchase costs.


little blue triengleForeign Exchange Risk Mitigation for Power and Water Projects in Developing Countries (320k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 9, by Tomoko Matsukawa, Robert Sheppard, and Joseph Wright. December 2003. This paper explains how foreign exchange risk affects power and water infrastructure projects.


little blue triengleThe Delhi Electricity Discom Privatizations: Some Observations and Recommendations for Future Privatizations in India and Elsewhere (284k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 8, by Manish Agarwal, Ian Alexander, and Bernard Tenenbaum. October 2003. This paper takes a close look at the July 2002 privatization of the electricity distribution system in Delhi.


little blue triengleRegulation by Contract: A New Way to Privatize Electricity Distribution? (1130k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 7, by Tonci Bakovic, Bernard Tenenbaum, and Fiona Woolf. May 2003. The specific focus of the paper is on how regulatory contracts can be combined with independent regulatory commissions to promote successful privatization of electricity distribution.


little blue triengleWhat International Investors Look For When Investing In Developing Countries. Results from a Survey of International Investors in the Power Sector (172k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 6, by Ranjit Lamech and Kazim Saeed. May 2003. The paper presents results and analysis of the survey of firms with international equity investments in developing country power sectors.


little blue triengleMitigating Regulatory Risk for Distribution Privatization - The World Bank Partial Risk Guarantee(164k pdf).  Discussion Paper No. 5, by Pankaj Gupta, Ranjit Lamech, Farida Mazhar, and Joseph Wright. November 2002. This paper provides general guidance on how emerging market governments could use the Bank’s Partial Risk Guarantee (PRG), thereby enhancing private investor interest in power distribution in these countries.


little blue triengleTransmission System Operators - Lessons From The Frontlines (124k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 4, by Beatriz Arizu, William H. Dunn Jr., and Bernard Tenenbaum. June 2002. The paper discusses lessons learned about transmission system operators (TSOs) while working on the “frontlines” of power sector reform.


little blue triengleEconomic Development, Climate Change, and Energy Security - The World Bank's Strategic Perspective (220k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 3, by Charles Feinstein. September 2002. This paper is intended as a World Bank Group contribution to the growing discourse on the linkages between poverty reduction, the enhancement of energy security, and efforts to address the increasing threat of global climate change.


little blue triengleGlobal Electric Power Reform, Privatization and Liberalization of the Electric Power Industry in Developing Countries (144k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 2, by R. W. Bacon and J. Besant-Jones. June 2002. This paper reviews the progress of the movement to privatize and liberalize the power sector in  developing countries.


little blue triengleThe California Power Crisis: Lessons for Developing Countries (200k pdf). Discussion Paper No. 1, by John Besant-Jones and Bernard Tenenbaum. April 2001. The paper assesses whether the crisis could have been avoided through better market design and management.

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