Access to environmentally and socially sustainable energy is essential to reduce poverty. Globally, over 1.3 billion people are still without access to electricity. About 3 billion use solid fuels — wood, charcoal, coal, and dung for cooking and heating. To make the leap to universal access to modern energy services by 2030, new capital investment of about $35-40 billion will be needed every year. This is in addition to annual investments of about $450 bn just to sustain energy services at current levels.