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Key Gender Employment Indicators

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The Key Gender Employment Indicators are a set of sex-disaggregated indicators on employment, income and other variables in 27 OECD and middle income countries. They provide detailed data on gender earnings ratios, employment status by gender, percentage of male and female workers in specific industries, effects of parental status on employment by gender, and much more.

Available in a query based data site, the Key Gender Employment Indicators allow users to select countries and indicators to create their own data tables.

The indicators are designed to cater to the need of a wide group of users, such as researchers, students, policy makers and government officials. The indicators are easily accessible, exportable and do not require knowledge of any software to use them. Read more.

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What do these data tell us? Some examples ...


The gender earnings ratio

gender earnings ratio 

Everywhere women earn less per year than do men. Among the countries included in the database, only in Slovenia is the gender earnings gap very small, although it is still positive. In Italy and Taiwan, women earn half of what men earn. In most countries, the earnings ratio is between 0.60 and 0.75. The ratios depicted in the bar chart refer to annual earnings that are not adjusted for individual characteristics or for hours worked. Many studies, however, have concluded that gender earnings gaps persist in nearly every country, even after worker and job characteristics are taken into account.

The gender earnings ratio, by parenting status
Gender earnings ration by parenting status

The gender earnings gap is larger among women with very young children (younger than six years old) than it is among women with no children at home. Only in Greece is the gender earnings gap smaller among the mothers of young children. There is definitely an age effect at play; mothers of children younger than age six are young women. But they are also more likely to reduce their hours of work; moreover, part-time jobs tend to pay lower hourly wages. As a result, the "mommy earnings penalty" is large and possibly greater than the gender penalty in earnings.

Employment rates of men and women in a partnership (%). The effect of having children


In all countries included in this comparison, married women report lower employment rates than married men, irrespective of parenting status. Moreover, the effect of having children on the likelihood of being employed is generally very large for women. Married women with children, in nearly every country, have lower (often much lower) employment rates than married women who are childless. Among men, the effect of having children is small; in most cases, among married men, being a parent is associated with a higher employment rate.

Youth employment

Youth Employment
While youth employment rates vary dramatically across countries, there is little difference by gender within countries. Youth employment rates depend on the timing of the school-to-work transition; they are also driven by macroeconomic conditions (such as labor market institutions and macroeconomic shocks) that tend to affect both men and women. The availability of part-time jobs that allow students to combine formal education and income-generating activities also explains why in many countries youth employment is remarkably high (for example, in the Netherlands).


The indicators have been produced by the Luxemburg Income Study(LIS) in collaboration with the World Bank's Gender and Development Group. These indicators are also available on the LIS web site as ‘Gender Key Figures’. The query based data site is a collaborative effort of the Gender and Development Group, Development Economics Data Group and Human Development Education Group, World Bank.

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