This toolkit provides eleven country profiles for quick reference and comparisons. Information on education differentials, Internet usage, labor-market participation by women inside and outside of ICTs, wage differentials, government policies on ICTs and on gender, sociocultural factors, and a brief conclusion on the highlighted country can be accessed by clicking on the counties maps.
The World Bank's GenderStats website(http://genderstats.worldbank.org/) is an electronic database of gender statistics and indicators distributed by country. Data sources for GenderStats include national statistics, United Nations databases, and World Bank-conducted or funded surveys.
ICT policy does not address gender concerns. Shrinking of the ICT-related labor market has affected women more adversely than men. In spite of a constitutional provision of gender neutrality, realities within the workplace, including the ICT-related sector, are not women-friendly.
Participation of women in the labor market is high in all sectors, including ICTs. National gender policies encourage women's participation but there is no specific mention of gender in the ICT policies.
Women NGOs are concerned about education, gender equality, and violence against women. However, this concern has not yet led to specific policies to promote an increased presence of women in different job levels in the ICT sector.
A women-friendly gender policy is in place, although not explicitly as a part of the ICT policy. Romanian women enjoy high literacy rates and constitute 56 percent of all employees in professional and technical careers, but experience discriminatory treatment in recruitment and wages.
Women in Hungary had a significant presence among University degree holders in 1996, although it was not as marked in ICT-related disciplines. Internet use by women has grown from 37 percent in 1998 to 47 percent in 2002.
Traditionally women have enjoyed high literacy rates, and their participation in the labor market has been considerable. However, with an inadequate telecommunication infrastructure and a lack of consistent government policies, the ICT sector has yet to achieve its full potential.
India's ICT policies have been oriented to the growth of the software sector and have only recently begun to emphasize the role of ICT applications. The telecommunication sector was deregulated in 1994. Internet penetration is still very low and confined to urban areas. Women's employment in ICT-enabled services is 37 percent.
National ICT policies recognize the need to address gender issues. Many NGOs are working toward expanding training facilities for women in the ICT sector. However the net impact on participation of women in the labor market or in education in the ICT sector is limited.
ICT policy has emphasized growth of the ICT sector. The education policy has worked toward extensive computerization in schools. A high percentage of women have university degrees (56.6 percent) and ICT-related degrees (47.6 percent). In 1997 women held 51 percent of jobs in the electronic component sector.
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
There is great emphasis on women's education, and participation in degree courses including ICT-related disciplines is improving. Local sociocultural forces and economic conditions still limit the presence of women in the ICT sector.
Malaysia has adequate infrastructure in telecommunications, increasing capability in ICTs, and a satisfactory level of ICT skills to make productive use of ICTs for networking and for promoting telework. However, the existing level of teleworking is relatively low.
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