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Social Accountability & Demand for Good Governance

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demand for good governance

DFGG Community of Practice

The aim of the DFGG Community of Practice is to increase collaboration and knowledge-sharing on DFGG activities. The Group includes members with diverse expertise and geographic focus, from World Bank staff to members from academia, civil society and donor organizations.
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Overview


QUICK LINKS

Demand for Good Governance, Intranet - World Bank Staff Only

DFGG Resources Database, World Bank Staff Only

Governance & Anticorruption, External Website

Governance & Anticorruption, Intranet - World Bank Staff Only

Social Development in the World Bank, External Website

Community Driven Development, External Website

Local Governance, External Website



WHAT IS DEMAND FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE (DFGG)?

Worldwide there is increasing recognition that citizen involvement is critical for enhancing democratic governance, improving service delivery, and fostering empowerment. "Demand for Good Governance" (DFGG) refers to the ability of citizens, civil society organizations and other non state actors to hold the state accountable and make it responsive to their needs. DFGG encompasses initiatives that focus on citizens as the ultimate stakeholders and include activities relating to - information disclosure, demystification and dissemination; beneficiary/user participation and consultation; complaints handling; and independent and/or participatory monitoring. DFGG aims to strengthen the capacity of NGOs, the media, local communities, and the private sector to hold authorities accountable for better development results. DFGG mechanisms can be initiated and supported by the state, citizens or both but very often they are demand-driven and operate from the bottom-up.


EVOLUTION OF DFGG IN THE WORLD BANK

The concept of accountability has gained increasing importance in the World Bank's discourse in the past two decades. The 1996 "cancer of corruption speech" of former President Jim Wolfensohn was a turning point as it marked the inclusion of government accountability in policy discussions. Analytical studies and frameworks that have been developed since have contributed greatly to advancing the agenda. For example, the 2001 World Development Report and the World Bank's empowerment framework recognized accountability as an integral component of 'empowerment' and hence poverty reduction. Similarly, the 2004 World Development Report: "Making Services Work for the Poor", placed accountability relationships between policy makers, service providers, and clients at the core of development effectiveness. Moreover, the Social Development Strategy released in 2005 recognized accountability of institutions as one of the three key conceptual pillars for empowering poor people. The importance of demand-side of governance interventions was also further developed in the multi-stakeholder engagement guidance note and Governance and Anti-Corruption Strategy. These important benchmarks paved the way for translating accountability into specific Bank policies and practices.

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DFGG in Bank Operations

The WBG's work on DFGG can be broadly classified into five distinct areas: (a) country level, (b) sector level, (c) project/operational level, (d) direct support to Social Intermediaries (SIs) and Independent Accountability Institutions (IAIs), and (e) knowledge and learning.

At the country level, the Bank has promoted DFGG measures in country assistance strategies (CAS). Two recent Bangladesh CASs (FY06-09, FY11-14), for example, support a variety of DFGG activities including an enlarged space for civil society operation, basic media freedom, increased public access to information and women's economic empowerment. Also, certain measures in CASs have helped assess and support the enabling environment for civic engagement such as special civil society assessments and studies.

At the sector level, the Bank has promoted civil society and DFGG engagement in sector strategies that emphasize integrating TAP (transparency, accountability, participation) mechanisms. The Human Development, Urban, Environment, and Information Communication Technology (ICT) sectors for instance include explicit references to DFGG to improve development results and manage risks. Moreover, several global Bank initiatives (e.g. Extractive Industries Transparency EITI), Construction Sector Transparency (CoST), Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) and the Medicines Transparency Alliance (MeTA) emphasize and promote civil society engagement to improve transparency and accountability.

At the project level, DFGG aims at creating systems to ensure that citizens have greater voice and that the project is downwardly accountable to them and responds to their needs. DFGG tools and mechanisms such as participatory budgeting, public expenditure tracking, citizen report cards, community scorecards, social audits, citizen charters, and right to information acts provide systematic and direct feedback from citizens and users to policy makers and service providers to help them redesign programs and reallocate resources. DFGG work at the Bank has been most visible at the project/operational level. A benchmarking exercise in 2008 revealed that DFGG mechanisms were included at the project design stage of 43% of randomly sampled Bank projects. Through the Governance Partnership Facility (GPF) Trust Fund , which supports GAC implementation, a variety of DFGG initiatives have also been implemented at both the project and country levels. Since its launch, the GPF has awarded a total of 94 grants totaling USD $64.8 million to fund innovative governance work around the world. Approximately one-third of the 94 grants involve DFGG elements. For example, in Mongolia, the Bank is undertaking intensive outreach to Parliament, including through south-south exchanges, and engaging parliamentarians on a range of policy issues largely related to the mining sector, including the regulatory framework for the mining sector. This led to the successful passing of the 2010 Fiscal Stability Law.

Direct financing of Social Intermediaries (SIs) and Independent Accountability Institutions (IAIs) for DFGG related work appears to have grown over the past decade, even though exact numbers are hard to estimate. This has been supported largely through a range of multi-donor trust funds, which has helped support DFGG/social accountability pilots, as well as capacity-building of DFGG tools. Also, according to a JSDF evaluation study, there are a growing number of programs where the WBG is involved in direct grant relationships with CSOs with approved grant values averaging over $60 million a year between FY08 and FY10. Under its Demand for Good Governance purview, the Social Development Civil Society Fund (CSF) of the Bank directly supports activities of CSOs to support grassroots civil society, empower citizens, and build awareness of social development issues, including DFGG. In FY10, the CSF program received $2.8 million directly from the Bank budget and supported the work of 356 CSOs, serving over 400,000 beneficiaries.

On knowledge and learning, the Bank has produced and disseminated a growing body of tools and knowledge products related to DFGG, including case studies, how-to notes and a series of training and learning events with a specific sector (e.g. Transport, Urban) or tool focus (e.g. grievance redress mechanism). In early 2011, the Bank's DFGG Cluster in the Social Development Department (SDV) launched the one-day DFGG Core Course, which attracted over 70 Bank staff members from a variety of regions and units. The SDV team has also been promoting DFGG knowledge sharing and collaboration through its DFGG Community of Practice Group, which currently includes over 600 Bank and non-Bank members. Efforts at improving the evidence base of DFGG interventions have also been undertaken in partnership with the Development Economics (DEC) Research Group of the Bank.

Resources

The DFGG Resources page offers a variety of materials related to demand-side governance. A collection of guidance notes and toolkits help explain the methodology and demonstrate the variety of available good governance tools that can be used in different contexts. Operational project examples in different regions illustrate how the Bank has applied DFGG elements and tools across the world.
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Disclaimer - The DFGG Team provides these resources for ease of reference and the findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed are entirely those of the authors and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, to its affiliated organizations, or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent.

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Good-Practice, Guidance & How-to Notes A Guidance Note on Bank Multi-Stakeholder Engagement
Abstract | PDF

With the adoption of the Bank's Governance and Anti-Corruption Strategy in 2007, Management in discussion with the Board of Executive Directors sent a clear signal for the Bank to scale-up its engagement with actors outside of the executive. The Bank's work on multi-stakeholder engagement has increasingly become a matter of regular practice and in this light, the guidance in this Note taps into the growing body of good practice and lessons learned in relation to multi-stakeholder engagement.

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Citizens Charters: Enhancing Service Delivery through Accountability
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Citizen Charters are a tool that service providers can use to enhance accountability by publicly and transparently establishing standards in the realm of service delivery. Effective CCs typically share a number of key characteristics including: clear and simple language; realistic and measurable performance standards; a dedicated grievance redress mechanism; and an effective public relations strategy to increase users' awareness about the CC. CCs are important because they simultaneously strengthen both the supply and demand for good governance, thereby reducing opportunities for corruption and enhancing the quality of service delivery.

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Citizen Service Centers: Enhancing Access, Improving Service Delivery, and Reducing Corruption
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Though individual government departments and agencies have historically been tasked with providing government services, consolidating the delivery of these services into a single system can substantially improve efficiency and service quality. Citizen service centers (CSCs) — which provide citizens with access to a variety of national, state, and municipal and/ or private sector services in a single location—represent one way to achieve this objective. The purpose of this note is to introduce task teams to CSCs, present various types of CSCs, and highlight critical CSC design issues through good practice examples. The note also provides a stepwise process for CSC implementation and a checklist for CSC implementers.

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Feedback Matters: Establishing Grievance Redress Mechanisms for Bank-Supported Projects
Abstract | Part 1 - Theory, Part 2 - Practice

Well designed Grievance Redress Mechanisms (GRMs) can provide a variety of benefits such as reduced corruption, improved service delivery and enhanced overall project effectiveness. Effective GRMs are typified by a number of characteristics including: multiple grievance uptake locations and multiple channels for receiving grievances; fixed service standards for grievance resolution; prompt and clear processing guidelines (including reviewing procedures and monitoring systems); and an effective and timely grievance response system to inform complainants of the action taken. Part 1 of the note covers the theory and part 2 the practical aspects of GRMs.

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Good-Practice Note: Governance and Anti-Corruption Innovations in the Da Nang Priority Infrastructure Investment Project, Vietnam
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As Vietnam's fourth largest urban area, Da Nang is expected to grow exponentially in the next two decades. The Da Nang Priority Infrastructure Investment Project which operates in a challenging governance environment has introduced a number of innovative Governance and Anti-Corruption (GAC) interventions through a Governance and Transparency Action Plan (GTAP). The key features and challenges of the Project GTAP are assessed along three dimensions - governance and political economy, fraud and corruption risks in procurement and financial management, and demand side governance (transparency, participation and third party monitoring) which are discussed in this learning note.

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Good-Practice Note: Governance and Anti-Corruption Innovations in the Malawi Social Action Fund Project
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The World Bank supported the three phase Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) Project, which was first approved in 1996. MASAF 3 APL II, which operates in a challenging governance environment has introduced a number of innovative Governance and Anti Corruption (GAC) interventions in the realm of governance and political economy, fraud and corruption risks in procurement and financial management, and demand side governance (transparency, participation and third party monitoring). These challenges and innovations are the focus of this learning note.

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How, When and Why to Use Demand Side Governance Approaches in Bank Projects
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This note offers a process-oriented guide to strengthening demand-side governance approaches in World Bank projects with a step-by-step approach for determining how demand for good governance (DFGG) tools and approaches can be applied to different types of Bank-funded projects. The objective of this note is to help task teams: (1) anticipate demand-side governance considerations early in the project preparation process; (2) identify potential entry points for introducing DFGG tools to address these considerations; (3) provide guidance on selecting DFGG tools which will improve governance, transparency and service delivery; and (4) assist borrowers to introduce DFGG tools in Bank projects, and to measure their impact.

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Rapid Feedback: The Role of Community Score Cards in Ensuring Accountability
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Though they vary in both scope and focus, Community Score Card initiatives are typified by a number of common characteristics including: the use of a simple and low cost implementation framework; promoting community ownership and empowerment; and providing service providers with direct feedback. If designed and used properly, CSCs can help to redefine the relationship between citizens and service providers, ultimately leading to improved responsiveness and accountability in the realm of service delivery.

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Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) and DFGG ICT Days @ The World Bank 2011
Description | Link

ICT Days at the World Bank took place March 28 through March 31, 2011. In total of 22 sessions were offered by illustrating the prevalence and ubiquity of ICTs in the development and knowledge agenda today. The overall theme of the ICT Days @ the World Bank 2011 was "Innovate, Connect and Transform". This annual event brought staff and country clients together in person and virtually to engage in learning, experience sharing, and networking. In the light of ICT for Demand for Good Governance, particular attention should be given to the session Day 3a "Service Delivery and Accountability" and the session Day 4 "e-transform". These sessions provided rich examples and case studies of ICT used today as an enabling factor of good governance and enhanced accountability as well as theoretical platforms to support accountability with ICT.

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SeeClickFix
Description | Link

SeeClickFix is the US based online platform to report on civil matters, such as road pothole, graffiti, and flooding amongst others, to relevant local authorities to fix the issues. This online platform is available through smart phones and citizens can submit their reports with pictures. When a civil problem is reported, each report is given a report number and by tracking this number, anyone can also report their confirmation, such as by a picture of pothole filled and fixed, when the problem is solved.

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FixMyStreet
Description | Link

FixMyStreet is an online platform in the United Kingdom to report road infrastructure related issues. Report submitted, which includes pictures taken by reporters, will then forward to the relevant local councils on behalf of reporters. Reporters then can trace the updates on the issues they have reported via this platform. In March 2011, about 3,430 issues were reported by citizens.

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Volunteer Technology Communities: Open Development
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Year 2010 redefined the role of volunteers during humanitarian emergencies and disaster risk management. Traditionally, civil society organizations -ranging in size from small community organizations to the International Federation of Red Cross - mobilized volunteers to perform a wide range of actions, in order to: manage logistics, provide medical care, and perform community based risk assessments in addition to other forms of direct action. During 2010, a new form of volunteer emerged from the background: the humanitarian technologist. These experts - who are most often technical professionals with deep expertise in geographic information systems, database management, social media, and/or online campaigns - applied their skills to some of the hardest elements of the disaster risk management process. This report provides reviews of seven key Volunteer Technology Communications (VTC) and how they operate in variety of areas to assist in emergency response and disaster risk management.

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OPERATIONAL DFGG EXAMPLES BY REGION
East Asia/Pacific Assessment of Civil Society Contributions to Good Governance in Cambodia
Abstract | PDF

The purpose of the study was to investigate current social accountability practices in Cambodia, identify opportunities, analyze obstacles and their underlying sources, and propose remedies and priority actions. It has been carried out in the context of broader World Bank efforts to support and enhance citizen demand for good governance in Cambodia, including efforts to: (i) promote an enabling environment for social accountability; (ii) help the government to be more responsive and accountable to its citizens; and (iii) strengthen the capacity of citizens and civil society to engage with public authorities and develop mechanisms for more constructive civic engagement.

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Citizen Scorecard in China: Urban Services and Governance
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The study addresses governance challenges in public service delivery in China. It builds on the citizen scorecard survey conducted in five Chinese cities in 2006 to gauge citizens' experience with public services, and demonstrates the usefulness of citizens' feedback for policy development and implementation.

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Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Support Project (ETESP) Grievance Mechanism
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This report outlines the important features and lessons learned from the grievance mechanism established as part of the Asian Development Bank's Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Support Project in Indonesia.

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Empowering the Marginalized: Case Studies of Social Accountability Initiatives in Asia
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Empowering the marginalized reveals the power of demand-side approaches in enhancing governance through the concepts of citizens' voice, accountability, and responsiveness. Thirteen case studies seek to provide lessons on the establishment of social accountability mechanisms and examples include citizen participation in public policy making, participatory budgeting, participatory gender budget formulation and analysis, independent budget analysis, public expenditure tracking, citizen monitoring, social audits, electoral interventions, e-procurement and public advocacy campaigns.

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Indonesia - A Civil Society Budget "Movement"?
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This budget brief focuses on the high level of citizen participation in budget analysis and advocacy in Indonesia. It describes the existence of what the author calls a ‘movement' towards budget involvement by civil society. While a central coordination may be lacking, there is collaboration among the 100+ organizations doing budget work in Indonesia. The brief provides details about how the movement emerged and offers lessons learned for other civil society budget initiatives.

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Stocktaking of the World Bank's Social Accountability initiatives in the Asia and Pacific Region
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For many years, World Bank knowledge and learning pertaining to social accountability stemmed from a handful of pioneering initiatives, such as those on participatory budgeting by the municipality of Porto Alegre, Brazil and others. Given the need for a broader investigation of social accountability approaches and initiatives, a stocktaking exercise was launched in the Asia and Pacific region with the hope of extending the Bank's knowledge base.

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Eastern Europe & Central Asia A New Way of Working: Community Participation in Local Budgeting in Georgia
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This case study describes the Local Budget Monitoring project in Georgia, an NGO initiative which aimed to institutionalize the participation of civil society in local government by implementing budget-monitoring projects in Zugdidi, a municipality in western Georgia comprising more than 30 villages. Project components included capacity building of both local officials and citizens, and publishing budget information in radio programs.

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Citizen Review of Service Delivery and Local Governance in Bosnia and Herzegovina
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In 2006, the World Bank Institute and the Austrian Development Cooperation launched a three-year initiative aimed at strengthening local governance and service delivery in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The initiative focused on improving local government capacity to respond to citizens' demands for improved service delivery and local governance. An in-depth analysis was conducted of citizen perceptions of municipal service delivery and performance. The report describes the context, process, and results of this component.

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Local Governance and Civic Engagement in Rural Russia
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This publication contains the results of the 3-year project ‘Local Governance and Civic Engagement in Rural Russia' sponsored by the World Bank between 2004-2007 and implemented by the Russian branch of the charity Charities Aid Foundation (UK) in 3 regions of Russia. The project contributed to the development of civil society in villages and better cooperation between local government and rural residents, to the creation of the institutional environment, and to improving the quality of life in rural Russia. The project also was part of a pioneering rigid evaluation of the effects of the decentralization reform on the quality of service provision, the level of civic engagement and other characteristics of community dynamics (social capital measurements, relation to media, etc.). The evaluation is based on the randomly selected intervention sites, the presence of a randomly selected control group and a two waves of household and public official surveys. For further information on the project, click here.

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Making Public Finance Public: Subnational Budget Watch in Croatia, Macedonia and Ukraine
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The three case studies presented in this publication explore subnational budgeting in Croatia, Macedonia, and Ukraine. The publication also includes a cross-country synthesis particularly useful to those in universities, civil society organizations, parliaments, and the media who are concerned with improving transparency and accountability in public financial management.

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The Enabling Environment for Social Accountability in Mongolia
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This study builds on important research on the activities of CSOs in Mongolia, recognizing their important role in the country's transition from a centrally governed socialist state to a modern democracy with a free market economy. The study focuses on social accountability and the conditions influencing its success and failure. It presents a number of important findings and offers recommendations for policy, institutional, legal, and regulatory reforms; and for capacity enhancement.

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Latin America & Caribbean A Comparative Analysis of School-based Management in Central America
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This paper provides a comparative analysis of school-based management reforms in four Central American countries - El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. It analyzes the impact of community and school empowerment on the teaching-learning process and assesses the impact of the models on several educational outcomes. Finally, the paper attempts to explain the impact of the reforms by discussing how variations in reform design, country contexts and actors' assets can explain differences and similarities in result.

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Argentina's Cartas Compromiso: Strengthening the Role of Civil Society for more Accountable Public Services
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At the end of 2000, the government of initiated a program of state modernization with the support of the World Bank. This operation featured a key component around results based management systems, specifically the creation of a Citizen Charter Program (CCP). The CCP seeks a new relationship between public service providers and users by promoting a higher degree of responsiveness and transparency to ensure greater quality of services, increased information and better monitoring and evaluation. This case study describes the program, its challenges, and lessons learned.

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Civil Society's Role in the Governance Agenda in Ecuador: Assessing Opportunities and Constraints
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The study in this report builds on research that has been conducted by civil society organizations (CSOs) and donor agencies in Ecuador on the growth and activities of CSOs, recognizing the important role they have in the country's governance and social and economic development. The report presents a number of key findings and offers recommendations for policy, institutional, legal and regulatory reforms, and interventions to enhance stakeholder capacities for social accountability.

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Deterring Corruption and Improving Governance in Road Construction and Maintenance
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This sourcebook is meant as a resource to sector practitioners to assess the extent and risks of corruption in the sector and to improve governance in ways that reduce corruption. The sourcebook's section two provides an overview of governance and corruption, and the framework used to evaluate governance and corruption risks in transport. Section three describes several tools for evaluating governance at the sector level. Additional sections describe how to detect corruption, and improve governance in sector policy and planning (section four); capital works (section five); government engineering and construction units (section six); and public-private partnerships (section seven).

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Managing for Results: Civil Society Monitoring in the Dominican Republic
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This document describes civil society initiatives put in place to monitor the Dominican government's use of a World Bank "Social Crisis Response Adjustment Loan." A Civil Society Consultative Council (CSCC) was established, comprised of more than 80 CSOs in the country, for the first time creating an institutional link between government and civil society. Additionally, five Dominican NGOs were competitively selected to engage in monitoring of the social programs implemented by the government under SCRAL.

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Middle East & North Africa Better Governance for Development in the Middle East and North Africa : Enhancing Inclusiveness and Accountability
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Virtually all constitutions in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region enshrine the values of human development, and public governance is one of the mechanisms through which the values are secured for the people. The challenge for governments and people throughout the region is to expand the interactions that are smooth and productive and to minimize the ones that are frustrating and wasteful-in a move toward 'good' governance. If public governance is the exercise of authority in the name of the people, good governance is exercising that authority in ways that respect the integrity, rights, and needs of everyone within the state.

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Towards Effective Accountability Systems in the Public Sector: Corruption Report and Public Hearings
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This document describes two anti-corruption focused activities held by the Coalition for Integrity and Accountability (AMAN) during an annual conference in Palestine. The first was to report the findings of AMAN's annual corruption report 2008 which surveys the state of corruption and makes recommendations. Second, the coalition held two public hearing sessions on the water and petroleum sectors during which political leaders and civil society could come together and share perspectives on corruption in these sectors.

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Universities as Key Partners for Developing Good Governance Practices in MENA
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In October 2009, the World Bank, together with the European Investment Bank, the Governments of Egypt, France, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia, and the city of Marseille, launched the Marseille Center for Mediterranean Integration (MCMI). The Center facilitates access to best knowledge and practices and aims to improve cooperation to support development policies geared towards greater integration and convergence in the region. MCMI offers a platform for public and independent institutions from the region to discuss these challenges and among them, that of good governance. This brief note is based on a speech given at one of MCMI's first forays into this area with a focus on the governance of universities and its broader impact on the good governance agenda in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.

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South Asia Afghanistan: Community Participatory Monitoring: Implementation of Pilot System in NSP II
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This is a final report for the Community Participatory Monitoring pilot project initiated between May-September 2008 in Afghanistan. The pilot took place as part of the National Solidarity Program (NSP) of the Afghan Ministry for Rural Rehabilitation and Development. The pilot aimed to: (i), Improve the quality of sub-projects' implementation at the community level (ii), Improve accountability, transparency and better collaboration between Community Development Councils and community members for implementation of community level development projects (iii), Empower communities, specially to enhance women's participation in terms of monitoring, expressing needs and creating new ideas for community level decision making mechanisms and (iv), Improve the performances of NSP stakeholders and to accelerate the implementation process of NSP's interventions at the field level.

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Community Operations Manual: Chapter 10 - Social Accountability (Gemidiriya Community Development and Livelihood Improvement Project, Sri Lanka)
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This Community Operational Manual (COM) was developed on the basis of community experiences and serves as a guide to various institutions, officials, and community professionals associated with the Sri Lanka Community Livelihoods Project (Gemidiriya) project. The manual consists of 14 chapters and serves as a useful reference to learn about Gemidiriya fundamentals, ideals (Golden Rules), concepts and methodology. This excerpt (Chapter 10) focuses on Social Accountability.

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India: Assessing the Impact of Social Accountability Interventions
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Social accountability initiatives are now an established part of the governance agenda in India and accountability tools to hold service providers to account are now institutionalized and implemented by government itself. However, the scale-up and institutionalization of these citizen-driven initiatives present a new set of questions on how to measure their impacts. Quite often, indicators to assess these accountability interventions are too broad and do not capture complex and multi-layered change. The paper illustrates a framework for assessing social accountability interventions, which was developed from the experiences of three accountability interventions introduced in large-scale public programs in India.

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Maharashtra, India: Improving Panchayat Service Delivery through Community Score Cards
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This note summarizes the experiences from a pilot project in which the community score card (CSC) methodology was applied to assess the performance of 14 Gram Panchayats in Satara District in four service sectors, namely Village Panchayat Services, water and sanitation, health, and education. The encouraging results from the pilot have led Satara Zilla Parishad to expand the pilot to 121 villages. This note summarizes the findings, processes, concerns, and lessons learned from the Maharashtra pilot.

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Sub-Saharan Africa Civil Society Coalition Building: The 'Observatoire' in Senegal
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This case study describes the emergence and initiatives of a Senegalese civil society network designed to monitor and strengthen the government's response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The network, called the Observatoire, has conducted research and benchmarking, put forward recommendations, and engaged in targeted advocacy. The case study describes the Observatoire's structure, successes and challenges.

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Demanding Good Governance: A Stocktaking of Social Accountability Initiatives by Civil Society in Anglophone Africa
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This report synthesizes a stocktaking of civil society-initiated social accountability practices in the public budgetary process in 10 Anglophone African countries. Three clear mechanisms for social accountability in the cycle of public expenditure are included as initiatives in the study: independent budget analysis and advocacy; participatory public expenditure tracking; and participatory performance monitoring.

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Governance, Participatory Mechanisms and Structures in Zambia's Health System: An Assessment of the Impact of Health Centre Committees
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Health Centre Committees (HCCs) act as a participatory structure in Zambia to provide a demand-side interface between the health system and the community. This research, implemented by a Zambian research institution, documents HCCs in Zambia and assesses their impact, especially in terms of equity.

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Nigeria's Experience Publishing Budget Allocations: A Practical Tool to Promote Demand for Better Governance
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Since January 2004, the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Finance has taken the initiative to improve transparency at all levels of government, particularly the sub-national level. Every month, it publishes the federal, state, and local government shares of revenue from the country's federal account. This case study describes the program, its impact, challenges, and lessons learned.

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Rwanda Citizen Report and Community Score Cards
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The study on citizen report card (CRC) and community score card (CSC) aimed to gather data and information on a pilot scale regarding how citizens rate the quantity and quality of services delivered in the health and education sectors. This report discusses the methodology used, the findings of the CRC and CSC studies, and policy implications.

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Reports & Papers

Demand for Good Governance in the World Bank: Conceptual Evolution, Frameworks and Activities
Abstract | PDF

This note was prepared by the DFGG cluster of the Social Development Department as a background paper for the Social Development Strategy Mid-cycle Implementation Progress report (MCIPR). The paper highlights the relevance of demand-side governance to Bank operations, DFGG Approaches and Tools, Ongoing activities Across the World Bank, and challenges faced in Operationalizing DFGG work.

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Demand for Good Governance (DFGG) Stocktaking Report: Initiatives Supporting DFGG Across World Bank Group Sectors and Regions
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This stocktaking report was undertaken to identify and collect the breadth of DFGG activities for the World Bank Group as it builds its understanding of the areas where the institution can scale-up these activities. To this end, the report brings together the wealth of existing knowledge and innovative practices currently available to support DFGG, and puts forth a framework for organizing the DFGG efforts across the Bank.

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Local Government Discretion and Accountability: A Diagnostic Framework for Local Governance
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Despite decentralization's promise for more accountable government, results have been mixed at best. The literature on decentralization contains many examples where decentralization has not led to greater accountability. Part of the reason (and the starting point of this paper) is that decentralization reforms have often been introduced without thinking through their accountability implications. Even when accountability is taken into account, the efforts tend to emphasize either the supply or the demand side of the accountability equation, but not both. Building appropriate local governance structures requires bridging the supply and demand side so that local governments can be downwardly accountable to citizens. This paper presents a conceptual framework to better analyze the factors that improve local governance. To view the author's presentation on the topic, click here.

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Scaling Up Social Accountability in World Bank Operations
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After some years of quite extensive piloting, the World Bank is now taking a scaled up approach to social accountability which has received recognition in major corporate and sectoral strategies and is finding growing use in lending and country programs. Lessons from pilots and inclusion in some World Bank projects suggest that social accountability holds considerable promise for achieving better governance and service delivery. However, the Bank needs to pay additional attention to areas such as linking supply and demand sides, upgrading staff skills, improving monitoring and evaluation, increasing the evidence base, and expanding partnerships with a view to creating coalitions of change.

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Social Accountability: An Introduction to the Concept and Emerging Practice
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This paper addresses five fundamental questions: (i) what is social accountability; (ii) why is it important; (iii) what are its core features; (iv) what are the key applications; and (v) what are the factors that underpin its success. The paper also explores the linkages between the concept and other issues such as governance, gender, participation, empowerment and rights.

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Social Accountability in the Public Sector
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The World Bank can apply social accountability approaches in many areas of its work. The paper highlights two such areas: (a) Public sector reform and (b) Decentralization. The paper discusses several examples as to how social accountability approaches have made an impact in these two areas. It also highlights that for the practical application of social accountability mechanisms, a careful understanding of the political, administrative, historical and social context is essential.

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Stimulating the Demand for Good Governance: An Agenda for Enhancing the Role of the World Bank
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This report examines the impact that citizen demand for good governance (DFGG) can have on development effectiveness. It analyzes World Bank and other donor experiences with support for DFGG; constraints to intensifying support for DFGG within the World Bank; and ways to enhance the impact of DFGG on development outcomes.

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Toolkits Citizen Participation Handbook
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The handbook acts as a reference source and provides general information and case studies from the Central and Eastern European countries on the topic of citizen participation. It covers a wide variety of participatory methodologies, including Citizen Advisory Groups, City Strategic Planning, Coalition Building, Community Organizing, Participatory Budgeting and Capital Investment Planning, Participatory (Action) Research, Public Education, Public Hearings, Report Cards, and Social Monitoring. For each type of participatory method, the handbook includes an overview and context for using the methodology, steps for successful implementation, risks/obstacles, resources and examples.

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Local Governance: Tools to Support Transparency
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This toolkit is geared towards the urban context and offers a collection of practical tools that civil society organizations and other advocacy groups can use to increase transparency and good governance. The Toolkit is divided into four types of tools: Assessment and Monitoring; Tools to Improve Access to Information and Public Participation; Tools to Promote Ethics, Professionalism and Integrity; and Tools to Increase Transparency through Institutional Reforms.

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Mapping Political Context: A Toolkit for Civil Society Organisations
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This toolkit describes a range of tools that CSOs might use to understand and map political context, in order to engage more effectively in policy processes. The selected tools cover a wide variety of political dimensions. As such, they provide a menu of different approaches to mapping political context; CSOs and others can select from this menu and make use of the tools according to their own needs.

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Monitoring Government Policies: A Toolkit for Civil Society Organizations in Africa
Abstract | PDF

The toolkit explores ways of working for change by monitoring a range of government policies. It provides an introduction to policy monitoring and aims to a) give a clear overview of what policy monitoring is, b) learn from the experiences of others in Africa, c) introduce key terms and methods that are used in policy monitoring and d) offer ideas on how an organisation or network could plan activities to monitor policies.

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Participatory Budgeting
Abstract | Link

This book provides a detailed guide to the principles and practices of participatory budgeting It analyzes the merits and demerits of participatory budgeting practices around the world with a view to guiding policy makers and practitioners on improving such practices in the interest of inclusive governance. The book is divided into three parts. Part I presents the nuts and bolts of participatory budgeting, Part II regional surveys of experiences, and Part III presents a review of PB practices in seven countries.

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Scorecard Toolkit: A Generic Guide for Implementing the Scorecard Process to Improve Quality of Services
Abstract | PDF

This toolkit, developed by CARE Malawi, was designed for a variety of users from institutions operating in different sectors. The toolkit is generic in nature and can be applied to any sector to facilitate good governance. The toolkit describes the Scorecard methodology along with expected benefits and challenges and contains supporting materials for the implementation process, including a list of sources that were consulted for the development of this toolkit and web sites for further reading.

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Social Accountability Sourcebook
Abstract | Link

Over the last decade, numerous examples of social accountability have emerged that demonstrate how citizens can make their voice heard and effectively engage in making the public sector more responsive and accountable. In an effort to capture the diverse experiences from across the world, the World Bank began developing a Sourcebook in 2005 on these approaches for reference, familiarization and inspiration. The sourcebook includes a conceptual chapter on Social Accountability; tools and methods; Social Accountability applications in regions and sectors; and Social Accountability in Bank Operation, which provides guidance, case examples and lessons learned from implementation, including investment and development policy loans.

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Social Audit Toolkit: A Guide for Performance Improvement and Outcome Measurement
Abstract | PDF

The social audit toolkit, developed by the Centre for Good Governance, provides practical guidance and insights to users working in government departments, community organisations and civil society groups for using social audit as a tool to identify, measure, assess and report on the social performance of their organisations. Section I of the toolkit introduces the concepts, purpose, history and goals of social audit and section II describes the preparation of social audit reports and how this toolkit can be used in a sequential process for conducting social audits.

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WEBSITES
World Bank Group Links Anti-Corruption Links

Civic Engagement Topic Page on Development Gateway

Community Driven Development (CDD)

Governance & Anticorruption (GAC)

Governance, Civil Society and Participation

Participation and Civic Engagement

Participation in PRSPs

Public Sector Governance

World Bank Institute Social Accountability Program

World Bank and Civil Society

Partner Organizations and Initiatives Affiliated Network for Social Accountability (ANSA-Africa)

Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR)

Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE)

Centre for Civil Society

Department for International Development (DfID) Governance and Transparency Fund

GIZ

Govnernance and Social Development Resource Center (GSDRC)

Grassroots Organizations Operating Together in Sisterhood (GROOTS)

Grupo Faro

Huairou Commission - Grassroots Women and Governance

IBIS - Education for Development

Institute of Development Studies

Impact Alliance

Institute of Social Sciences

InterAction

International Rescue Committee (IRC)

IUCN - The World Conservation Union

JANAAGRAHA

LOK SATTA

National Centre For Advocacy Studies (NCAS)

DAC Network on Governance (GOVNET)

Partnership for Transparency Fund

PRAXIS

South Asia Social Accountability Network

The Institute for Democracy (IDASA)

Transparency International

Transparency International USA

UNESCO - Community Participation and Urban Governance

USAID

Women and Cities International/Femmes et Villes Internationale

For Practitioners

DEMAND FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE (DFGG) COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE

The DFGG Community of Practice (CoP) Group currently consists of over 400 Bank staff members and of over 200 external participants. Internally, the CoP group meets on a bimonthly basis to provide a forum to discuss social accountability and demand-side approaches on projects and to facilitate the virtual exchange of knowledge, innovations and good practices through the CoP’s group email address dfggnet@lists.worldbank.org (non-Bank CoP group members) and dfggcop@lists.worldbank.org (World Bank CoP group members) – you are welcome to use both emails for knowledge exchange. All members receive the newsletter and invitation to bi-weekly BBLs.

Please sign up for the DFGG Community of Practice Listserv to receive information on the latest DFGG activities, newsletter and events:


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Social Accountability and Demand for Good Governance (SA & DFGG) Newsletter

The Social Accountability and Demand for Good Governance (SA & DFGG) newsletter presents selected news about latest developments, programs, publications and events on demand-side governance activities including transparency, social accountability, and civic participation.




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