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GAC in Human Development

South Africa

gac in human development

Using Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys to Monitor Projects and Small-Scale Programs

The guidebook was designed to serve as a starting point for Bank teams, as well as civil society organizations, interested in conducting public expenditure tracking surveys, particularly with regard to project monitoring. Learn More »

about gac in human development

Good governance is at the core of the Human Development Network’s goal of improving outcomes by raising the quality of the delivery of services and benefits at the country level. In both low and middle income countries the Bank is increasingly engaged – through operational work, policy advice andanalytical activities – in supporting efforts to reform service delivery. An important aspect of these efforts involves governance reforms, particularly the strengthening of incentives to service providers and accountability mechanisms for results.

Public Expenditure Reviews

Public Expenditure ReviewsPublic expenditure reviews (PERs) are tools for analyzing public expenditures in the human development sectors are part of a larger process to improve the treatment of human development issues. The specific goal of these interlinked PER guidance notes is to support and spark the imagination of people analyzing expenditures in the health, education and social protection sectors to help them learn from better than average examples and to make it easier to use the many resources already available.

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Measuring the Quality of Medical Care

Measuring the Quality of Medical CareResearchers at the World Bank, University of Maryland and University of California Berkeley, have developed new techniques to study the supply side of health care. In particular, the quality of medical advice that doctors provide. Supply side research identifies the determinants of the quality and pricing of clinical advice, working hours, referral, and marketing decisions of the providers. The characteristics of providers identified through these tools can also be used to understand how households choose among multiple providers.

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Error, Fraud and Corruption in social protection

Range of ActivitiesThere is less information, and less emphasis on reducing the level of error, fraud and corruption (EFC) affecting Social Protection (SP) programs in developing countries, due to the limited capacity and resources, the lack of accurate computerized systems of auditing, and the large share of informal economy. Some of the tools to control the level of error and fraud which are used in OECD countries seem to be “underutilized” in developing countries. These include:

- sample-based reviews of eligibility decisions or other program aspects (as used in UK, Australia, New Zealand and in the Food Stamp program in the U.S.)
- data mining (analysis which aims to discover evidence of problematic payments)
- educational activities and public communication
- setting of goals on errors/fraud and monitoring of performance
- easy mechanisms (on-line, for example) to report suspected fraud
- procedures for beneficiaries to appeal eligibility or other decisions made by program administrations (an emphasis in ECA countries).

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Governance Indicators help measure and benchmark the quality of service delivery in Human Development sectors. The Human Development Office of the Chief Economist is currently working to identify and compile key governance indicators in five main dimensions of service delivery.

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HDN has established a partnership with the Results for Development Institute’s Transparency and Accountability Program (TAP). TAP focuses on strengthening the demand side of governance by providing technical and financial support to civil society organizations (e.g. NGOs, think tanks, and universities), involved in promoting the accountability of public services to civil society and citizens through analysis and advocacy.

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For the full information related to the work of the HDN Chief Economist's Office please visit our website »

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