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These draw on "Curbing the Epidemic: governments and the economics of tobacco control", World Bank, 1999, and on the set of background papers, published in "Tobacco Control in Developing Countries", P. Jha and F. Chaloupka (editors), OUP for the WHO/WB, 2000. Many of the presentations also include country-specific data compiled by the World Bank from a wide set of sources. Many slides do not list the information source; this will be remedied in future.


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Children's Exposure to ETS in Developing Countries:  Current Situation and Implications for Health and Development

25 slides, with notes, presented at 12th World Conference on Smoking OR Health, Helsinki, Finland, August 2003.  Documents the extent of environmental smoke exposure and involuntary smoking in developing countries among children, key determinants and how they vary between the developed and the developing world, health impact and the challenges that developing countries face in curbing smoking and ETS.



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Tobacco Smuggling:  Issues and Evidence

29 slides, talk presented at the International Conference on Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, New York, July 30th, 2002.  Presents facts and evidence on the volume, nature and causses of tobacco smuggling.  Focuses on role of corruption, a ready supply of cigarettes for the black market and the industries role, and prices and taxes, (especially misconceptions that high taxes and price differentials "cause" smuggling.)  Presents preliminary results of new analytic work to explore the impact of prices, taxes and corruption on consumption, smuggling and tax revenues in 109 countries, using 1999 data.



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Risks of Dying From Smoking

14 slides.  Smoking health risks and tobacco-related death rates and numbers.  Most data is for developed world, with some information on China (slide 3).  Final slide shows deaths in 1990 and 2030 for developed and developing countries.

SOURCE:  Richard Peto, Alan D. Lopez, Jillian Boreham, Michael Thun and Clark Heath, Jr. Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries:  1950-2000. Oxford University Press.  1994


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Governments & the Economics of Tobacco Control

28 slides summarize key evidence and recommendations.  Covers tobacco-attributable deaths, health costs, age at which smoking begins.  Most effective interventions: tobacco taxes, non-price measures.  Impact of tax rises on employment, tax revenues, tobacco use and deaths.

Source: Curbing the Epidemic: governments and the economics of tobacco control, World Bank, 1999.


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Tobacco Control in Developing Countries

47 slides (no notes), by Prabhat Jha and Frank Chaloupka. Slides summarize key evidence and recommendations in Tobacco Control in Developing Countries, Jha and Chaloupka (eds), OUP for the World Health Organization and World Bank, 2000. Slides include tobacco use and its consequences, including use patterns by income levels; effective interventions to reduce demand and their impact; and government policy directions.

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Tobacco Use and Child Health in Africa

15 slides, some with brief notes pages. Summarize the ways that tobacco use can affect health of children in utero, in childhood, adolescence and later life. Provides (patchy) data on smoking prevalence of adults and adolescents in selected African countries. Summarizes justification for government intervention, and lists most cost-effective and effective measures to reduce tobacco use.

Talk given at World Bank and partners meeting on child health in Africa – a life cycle approach, July 2000.

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Tobacco:  health effects and socio-economic issues

40 slides with notes pages. Summary of health effects of tobacco use and why tobacco harms health. Trends in US and world tobacco use. Addiction and cessation. Effective interventions to reduce tobacco use and their economic impact (on tax revenues, jobs, smuggling). What about poor smokers? Reasons why governments should intervene, and the range of stakeholders.

Lecture by Joy de Beyer to students in public health course at George Washington University, Washington DC, October 2001.

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The World Bank's role in the global partnership to reduce harm from tobacco use

16 slides with notes. Describes the partnership among UN agencies to work with governments to reduce death and disease caused by tobacco use. Summarizes (very briefly) the key findings in "Curbing the Epidemic: governments and the economics of tobacco control".

Talk given by Joy de Beyer at World Health Assembly, Geneva, May 2000.


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Tobacco:  Health and Economics

18 slides with notes. Notes the shift in the focus of tobacco control from an exclusive concern with health, to a broader concern with the economic (and social) issues as well. Comments that these concerns can be compatible rather than conflictual. Summarizes effective interventions to reduce tobacco use, and the key economic implications. Notes the importance of multi-sectoral engagement.

Talk given by Joy de Beyer at WHO International meeting on the Economic, Social and Health aspects of Tobacco Control, in Kobe, Japan, December 2001.

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Tobacco Control in Bulgaria

18 slides with notes. Tends in tobacco consumption in Bulgaria provide a strong incentive to implement stronger measures to reduce tobacco use, and the resulting morbidity and mortality. Discusses tobacco taxes and prices and household expenditures in Bulgaria, making regional and global comparisons.

Presentation was prepared for Dr. Dominic Haazen- World Bank Bulgaria Health Task Team Leader- to present Bulgaria Minister of Health in October, 2001.

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Privatized Cigarette Enterprises and Public Health:  Evidence from Turkey and Ukraine

22 slides with notes. Discusses the impact of the entry of private sector cigarette manufacturers in Turkey and Ukraine from a public health perspective looking at changes in production and consumption levels, labor productivity, cigarette prices and product appeal and marketing.

Presentation by Ayda Yurekli at WHO International meeting on the Economic, Social and Health aspects of Tobacco Control in Kobe, Japan, December 2001.

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Effective Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Use

23 slides with notes. Explains why governments should intervene in the market to curbing the tobacco epidemic. Summarizes effective tobacco control measures –what works and what does not. Notes the importance of the collaboration among stakeholders for successful tobacco control efforts. Shows data from selected Mediterranean countries on deaths, per capita cigarette consumption, and prevalence of tobacco use among adults, health professionals and adolescents.

Presentation by Joy de Beyer at WHO/World Bank meeting of Health and Finance Ministries of Mediterranean Countries in Malta, September 2001.

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The Challenge of Raising Tobacco Taxes

24 slides with notes. Explains why taxation is highly effective in reducing consumption of tobacco products, and explores the concerns that policy makers often express about the possible impact of higher taxes on government revenues, smuggling, employment and poor people. Illustrates with data from selected Mediterranean countries.

Presentation by Joy de Beyer at WHO/World Bank meeting of Health and Finance Ministries of Mediterranean Countries in Malta, September 2001.

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Tobacco in Kenya in the African Context

18 slides (no notes). Tobacco use, and the resulting burden of disease and death is increasing in Kenya, and elsewhere in Africa. Smokers spend 2-3% of their income on tobacco products. Many countries could reduce consumption – and raise revenues – by increasing tobacco taxes. Although Africa is grappling with huge health challenges (AIDS, TB, malaria in particular), tobacco control measures are important, to prevent another epidemic being added.

Slides used in presentations by Joy de Beyer at the WHO Tobacco Control meeting of Sub-Saharan Countries (parliamentarians, NGOs, and other key people in tobacco control) held in Nairobi in October, 2000.

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Bulgaria Tobacco Demand Model, Chicago 2000

8 slides (no notes). In this study, we use the Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) Household Survey (1995) provided by the World Bank to analyze demand for cigarettes in Bulgaria. A description of the survey methodology and a discussion of survey results precede the derivation and estimation of a demand equation for cigarette consumption. The estimation is achieved by two-stage least squares for three income groups (low and lower-middle, upper-middle, and high income) and overall. The overall price elasticity is obtained to be –0.80. For individual income groups, the price elasticity estimates stood at –1.33 for low and lower-middle, -1.02 for upper-middle, and –0.52 for high income groups.

Slides used in presentation by Ozgen Sayginsoy, Consultant WB and Ph.D. Student Cornell University, at the 10th. World Tobacco Conference in Chicago, August 2000.

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Economics of Tobacco Control in ECA, PCU Conference Warsaw Poland 2001

27 Slides with notes. Tobacco epidemic has been increasing in Eastern and Central Asian Countries. It demonstrates why tobacco taxes are good for public health to improve health outcomes and good for the economy to generate revenues while not necessarily reducing employment and not promoting smuggling activities. Global and regional evidence from prevalence, tax rates, revenues, opportunity cost, tobacco manufacturing employment, and smuggling presented.

Slides used in presentation by Ayda A Yurekli at the 7th, ECA regional PCU conference, Warsaw, Poland on September 11, 2001.

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Economics of Tobacco Control in Hungary,
Budapest, Hungary, 2001

41 slides with notes. Tobacco taxes are good for public health and for economy in many countries. This presentation demonstrates global and regional evidence and compares it with Hungary evidence. It discusses where Hungary fits in the global and regional tobacco control map on tobacco taxes, prices, revenues, consumption, prevalence and opportunity cost of using tobacco products. Moreover, it discusses global evidence how countries tackled reducing smuggling and the consequences of these policies.

Slides used in presentation by Ayda A. Yurekli at the Economics of Tobacco Seminar in Budapest, Hungary, 2001.

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Economics of Tobacco Control Seminar,
Jakarta, Indonesia, November 2000

21 slides with notes. Curbing the Epidemic; Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control demonstrates global evidence that demand reducing measures work around the globe. Tobacco is an important product for Indonesian economy and for the livelihood of farmers and employees. Indonesia lacks many tobacco control measures and cigarette consumption per capita has been increasing tremendously, despite economic crises in recent years. Slides demonstrates the importance of tobacco to Indonesian economy, and shows why and which tobacco control measures work in many countries.

Presented by Ayda A. Yurekli at the Economics of Tobacco Seminar in Jakarta Indonesia, 2000 which was part of the celebrations of the University of Indonesia's 50th. anniversary.

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Health and Economics The Evidence Base Tobacco Control in LAC, PAHO-Caribbean Meeting May 2001

46 alides with notes. It discusses why we give priority to control tobacco epidemic since tobacco related deaths and diseases are wealthy countries problem and most developing countries suffer from chronic diseases such as HIV AIDS, Malaria, maternal and childhood diseases.
It demonstrates global and regional evidence on burden of diseases and deaths attributable to tobacco use and what works what doesn't work on curbing the epidemic.  It briefly discusses on what concerns policy makers raise when contemplating tobacco control measures and what evidence we have to respond these concerns. The presentation concentrates on the most effective tobacco control measure-tobacco taxes – and provides information on tobacco tax rates, revenues, and smuggling. Finally, details of types of tobacco taxes and pros and cons of choosing types of tobacco taxes and administration issues.

Presented by Ayda A. Yurekli at the WHO/PAHO "Using the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) to Strengthen National Tobacco Control Capacity in the Caribbean " Conference in Kingston, Jamaica April 2001.

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Ministerial Level Economics of Tobacco Control Seminar, Beijing, China, 2000

33 slides with notes. Tobacco alone contributes 11% of total tax revenues in China. But in recent years, tobacco producing giant- China- faces internal and external challenges on tobacco- leaf and cigarette production, and faced severe smuggling problem in the near past. China is also the largest tobacco consumer around the world- 32% of global cigarette consumption in 1999. For comparison, US consumption was 9% and the 16 countries of the European Union accounted for 12% of all cigarettes smoked in the world. China also faces huge burden on tobacco attributable mortality and morbidity. Slides demonstrates the tobacco epidemic and its burden to Chinese economy and the smokers. It discusses effective tobacco control measures and gives details of types of tobacco taxes since there is no tobacco tax in China defined as specific or ad valorem.

Presented by Ayda A. Yurekli at the Economics of Tobacco Control Seminar to the ministerial level officials from MOH, MOF, MOEdu, Tobacco Monopoly (STMA), MOEconomy, Customs and Tax Administration.

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Privatization of Tobacco Manufacturers, Chicago 2000

10 slides with notes. It discusses briefly why countries privatize their state-owned cigarette enterprises and why public health advocates worry that privatization might harm the public health.

Presented by Ayda A. Yurekli at the 10th World Tobacco Conference in Chicago, August 2000.

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Privatization of Tobacco Manufacturers, Mediterranean Conference Malta 2001

28 slides with notes. It discusses the consequences of privatization of state-tobacco enterprises from public health perspective- how privatization would likely affect consumption, price of cigarettes and their quality. It also looks at the issue broader perspective by discussing macro and micro issues such as revenues and employment by providing evidence from Ukraine and Turkey cigarette manufacturing.

Presented by Ayda A. Yurekli at the WHO/World Bank meeting of Health and Finance Ministries of Mediterranean Countries in Malta, September 2001.

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Tobacco Epidemic and Control in Hungary, Budapest 2001

18 slides with notes. In Hungary and the rest of the world, there are millions of deaths and a huge burden of disease caused by tobacco use. Despite this, many governments have been afraid to try to discourage smoking, because they fear that the economy might suffer. The presentation discusses tobacco epidemic in Hungary and tobacco control measures by providing evidence from Hungary.

Presented by Annette Dixon at the Economics of Tobacco Control Seminar in Budapest, Hungary 2001.

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Tobacco Epidemic in ECA, 7th WB ECA PCU conference in Warsaw Poland, 2001

17 slides with notes. Tobacco epidemic in ECA region was demonstrated by comparing global, regional and country level evidence on prevalence, consumption by adults and youth, mortality and morbidity, opportunity costs, and tobacco control measures.

Presented by Betty Hanan, Senior Operational Officer, at the 7th. WB ECA PCU Conference in Warsaw Poland, 2001.


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Turkish version
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Why is tobacco control a public health priority around the World?

23 slides with notes.

The slides describes why tobacco control should be public health priority in the globe. It demostrates evidence from the globe, ECA region, and from Turkey. It shows that tobacco related deaths and diseases are increasing especially in developing countries and last 5 years consumption around the world has increased due to increasing consumption in developing countries. Slides show that there are effective ways of reducing cigarette consumption without harming the economy.

Presentation by Joy de Beyer. 

Click here for more information on Turkish smoking.


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Turkish version(PowerPoint 2424kb)

Why should tobacco control be a public health priority in Turkey?

33 slides with notes.

The slides show that tobacco epidemic is one of the highest in Turkey, and the smoking age starts younger and younger. Contrary to the evidence from other countries, smoking is more prevalent among educated and high income groups in Turkey. Smoking is acceptable social behaviour in Turkey and second hand smoking reached alarming degree. Most parents and educated people smoke at home and front of children in Turkey. Turkish evidence also confirms that most smokers regret that they started smoking and many have tried to quit at least once.

Presented by Ayda A. Yurekli.