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Stock of personnel, staffing, distribution, Migration, Brain Drain

  • Abel-Smith, B. 1986. "The world economic crisis. Part 2: Health manpower out of balance." Health Policy and Planning 1: 309-16. 
  • Adams, A. and S. Bond. 1997. "Workforce planning. The human factor." Health Services Journal 107(5539): 30-1.
  • Aiken, L. 1995. "Increasing the supply of health personnel: what has been gained?" Frontiers of Health Services Management 7(2): 23-7.
  • Baer, L., T. Ricketts, et al. 1998. "Do international medical graduates reduce rural physician shortages?" Medical Care 36(11): 1534-44. 
  • Bankowski, Z. and A. Mejia. 1987. Health manpower out of balance, conflicts and prospects. Geneva: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. 
  • Berman, P., D. Gwatkin, et al. 1987. "Community-based health workers: head start or false start towards health for all?" Social Science and Medicine 25: 443-59. 
  • Bezroukov, V. 1979. "Structure and types of dental manpower." International Dental Journal 29(3): 191-200. 
  • Blumenthal, D. 1994. "Geographic imbalances of physician supply: an international comparison." Journal  of Rural Health 10(2): 1091-1118. 
  • Buchan, J. 1995. "Nursing shortages and human resource planning." International Journal of Nursing Studies 31(5): 460-70.
  • Butter, I. and A. Mejia. 1987. "Too many doctors! ." World Health Forum 8: 494-500.
  • Cumper, G. 1986. "Neglecting legal status in health planning: nurse practitioners in Jamaica." Health Policy and Planning 1: 30-6. 
  • Hemsley-Brown, J. 1997. "Counting nurses: interpreting nursing workforce statistics." Health Manpower Management 23(4-5): 159-66. 
  • Jeffery, R. 1988. Medical and paramedical personnel. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Khan, A. and W. Sithole. 1991. "Oral health manpower projection methods and their implications for developing countries the case of Zimbabwe." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 69(3): 339-46. 
  • Kim, K. 1992. "More resources better health? a cross-national perspective." Social Science and Medicine 34(8): 837-42. 
  • Leon-Soteras, L., B. Fernández, et al. 1993. "Human resources planning for health." Educación Medica y Salud 27(2): 160-77. 
  • Marquez-Serrano, M., D. Vazquez-Martinez, et al. 1996. "Territorial mobility in medical education in México." Salud Publica de México 38(1): 20-8. 
  • Meerhoff, R. and D. Lewis. 1988. "An over supply of medical doctors in Uruguay: a policy dilemma." Health Policy and Planning 3: 280-90. 
  • Mejia, A. 1987. "Health manpower out of balance." World Health Statistics Quarterly 40(4): 335-48. 
  • Mosley, W. 1994. "Population change, health planning and human resource development in the health sector." World Health Statistics Quarterly 47(1): 26-30. 
  • Nigenda, G. 1995. "Human resource planning for health. Role of the state and professional groups." Educación Medica y Salud 28(4): 463-77. 
  • Nigenda, G. 1997. "The regional distribution of doctors in Mexico, 1930-1990: a policy assessment." Health Policy 39(2): 107-22. 
  • Nordberg, E., H. Oganga, et al. 1993. "Rapid assessment of an African district health system. Test of a planning tool." International Journal of Health Planning Management 8(3): 219-33. 
  • Ozcan, S., Y. Taranto, et al. 1995. "Shaping the health future in Turkey: a new role for human resource planning." International Journal of Health Planning Management 10(4): 305-19. 
  • Politzer, R., S. Gamliel, et al. 1996. "Matching physician supply and requirements: testing policy recommendations." Inquiry 33(2): 181-94. 
  • Ray, D. 1987. "Indicators for the measurement of health manpower imbalances." World Health Statistics Quarterly 40(4): 349-54. 
  • Reid, U. 1990. "An economic model for nurse manpower planning in the Caribbean: Part II - Strategies." International Nursing Review 37(6): 377-79. 
  • Wheeler, M. and V. Ngcongco. 1990. "Health manpower planning in Botswana." World Health Forum 11(4): 394-404. 
  • Wu, Y. 1997. "China's health care sector in transition: resources, demand and reforms." Health Policy 39(2): 137-52. 
  • Youlong, G., A. Wilkes, et al. 1997. "Health human resource development in rural China." Health Policy Plan 12(4): 320-28.  

Geographical deployment issues

  • ----------.1996. "Policy on training for rural practice." Canadian Family Physician 42: 1181-3. 
  • Asuzu, M. 1989. "The influence of undergraduate clinical training on the attitude of medical students to rural medical practice in Nigeria." African  Journal of Medical Science 18(4): 245-50. 
  • Barondess, J. and RJ Glaser. 1993. "Attitudes toward the medical career: findings from the Alpha Omega Alpha survey of college and university undergraduates." Academic Medicine 68(5): 323-28. 
  • Becker, P., A. Hartz, et al. 1979. "Time trends in the association of a rural or urban background with physician location." Journal of  Medical Education 54(7): 544-50. 
  • Bloom, F., M. Vatavuk, et al. 1988. "Evaluation of Gannon-Hahnemann Program to provide family physicians for underserved area." Journal of  Medical Education 63(1): 7-10. 
  • Bolduc, D., B. Fortin, et al. 1996. "The effect of incentive policies on the practice location of doctors: a Multinomial Probit Analysis." Journal of Labor Economics 14(4): 703-32. 
  • Brazeau, N., M. Potts, et al. 1990. "The Upper Peninsula Program: a successful model for increasing primary care physicians in rural areas." Family Medicine 22(5): 350-55. 
  • Brown, M. 1993. "Do physicians locate as spatial competition models predict? Evidence from Alberta." Canadian Medical Association Journal 148(8): 1301-7. 
  • Burfield, W., D. Hough, et al. 1986. "Location of medical education and choice of location of practice." Journal of  Medical Education 61(7): 545-54. 
  • Colditz, G., and C. Elliott. 1978. "Queensland's rural practitioners: background and motivations." Medical Journal of Australia 142(2): 63-6. 
  • Edginton, M., and H. Holst. 1991. "Doctors in rural hospitals in KwaZulu and Natal." South Africa Medical Journal 80(10): 511-12. 
  • Eide, P. 1996. "Rural interdisciplinary healthcare training in Hawaii: a cross-cultural project." Australian Journal of Rural Health 4(3): 165-70. 
  • Elam, C., and M. Rosenbaum, et al. 1996. "Geographic origin and its impact on practice location in Kentucky." Journal of the  Kentucky Medical Association 94(10): 446-50. 
  • Forti, E., and K. Martin, et al. 1995. "Factors influencing retention of rural Pennsylvania family physicians." Journal of the American Board of Family Practitioners 8(6): 469-74. 
  • Fryer, GE., and T. Miyoshi, et al. 1993. "Colorado's decentralized medical education to increase the number of graduates practicing primary care in rural areas." Academic Medicine 68(4): 310-11. 
  • Fryer, GE, and C. Stine, et al. 1997. "Predictors and profiles of rural versus urban family practice." Family Medicine 29(2): 115-18. 
  • Garg, B., and S. Nayar. 1996. "Doctors for the rural poor." World Health Forum 17(3): 268-70. 
  • Giefer, C., and T. Peters, et al. 1996. "A rural nursing experience." Kansas Nurse 71(3): 1-2. 
  • Gushue, J. 1993. "Aggressive recruiting of rural students may help end Newfoundland's shortage of rural MDs." Canadian Medical Association Journal 148(7): 1211-15. 
  • Hays, R., and P. Veitch, et al. 1997. "Why doctors leave rural practice." Australian Journal of Rural Health 5(4): 198-203. 
  • Hegney, D. 1996. "The status of rural nursing in Australia: a review." Australian Journal of Rural Health 4(1): 1-10. 
  • Hickner, J. 1991. "Training for rural practice in Australia." Medical Journal of Australia 154(2): 111-18.
  • Inoue, K., and Y. Hirayama, et al. 1997. "A medical school for rural areas." Medical Education 31(6): 430-34. 
  • Kassebaum, D. and P. Szenas. 1993. "Rural sources of medical students, and graduates' choice of rural practice,” Academic Medicine 68(3): 232-36. 
  • Keyzer, D. 1997. "Working together: the advanced rural nurse practitioner and the rural doctor.” Australian Journal of Rural Health 5(4): 184-9. 
  • Kirk, K. 1991. "Rural areas losing appeal for young doctors." Ohio Medical 87(1): 24-7. 
  • Kristiansen, I., and O. Forde. 1992. "Medical specialists' choice of location: the role of geographical attachment in Norway." Social Science and Medicine 34(1): 57-62. 
  • MacAuley, D. 1995. "Medical education, Maastricht and the future." Irish Medical Journal 88(5): 156-8. 
  • Merwin, E., and H. Goldsmith, et al. 1995. "Human resource issues in rural mental health services." Community Mental Health Journal 31(6): 525-37. 
  • Michels, P., and C. Hornung, et al. 1993. "Factors which discriminate rural and urban family physicians practicing in South Carolina." Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association 89(2): 88-90. 
  • Oreilly, M. 1995. "Take some action, take some risk, conference on rural recruiting told." Canadian Medical Association Journal 157(7): 936-37. 
  • Page, J. (1992). "Factors influencing medical interns trained at U.W.I. to work subsequently in a rural area in Jamaica." West Indian Medical Journal 41(2): 75-8. 
  • Pathman, D., and T. Konrad. 1996. "Minority physicians serving in rural National Health Service Corps sites." Medical Care 34(5): 439-54. 
  • Piterman, L., and C. Silagy. 1991. "Hospital interns' and residents' perceptions of rural training and practice in Victoria." Medical Journal of Australia 155(9): 630-33. 
  • Rabinowitz, H. 1988. "Evaluation of a selective medical school admissions policy to increase the number of family physicians in rural and underserved areas." New England Journal of Medicine 319(8): 480-86. 
  • Rabinowitz, H. 1993. "Recruitment, retention, and follow-up of graduates of a program to increase the number of family physicians in rural and underserved areas." New England Journal of Medicine 328(13): 934-39. 
  • Rabinowitz, H. 1995. "Recruitment and retention of rural physicians: how much progress have we made?" Journal of the American Board of Family Practitioners 8(6): 496-99. 
  • Rhoades, E., and F. Duffy, et al. 1995. "The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine Rural Health Educational Program." Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association 88(12): 531-34. 
  • Roberts, A. 1993. "An approach to training and retaining primary care physicians in rural Appalachia." Academic Medicine 68(2): 122-25. 
  • Rolfe, I., S. Pearson, et al. 1995. "Finding solutions to the rural doctor shortage: the roles of selection versus undergraduate medical education at Newcastle." Australia and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 25(5): 512-17. 
  • Rosenblatt, R. 1992. "Which medical schools produce rural physicians?" Journal of the American Medical Association 268(12): 1559-65. 
  • Rosenblatt, R. 1996. "Beyond retention: National Health Service Corps participation and subsequent practice locations of a cohort of rural family physicians." Journal of the American Board of Family Practitioners 9(1): 23-30. 
  • Rourke, J. 1996. "Postgraduate training for rural family practice. Goals and opportunities.” Canadian Family Physician 42: 1133-38. 
  • Rubenstein, LZ., L. Rubenstein, et al. 1975. "Determinants of the choice of rural practice: a study of Yugoslav general practitioners." Journal of Medical Education 50(6): 615-23. 
  • Sankar, U., C. Jinabhai, et al. 1997. "Health personnel needs and attitudes to rural service in KwaZulu-Natal." South Africa Medical Journal 87(3): 293-98. 
  • Silagy, C. and L. Piterman. 1991. "Attitudes of senior medical students from two Australian schools towards rural training and practice." Academic Medicine 66(7): 417-19. 
  • Stratton, T., J. Geller, et al. 1991. "Effects of an expanded medical curriculum on the number of graduates practicing in a rural state." Academic Medicine 66(2): 101-5. 
  • Vaz, R. and O. Gona. 1992. "Undergraduate education in rural primary health care: evaluation f a first-year field attachment programme." Medical Education 26(1): 27-33. 
  • Verby, J. 1985. "Physician redistribution: a worldwide medical problem." Family Practice 2(3): 151-8. 
  • Zaidi, S. 1986. "Why medical students will not practice in rural areas: evidence from a survey.” Social Science and Medicine 22(5): 527-33. 
  • Zhu, N., Z. Ling, et al. 1995. "Factors associated with the decline of the Cooperative Medical System and barefoot doctors in rural China." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 67(4): 431-41.  
     



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