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Key Readings & References

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Capacity Building


Milèn, A. 2001. What do we know about capacity building? An overview of existing knowledge and good practice. Geneva: World Health Organization.


Conceptual work


Dussault, G. 1999. “Human Resources Development: the Challenge of Health Sector reform.” World Bank, Latin America and the Caribbean Department Human Development Division, Washington, D.C.


Martineau, T., and J. Martínez. 1997. “Human Resources in the Health Sector: Guidelines for Appraisal and Strategic Development.” Health and Development Series, Working paper no 1. European Commission Directorate General for Development, Brussels.


Martineau, T., and J. Martínez. 1999. "Rethinking human resources: an agenda for the millennium." Health Policy and Planning 13(4): 345-58.


PAHO (Pan American Health Organization). 1998. “Human Resources: a Critical Factor in Health Sector Reform.” Report of a meeting in San José, Costa Rica, 3-5 December 1997. Washington, D.C.


WHO (World Health Organization). 2000. “What resources are needed?World Health Report 2000. Geneva: World Health Organization.  



Deployment of health personnel


Chomitz, K. 1998. « What Do Doctors Want ? Developing Incentives for Doctors to Serve in Indonesia´s Rural and Remote Areas.” Policy Research Working Paper no 1888. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.


Education of health professionals




Standing, H. 2000. "Gender - a Missing Dimension in Human Resource Policy and Planning for Health Reforms." Human Resources Development Journal 4(1).




Kolehmainen-Aitken, R. 1998. "Decentralization and human resources: implications and impacts." Human Resources Development Journal 2(1): 1-16.


OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2002. “Human Resources for Health. “ OECD Health Project.


Ullrich, G. 1998. “Introduction.” Labour and Social Dimensions of Privatization and Restructuring: Health Care Services. Geneva: International Labour Office.  



Incentives/ motivation


Bennett, S., and L. Franco 2000. Health Worker Motivation and Health Sector Reform. PHR primer for policy makers, PHR Project, Washington, D.C.


Van Lerberghe,W., Claudia Conceição, Wim Van Damme, and Paulo Ferrinho. 2002. “When staff is underpaid: dealing with the individual coping strategies of health personnel.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 80(7):581-4.  

Legislation on health personnel


WHO (World Health Organization).2000. International Digest of Health Legislation. Geneva.


Lessons learned


Buchan, J. 2000. "Health sector reform and human resources: lessons from the United Kingdom." Health Policy and Planning 15: 319-25.


Payment mechanisms


Barnum, H., J. Kutzin, et al. 1995. "Incentives and provider payment methods." International Journal of Health Planning and Management 10: 23-45.


Hammer, J., and W. Jack. 2001. The design of incentives for health care providers in developing countries : contracts, competition, and cost control. Policy Research Working Paper; no. WPS 2547.  Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.


Maceira, D. 1998. Provider Payment Mechanisms in Health Care: Incentives, Outcomes and Organizational Impact in Developing Countries. Major Applied Research 2,Working Paper 2, PHR Project.  Washington(DC).

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Policies/sector issues


Biscoe, G. 2000. "Human resources: the political and policy context." Human Resources for Health Development Journal 4(3).


Egger, D., and O. Adams. 1999. "Imbalances in human resources for health: Can policy formulation and planning make a difference?" Human Resources for Health Development Journal 3(1).


Egger, D., D. Lipson, et al. 2000. Achieving The Right Balance: The Role of Policy-Making Processes in Managing Human Resources for Health Problems. Geneva: World Health Organization.


Martinez, J., and L. Collini. 1999. “A Review of the Human resources issues in the Health Sector: A Briefing Paper, DFID Health Systems Resource Center (HSRC).


PAHO (Pan American Health Organization).2001. Development and Strengthening of Human Resources Management in the Health Sector. Washington, D.C.



Performance/behavior of personnel


Buchan, J., and Mario Dal Poz. 2002. “Skill mix in the health care workforce: reviewing the evidence.”   Bulletin of the World Health Organization 80(7):575-80.


Ferrinho, P., and L. Van. 2000. Providing Health Care under Adverse Conditions. Studies in Health Services Organization and Policy. Antwerpen: ITG Press.  



Productivity/substitution of personnel


Manga, P., and T. Campbell. 1994. “Health Human Resources Substitution: A Major Area of Reform Towards a More Cost-Effective Health Care System.” Economic Project, Queen's University of Ottawa.


Workforce planning


Deliège, D. 1997. "Planning Medical Manpower : criteria and replacement requirements." Archives of Public Health 55: 179-200.


Eisenberg, J. 1994. "If trickle-down physician workforce policy failed, is the choice now between the market and government regulation?" Inquiry 28: 241-9.


Green, A. 1992. Planning human resources: An Introduction to Health Planning in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Hall, T. 1998. "Why plan human resources for health?" Human Resources for Health Development Journal 2(2): 77-86.


Working conditions


ILO (International Labour Office). 1999. “Terms of employment and working conditions in health sector reforms.” Report for discussion at the Joint Meeting on Terms of Employment and Working Conditions in Health Sector Reforms Geneva.

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