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GICT 2012 Publications

ICT FOR GREATER DEVELOPMENT IMPACT: SECTOR STRATEGY
The World Bank Group

This new World Bank Group ICT strategy for 2012-2015 emphasizes the transformative potential of information and communication technologies while focusing on innovation and infrastructure.

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IC4D 2012: Maximizing Mobile
Tim Kelly and Michael Minges

This report analyzes the growth and evolution of applications for mobile phones, focusing on their use in agriculture, health and financial services, as well as their impact on employment and government. It also explores the consequences for development of the emerging “app economy”, summarizing current thinking and seeking to inform the debate on the use of mobile phones for development. It’s no longer about the phone itself, but about how it is used, and the content and applications that mobile phones open.

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LITTLE DATA BOOK ON INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 2012
The World Bank and The International Telecommunication Union

This annual data book illustrates the progress of information and communication technologies in 216 economies around the world. It provides comparable statistics on the sector for 2005 and 2010 across a range of indicators, enabling readers to readily compare economies.

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MOBILE APPLICATIONS FOR THE HEALTH SECTOR
Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang, Masatake Yamamichi, Vicky Hausman, Robin Miller and Daniel Altman

This report assesses the current state of m-health in the developing world, including extensive case studies of three countries—Haiti, India, and Kenya—with very different health sectors, financing options, and technological bases. It examines interventions serving entirely new functions in the health system, less costly substitutes for existing interventions, and interactive functions that multiply the power of existing interventions.

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MOBILE APPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang, Siou Chew Kuek, Andrew Dymond and Steve Esselaar

This report examines the development impact, ecosystems, and business models of mobile applications for agricultural and rural development (m-ARD apps) to provide an analytical framework for policymakers and development practitioners. The framework is designed to promote the understanding of how these applications can be used to improve services for rural residents in these countries and support enabling environments for innovative m-ARD apps.

Annexes can be found at www.worldbank.org/ict/m-ard

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THE ROLE OF MOBILE-ENABLED SOCIAL MEDIA IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Masatake Yamamichi

This short note seeks to develop analysis on the role of social media in social development in the wake of the increasing diffusion of mobile phone Internet access. The note finds that social media can be a powerful tool for social development. It can broadly empower people as well as encourage them to take cohesive actions and call for accountable government administration.

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GICT 2011 Publications

THE LITTLE DATA BOOK ON INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 2011
Mark D.J. Williams, Rebecca Mayer, and Michael Minges

This book charts the progress of the ICT revolution for 213 countries around the world. It provides comparable statistics on the sector for 2000 and 2009 across a range of indicators, enabling readers to readily compare countries. This book includes indicators covering the economic and social context, the structure of the information and communication technology sector, sector efficiency and capacity, and sector performance related to access, usage, quality, affordability, trade, and applications.

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AFRICA'S ICT INFRASTRUCTURE: BUILDING ON THE MOBILE REVOLUTION
Mark D.J. Williams, Rebecca Mayer, and Michael Minges

The Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic (AICD) produced continent-wide analysis of many aspects of Africa’s infrastructure challenge. The main findings were synthesized in a flagship report titled Africa’s Infrastructure: A Time for Transformation, published in November 2009. The flagship report served a valuable role in highlighting the main findings of the project while this technical monograph makes more detailed material available to a wider audience of information and communication technologies (ICT) infrastructure practitioners.

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GICT 2010 Publications

ICT SOLUTIONS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Richard Youngman

This report is focused on showing a wide range and variety of ways in which ICT solutions could play a transformative role in developing countries‘ climate-smart future. The bulk of the report provides case studies of actual examples of ICT solutions already developed and in action to enable energy efficiency in three particular areas – namely, smart logistics, smart grid/smart metering, and smart buildings.

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THE GLOBAL OPPORTUNITY IN IT-BASED SERVICES: ASSESSING AND ENHANCING COUNTRY COMPETITIVENESS
Randeep Sudan, Seth Ayers, Philippe Dongier, Arturo Muente Kunigami, Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang

This book aims to help policy makers take advantage of the opportunities presented by the global IT services and IT-enabled services (ITES) industry. It analyzes factors crucial to a country's competitiveness including skills, cost, infrastructure, business environment; and presents a Location Readiness Index (LRI) as a diagnostic tool for developing countries. It also discusses policy options for enabling growth in IT/ITES industries.

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BROADBAND FOR AFRICA: DEVELOPING BACKBONE COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
Mark Williams

Increasing access to broadband connectivity is emerging as a high priority for policy makers across the continent. This book focuses on one important part of the challenge—the lack of high-capacity backbone networks. It addresses three specific questions: What role do backbone networks play in the provision of broadband services? What is the current state of backbone network development in Sub-Saharan Africa and the reasons for this? What can be done to promote the development of backbone networks and thereby stimulate the take-up of broadband services?

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CONVERGENCE IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: STRATEGIC AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS
Rajendra Singh and Siddhartha Raja

This volume analyzes the strategic and regulatory dimensions of convergence. It offers policy makers and regulators examples from countries around the world as they address this phenomenon. The authors suggest that countries that enable convergence are likely to reap the greater rewards. But the precise nature of the response will differ by country. Hence, this book offers global principles that should be tailored to local circumstances as regulatory frameworks evolve to address convergence.

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THE LITTLE DATA BOOK ON INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 2010
Development Data Group and the Global ICT Department of the World Bank

The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2010 charts the progress of ICT for 210 countries around the world. It provides comparable statistics on the sector for 2000 and 2008 across a range of indicators, enabling readers to readily compare countries.The book includes indicators covering the economic and social context, the structure of the information and communication technology sector, sector efficiency and capacity, and sector performance related to access, usage, quality, affordability, trade, and applications.

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ENABLING INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP THROUGH BUSINESS INCUBATION
by Mohsen Khalil and Ellen Olafsen

This paper focuses on the use of business incubation as a tool to help developing countries bring new ideas to the market, and thereby create social and economic wealth. The paper draws on infoDev's extensive experience with supporting business incubation across 80 developing countries, including a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation impact assessment (MEIA), concluded in 2007, which surveyed 49 business incubators in 49 developing countries.

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BUILDING BROADBAND: STRATEGIES AND POLICIES FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD
by Yongsoo Kim, Tim Kelly, and Siddhartha Raja

This report distills for policymakers and regulators the various strategies, policies, and regulations that leading broadband markets have used to spur growth. The report bases its findings on a detailed case study of the experiences of the Republic of Korea and surveys of six other countries. Given developments in the broadband market involving networks, services, applications, and users, and the experiences of leading markets—especially Korea—this report proposes that broadband be reconceptualized as an ecosystem rather than just high-speed connectivity. Using the ecosystem concept, the report discusses the characteristics of broadband strategies and identifies policies that other countries might use. The report concludes with a set of building blocks that may help in developing the broadband ecosystems. The team invites comments and ideas from readers in response to this report. Please post your comments on the World Bank's IC4D blog

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GICT 2009 Publications

OPTIONS TO INCREASE ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES IN RURAL AND LOW-INCOME AREAS
by Arturo Muente-Kunigami and Juan Navas-Sabater

Telecommunications sector policy makers and regulators have a wide range of instruments available to them that can be used to increase access totelecommunications services in rural and low-income areas. The paper provides areview of these instruments, evaluating them against a set of criteria. It then goes on toidentify a number of them that are worthy of further consideration by policy makersand regulators while demonstrating that the effectiveness of the identified instrumentscan be greatly enhanced by the establishment of a conducive legal, regulatory, andinstitutional framework. The paper concludes by confirming that while no singleinstrument taken in isolation can provide a full solution to universal access, a mix ofthe measures identified can be devised to achieve specific policy objectives in aparticular country environment.

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RURAL INFORMATIZATION IN CHINA
by Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang, Asheeta Bhavnani, Nagy K. Hanna, Kaoru Kimura, Randeep Sudan

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) permeate every aspect of our lives; from community radios in the most rural parts of the globe to cellular phones in the hands of women and men in every community on earth. The advancement of ICTs has brought new opportunities for both knowledge sharing and knowledge gathering for both women and men.

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WOMEN’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT
by Samia Melhem, Claudia Morell and Nidhi Tandon

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) permeate every aspect of our lives; from community radios in the most rural parts of the globe to cellular phones in the hands of women and men in every community on earth. The advancement of ICTs has brought new opportunities for both knowledge sharing and knowledge gathering for both women and men.

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The Global Opportunity in IT-Based Services: Assessing and Enhancing country Competitiveness
by Randeep Sudan, Seth Ayers, Philippe Dongier, Siou Chew Kuek, Arturo Muente Kunigami, Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang, Sandra Sargent

Advances in information technology (IT) and global connectivity, combined with waves of economic liberalization, have given impetus to a new dimension of globalization: cross-border trade in services. The services sector has been growing steadily and already accounts for 70 percent of employment and 73 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in developed countries and for 35 percent of employment and 51 percent of GDP in developing countries (UNCTAD 2008).

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Broadband Infrastructure Investment in Stimulus Packages: Relevance for Developing Countries
by Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang

This note summarizes broadband initiatives of selected OECD countries recently launched during the economic downturn and argues that it is also relevant for developing countries as part of their economic recovery plans or of overall development strategies. It then presents several principles for policy makers in developing countries to reflect on when considering public investment in broadband.

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Information and Communication Technology for Development 2009: Extending Reach and Increasing Impact
by Global ICT Department

IC4D 2009 takes an in-depth look at how ICT, and particularly broadband and mobile, are impacting economic growth in developing countries. The data section includes at-a-glance tables for 150 economies of the latest available data on ICT sector performance. Performance measures for access, affordability and applications in government and business are also introduced.

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The Media and Development
by Gareth Locksley

The production and distribution of digital content over electronic communications networks to a wide range of digital devices is experiencing exponential growth. This global media phenomenon has significant ramifications for development but there is insufficient understanding about the dynamics of the process, and uncertainty about many outcomes.

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GICT 2008 Publications

mobile money summit 2008: Developing Mobile Money Ecosystems
by Beth Jenkins with contributions from IFC

This report is written on the occasion of the first MobileMoney Summit, heldMay 14-15, 2008, in Cairo, Egypt.AsGSMA CEORobertG. Conway stated in his openingremarks, “The ubiquity and convenience of the mobilephone is bringing new value, opportunities that no oneforesaw before in the delivery of financial services.” Forbusinesses, the opportunities include reaching vastnumbers of new customers and providing better service toexisting customers. For customers, the opportunitiesinclude increased affordability, convenience, and security.The mobile phone may even open access to financialservices for many who are currently excluded from themarket altogether – the majority of the population inmany developing countries. “Bringing the bank to theunbanked,” as Wizzit CEO and IFC investee BrianRichardson puts it, would provide new fuel for privatesector activity and economic growth, helping empowerpeople to forge their own paths out of poverty.

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ICT: Connecting People and Making Markets Work
by Global Information and Communication Technologies Departments

The Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector has undergone a revolution over the last 10 years in all developing countries. A total of $16 billion was invested in the ICT sector in IDA countries between 1997 and 2006 and 56 percent of the population now live within reach of wireless

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The Role of Mobile Phones in Suistainable Rural Poverty Reduction
by Asheeta Bhavnani, Rowena Won-Wai Chiu, Subramaniam Janakiram, and Peter Silarszky - June 2008

Many developing country governments and developing agencies are focusing on extending telecommunications services into rural areas, as they seek to alleviate poverty, encourage economic and social growth, and overcome a perceived ‘digital divide’. However, relatively little is known about how rural communities benefit from modern telecommunications services and what impact it is having on their lives and livelihoods. This paper endeavors to redress the balance, by examining the role of mobile telephones in sustainable poverty reduction among the rural poor.

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Convergence in ict services: emerging regulatory responses to multiple play
by Rajendra Singh & Siddhartha Raja

Multiple play in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector refers to the provision of multiple services—such as voice telephony, broadcasting, and Internet access—by one operator over a single communications network, typically telephone or cable television. This offers numerous potential benefits to customers, including lower prices, better services, and more choices among service providers. It enables new business models and opportunities for increased competition and reduced costs. However, regulation is subject to complex challenges in the face of multiple play. This report focuses on regulatory responses, typically by telecommunications regulators, to market-driven multiple play over broadband networks. It also examines how regulators can remove obstacles to multiple play. It describes experiences and responses from around the world, with the goal of deriving principles for best practice—enabling countries to devise responses suited to their situations—without being prescriptive or offering a universal solution.

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Broadband for Africa: Policy for Promoting the development of backbone networks
by Mark Williams

Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa see ICT as a foundation of long-term economic development. The region has been very successful in increasing access to basic voice communications but there has been no comparable improvement in broadband connectivity. The broadband access gap between Sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world is getting wider, just as the gap in basic voice communications is getting smaller. Increasing access to broadband connectivity is therefore emerging as a high priority for policymakers across the continent. This report focuses on one important part of the challenge – the lack of high-capacity backbone networks. It addresses three specific questions: What role do backbone networks play in the provision of broadband services, what is the current state of backbone network development in Sub-Saharan Africa (and why) and, what can be done to promote the development of backbone networks and thereby stimulate the take-up of broadband services?

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Nothing endures but change: Thinking strategically about ICT convergence
by Rajendra Singh & Siddhartha Raja

Countries that adopt policy frameworks to enable convergence will enhance the impact of ICTs on economic development. Convergence can lower entry barriers, allow service providers to try out new business models, promote competition, lower costs to service providers and users, and broaden the range of services and technologies available to users. This report outlines options for government policy responses along with the likely outcomes and potential benefits and risks.

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Managing the Radio Spectrum: Framework for Reform in Developing Countries
by Björn Wellenius & Isabel Neto

Bringing management of the radio spectrum closer to markets is long overdue. The radio spectrum is a majorcomponent of the infrastructure that underpins theinformation society. Spectrum management, however, hasnot kept up with major changes in technology, businesspractice, and economic policy that have taken place worldwide during the last two decades.

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Trade in Information and Communication Services: Opportunities for East and Southern Africa
Final Report on Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

This study was commissioned by the Global Information and Communication Technologies Department (GICT) of the World Bank and prepared by Telecommunications Management Group, Inc. (TMG). Funding for the study was provided under a Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program (BNPP) grant (Trust fund No 056459). It is based on interviews and research conducted in Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda in October 2006 and during follow-up meetings in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda in September-November 2007.

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GICT 2007 Publications

Little Data Book
by Global ICT Department and Development Economics Group - June 2007

This new addition to the Little Data Book series presents at-a-glance tables for over 140 economies showing the most recent national data on key indicators of information and communications technology (ICT), including access, quality, affordability, efficiency, sustainability, and applications.

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Connecting Africa is Critical to Accelerated Economic Growth
by Mavis Ampah and Boutheina Goumerzi of the World Bank's Global ICT Department, as published in Global Telecom Business - May/June 2007

This article looks at efforts to improve access for growth and development in sub-Saharan Africa.

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NEW MODELS FOR UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICESIN LATIN AMERICA
by Peter A. Stern and David N. Townsend
A joint study by Regulatel, PPIAF, GPOBA, UN, EU, CEPAL and the World Bank - June 2007

This study covers the 19 countries where regulators are members of the Forum of Latin American Relecommunications Regulators (Regulatel). The objectives of the study were: (i) to review and assess current and planned universal access programs in the 19 countries, (ii) to estimate the market efficiency and universal access gaps, and the public sector investment/subsidy required in order to reduce the universal access gap; (iii) to identify new models and provide concrete policy recommendations for universal access programs, and (iv) to share the experience of Latin America, because the region pioneered many of the first generation universal access programs that are currently being implemented in developing regions.

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Regulatory Change in Service Convergence
by Global ICT Department - June 29, 2007

Over the past few years, the transition towards IP-based networking has led to service convergence in the communications sector, whereby different and traditionally separate services can be offered over a single network. The technological and market developments that lead to service convergence have posed many policy and regulatory challenges in telecommunications and broadcasting service sector. The World Bank considers these challenges very important for the development and performance of the communications sectors in client countries.

Different countries have addressed different policy and regulatory issues related to convergence in their own way. Based on international practices and also on an analysis of various regulatory issues, the Global ICT Department of the World Bank decided to develop an analytical framework on various regulatory trends on service convergence. And because this issue is of current relevance to many countries, it was decided to develop an analytical framework through publication of a consultation paper. This paper identifies five regulatory issues related to service convergence: Institutional and legal framework; Authorisation and licensing; Service Regulation (Universal Service, QOS, Emergency Service, Lawful interception etc); and Scarce resources management and competition policy. Policy makers, regulators and other stakeholders are invited to submit comments on this consultation paper. Based on this feedback the World Bank’s Global ICT Department would finalize the best practice assessments on this subject by end of this year. Comments should be submitted by July 20, 2007 to Rajendra Singh, Senior Regulatory Specialist, GICT Department.

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Managing the Radio Spectrum: Framework for Reform in Developing Countries
by Björn Wellenius and Isabel Neto of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - June 19, 2007

The radio spectrum is a major component of the infrastructure that underpins the information society. Spectrum management, however, has not kept up with major changes in technology, business practice, and economic policy that have taken place worldwide during the last two decades. Two alternative approaches to spectrum management are being tried in several countries, one driven by the market (tradable spectrum rights) and another driven by technology innovation (spectrum commons). This paper discusses the basic features, advantages and limitations, scope of application, and requirements for implementation of these three approaches. The paper then discusses how these approaches can be made to work under conditions that typically prevail in developing countries, including weak rule of law, limited markets, and constrained fiscal space. Although spectrum reform strategies for individual countries must be developed case by case, several broadly applicable strategic options are outlined. The paper proposes a phased approach to addressing spectrum reform in a country. It ends by discussing aspects of institutional design, managing the transition, and addressing high-level changes.

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China's Information Revolution: Managing the Economic and Social Transformation
by Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - April 2007

Since 1997, China has devoted considerable resources to ICT development. The approaching 10-year mark provides an excellent opportunity to update the policy to reflect the evolving needs of China’s economy. Developing a more effective ICT strategy will help China to achieve its economic and social goals. This book highlights several key issues that need to be addressed decisively in the second half of this decade and is the result of 18 months of strategic research by a World Bank team at the request of China’s State Council Informatization Office and the Advisory Committee for State Informatization. Drawing on background papers by Chinese researchers, the study provides a variety of domestic perspectives and local case studies and combines these perspectives with international experiences on how similar issues may have been addressed by other countries.

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The Next Frontier of e-Government: Local Governments May Hold the Keys to Global Competition
by Bruno Lanvin and Anat Lewin of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - March 2007

This chapter was recently published in the Global Information Technology Report 2006-2007, and illustrates some of the main challenges brought about by the increasingly important role of cities, as opposed to central governments, all over the world.

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Output-based aid in Uganda Bringing Communication Services to Rural Areas
by Juan Navas-Sabater and Mavis Ampah of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - March 2007

The use of Output Based Aid to promote private investment in the provision of telecommunications services in rural Uganda has proven an effective tool. It allowed to serve far more communities than anyone had originally anticipated, and at a fraction of the cost of traditional funding methods. This case study is part of the OBApproaches series intended to be a forum for discussing and disseminating recent experiences and innovations for supporting the delivery of basic services to thepoor.

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Assessment of Best Practice Options for Demand Stimulation of Electronic Communications Service in Rural Ukraine
Commissioned by the Global ICT Department - March 2007

The rural areas in Ukraine are seriously lagging behind in terms of quality of life and economic development. ICT and broadband could improve the prospects of these areas both for households and businesses. However, as there is hardly any demand for this in rural areas, there is also no supply. This study aims to present best practice options for demand stimulation to close this gap and thus improve the prospects of rural Ukraine. The focus of the study is on ICT infrastructure, not on content or services.

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Youth, ICTs and Development
by David J. McKenzie of the World Bank's Development Research Group and the Global ICT Department - March 2007

The first few years of the new millennium saw extremely rapid increases in internet, mobile phone, and computer use in developing countries. These new technologies are growing much faster than older information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as television, radio, mainline telephones, and newspapers. Mobile phones have overtaken mainline phones in coverage in many parts of the world, and there are more internet users per 1,000 people than there are daily newspapers purchased in every region except South Asia. Although the main reason for many youth to use computers, the internet, and mobile phones is entertainment, the new ICT technologies are having wide-ranging effects on youth transitions. New opportunities for work and study are opening up, and the interactive and decentralized nature of these new technologies is providing youth with many more opportunities to obtain information outside the traditional channels, enhancing their agency.

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Postal Financial Services and Financial Inclusion
David Porteous of Bankable Frontier Associates and Isabelle Huynh of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - February 2007

Today, the majority of people in developing countries are excluded from access to basic financial services. The goal of promoting financial inclusion has moved higher up the policy agenda in many countries, supported by new evidence that increased access to financial services can promote faster economic growth and also reduce poverty and income inequality. In many developing countries, postal networks already offer several basic financial services, such as money transfers and savings accounts. Moreover, postal networks have widespread coverage even in rural areas which the formal financial sector usually does not directly reach. How best to use and develop these large networks for expanding access to financial services is an important question for policy makers to consider.

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Tunisie: Nouvelles Technologies de l’Information au Service des Handicapés
by Michel Maechler and Anat Lewin of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - January 2007

This article (in French) reviews the interim results of the Government of Tunisia's Bank-supported project to utilise ICTs to provide basic education and social services to the disabled.

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GICT 2006 Publications

Improving Business Competitiveness and Increasing Economic Growth in Ghana: The Role of ICT-ITES
Commissioned by infoDev in partnership with the Government of Ghana through the Ministry of Communications and the World Bank Group - December 2006

This report discusses the role of information and communication technology (ICT) and information technology-enabled services (ITES) in improving business competitiveness and increasing economic growth in Ghana.

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The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services
by Global ICT Department - November 2006

The study provides a unique insight into the worldwide provision of postal financial services. It identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats faced by the postal sector—from a financial sector perspective and from a communication sector angle (traditional postal and information technology-based communication services). It also documents elements of best practice. Lastly, it offers a variety of strategic options covering several dimensions (policy, legal, regulatory, institutional, technology, capacity building, and corporate strategies).

The Discussion Paper (Volume I) builds on the findings and conclusions of a study commissioned by GICT and carried out by ING Advisory in March 2004, completed and updated with additional experience and recent lessons learned. Volume II consists of 5 regional descriptions of postal financial services (Africa, Asia, Europe and Central Asia, Latine America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa) and 7 country studies (Egypt, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Romania, Sri Lanka, Uganda, Vietnam).

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Cyber Security: A New Model for Protecting the Network
by Robert Schware of the World Bank's Global ICT Department and co-authors - 25 July 2006

In a networked world, there are no real safe harbors—if you are on the network, you are available to everyone else on the network. As economies become more dependent on information and communications technology, they are becoming more vulnerable to network attacks. The most serious cyber security risks are those that threaten the functioning of critical information infrastructures, such as those dedicated to financial services, control systems for power, gas, drinking water, and other utilities; airport and air traffic control systems; logistics systems; and government services. This paper explores a new model for protecting the network..

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The Next Decade of ICT Development: Access, Applications and the Forces of Convergence
by Mohsen Khalil and Charles Kenny of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - April 2006

The last decade has seen an incredible expansion in access to ICTs, as well as an explosion in applications. Driving this revolution have been new disruptive technologies exploited by new business models, in turn enabled by policy and regulatory reforms. The technologies driving change in the next decade may well encourage a further blurring of the line between access, industries and applications, leading to new challenges for the sustainability of existing business models and policy and regulatory environments going forward.

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Best practice options for the implementation of European Structural Funds for the stimulation of demand for electronic communications services in Lithuania
Commissioned by Global ICT Department - 25 April 2006

In urban areas of Lithuania, 99.8% of the population has potential access to broadband communications. In rural villages and towns with less than 500 inhabitants, only 2% has potential access to broadband. This report assesses whether ‘demand stimulation’ in combination with the application of European Structural Funds could be an additional, effective broadband development strategy for Lithuania. Demand stimulation is a bottom-up methodology that stimulates demand by increasing awareness of how broadband can be of help to rural communities in their daily lives.

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Information and Communications for Development 2006: Global Trends and Policies
by Global ICT Department - March 2006

This World Bank flagship publication addresses the critical role being played by information and communication technologies (ICT) in economic development. It provides a global overview of ICT trends and policies in developing countries, covering issues such as financing infrastructure, the importance of public-private partnerships and effective competition to extending access, using ICT in doing business and formulating national e-strategies. The report includes ICT At-a-Glance tables for 144 economies showing the most recent national data on key indicators of ICT development. The data enable assessment and comparison both over time and across economies to assess ICT capacity, performance, progress and opportunities.

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Micro-Payment Systems and their Application to Mobile Networks
by infoDev, IFC and the GSM Association - January 2006

The proliferation of mobile communications in developing countries has the potential to bring a wide range of financial services to an entirely new customer base, according to a new report commissioned by infoDev in partnership with the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the GSM Association. The report, which focuses on the use of mobiles for micro-payments in the Philippines, found that mobile-enabled financial services, or m-Banking, can address a major service gap in developing countries that is critical to their social and economic development.

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GICT 2005 Publications

E-Development: From Excitement to Effectiveness
by Global ICT Department - November 2005

This World Bank flagship publication examines a wide range of issues related to e-development, with a focus on the requirements and realities of using ICTs to advance development goals. The report does not attempt to present a comprehensive overview of e-development. Rather, it highlights key issues that have immediate relevance to policy makers in developing nations who make decisions on investments and development goals. It highlights two issues in particular, e-government and e-education, because ICT applications in these areas can lead to significant development outcomes and can also be successfully deployed through public-private partnerships, leveraging limited government funding to achieve greater impact.

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Financing Information and Communication Infrastructure Needs in the Developing World: Public and Private Roles
by Global ICT Department - November 2005

This report emphasizes the role of public-private partnerships in ensuring that more people in the developing world can access modern tools of communication. The report suggests that considerable progress has been made in narrowing the digital divide over the last ten years, but much remains to be done. The report calls on governments to utilize their roles as consumer of information and communications services as well as providers of other utility services to leverage rollout. It also discusses a number of innovative subsidy and investment models that have extended access to the previously unserved. The report notes the relatively small role of the donor community in terms of overall financing, but describes a number of cases where donors have leveraged and catalyzed private flows to meet rollout objectives.

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Fostering Pro-Competitive Regional Connectivity in Sub-Saharan Africa
by Isabel Neto, Cecile Niang and Mavis Ampah of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - November 2005

Africa lags the World in access to quality, affordable international connectivity. Building additional international infrastructure will be an important part of meeting this need, but the ownership structure and policy and regulatory environment under which capacity is built will determine the development impact of such projects. This paper discusses emerging best practice in the area of public support and oversight of private and public-private ventures to develop international connectivity in the region.

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The Africa Regional Communications Infrastructure Program - Project Outline
by Global ICT Department - November 2005

The proposed Regional Communications Infrastructure Program (RCIP) was developed at the request of the NEPAD Heads of State. It will finance a submarine fiber cable along the East Coast of Africa and connect countries in the region to the global telecommunications network, either directly or through terrestrial links. The World Bank Group is keen to support the roll out of the cable under an open access, pro-competitive communications regime that ensures capacity is available to all at a fair price.

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The Radio Spectrum: Opportunities and Challenges for the Developing World
by Björn Wellenius and Isabel Neto of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - October 2005

The radio spectrum is a major component of the telecommunications infrastructure that underpins the information society. Spectrum management, however, has not kept up with major changes in technology, business practice, and economic policy during the last two decades. This paper addresses three questions: What is the case for radio spectrum reform? What is the spectrum debate all about? Why does this matter to developing countries?

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Telecommunications and the WTO: The Case of Mexico
by Björn Wellenius, Juan Galarza, and Boutheina Guermazi of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - June 2005

The U.S.-Mexico case is the first (and so far only) case of World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute resolution on telecommunications services and, indeed, the first on services generally. The findings of the Panel charged with resolving the dispute, formally adopted by the WTO members, contain interpretations of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). This paper analyzes how the findings from this case may have implications for other countries that have made or intend to make market access commitments on telecommunications.

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Interconnection Challenges in a Converging Environment: Policy Implications for African Telecommunications Regulators
by: Jérôme Bezzina of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - June 2005

Managing the interconnection interface between the competitive and regulated sectors is crucial for the liberalization of infrastructure services. For policy makers, regulators and development agencies in the developing world—particularly in Africa, this situation presents a difficult challenge. The purpose of this paper is to show how interconnection regimes can be adapted to the African specificities in a context of convergence and increased competition.

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Universal Access and Output-Based Aid in Telecommunications and ICT
by: Juan Navas-Sabater of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - June 2005

Widespread access to ICTs creates new income opportunities and contributes to the social and economic transformation of entire countries. Yet access to ICTs in rural areas and poor urban neighborhoods of many developing countries is still today several orders of magnitude lower than in metropolitan urban areas. To address this problem, policymakers are devising universal access policies to ensure that ICTs reach all segments of society. This note discusses a best practice approach to universal access involving policies aimed at addressing both supply and demand-side constraints, in particular output-based aid schemes that promote extension of telecommunication networks to rural areas.

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Telecommunications Reform in the OECS: Impacts on Prices and Services
by Global ICT Department - June 2005

In 1998, five members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) — Dominica, St. Kitts & Nevis, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent — established a common regulatory framework for the telecommunications sector. They created the Eastern Caribbean Telecommunications Authority (ECTEL), the first regional telecommunications regulatory authority in the world, to facilitate the harmonization of the regulatory regime. The authority was established under treaty with the support of the OECS Telecommunications Reform Project, financed by the World Bank. This note examines how this reform agenda has affected telecommunications services and prices in the region.

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Mobile License Renewal: What Are the Issues? What is at Stake?
by Boutheina Guermazi and Isabel Neto of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - June 2005

This note provides an overview of mobile license renewal issues covering the legal regime of license renewal, the renewal process, the non-renewal context and the changes in licensing conditions including spectrum implications of the renewal process. It draws best practices that started to emerge in recent renewal practices, to ensure that the renewal process leads to the best outcome for all stakeholders.

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Expanding Broadband Access in Rural India: The Role of Alternative Telecommunications Networks
by Global ICT Department - June 2005

Over the past five years there has been a veritable explosion of technology and consumerism in India, but this has occurred largely in urban and middle class communities thus far. Rural India still needs to catch up. There are more than 500 million Indians residing in over 600,000 villages scattered throughout rural areas of the country. This note examines the potential for alternative telecommunications networks (ATNs) to help bridge this gap, thus providing a range of opportunities for social and economic growth to rural areas of India.

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Managing the Radio Spectrum: Framework for Reform in Developing Countries
Björn Wellenius & Isabel Neto

Bringing management of the radio spectrum closer to markets is long overdue. The radio spectrum is a majorcomponent of the infrastructure that underpins theinformation society. Spectrum management, however, hasnot kept up with major changes in technology, businesspractice, and economic policy that have taken place worldwide during the last two decades.

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Connecting Sub-Saharan Africa
by Pierre Guislain, Mavis A. Ampah, Laurent Besancon, Cecile Niang, and Alexandre Serot of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - June 2005

This paper outlines a strategy for information and communication technologies (ICT) development in Sub-Saharan Africa that will further the reform agenda to facilitate deployment of ICT infrastructure, and encourage the development community to support African governments in this regard.

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The ICT Landscape in the PRC - Market Trends and Investment Opportunities
Commissioned by IFC - March 2005

China's growth story, for ICT companies specifically, has been astonishing. China, often referred to as the "factory of the world" has traditionally had a strong manufacturing base, including a core focus on the electronics industry. In addition, in the past 10 years, we have seen an explosion of the mobile phone population to over 300 million subscribers, larger than any other country in the world. Further, the country's total number of Internet users has surpassed 90 million subscribers. Historically, sectors such as electronics manufacturing and mobile communications applications have enjoyed the benefit of growth, while we can already see new nascent sectors come up including media driven business, broadband applications and cutting-edge IC design houses.

While much of the growth in the ICT sector has been funded by foreign investments, mainly through the private and public equity markets, it is anticipated that many sectors require substantial and ongoing funding. It is anticipated that such funding by international investors will continue to outpace domestic funding sources.

This study is sponsored and funded by the Swedish International Development Corporation Agency (SIDA). It represents an important tool and roadmap for private investors in supporting the ICT industry in China. Another key consideration is IFC's role in mobilizing funds by working with domestic and international financial and strategic partners.

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E-strategies Monitoring and Evaluation Toolkit
by Aref Adamal, Bruno Lanvin, Robert Schware of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - January 2005

The focus of this toolkit is premised on the fact that effective Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is integral to the design and implementation of effective e-strategies. Developing M&E components of e-strategies is a means by which to ensure that the strategies are explicit and realistic with regard to what they aim to achieve, and that their implementation is regularly assessed and realigned to ensure the efficient use of scarce resources. In many respects, the credibility and efficiency of e-strategies depends on their having a strong M&E spine. Based on a review of some 50 e-strategies conducted by the authors, this toolkit advances a framework by which to integrate M&E into e-strategies.

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GICT 2004 Publications

Engendering Information & Communication Technologies: Challenges & Opportunities for Gender-Equitable Development
by Gender and Development Group and the Global ICT Department - 2004

Although they share the same geographic boundaries and social structures, men and women live in separate realities. Compared with men, women often enjoy fewer rights and resources. Gender-based inequalities limit how women can benefit from the opportunities offered by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and how they can influence the developing global knowledge economy. ICTs have tremendous potential for promoting and achieving sustainable development that is also gender-equal.

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Key Regulatory and Policy Issues to Ensure Open Access to Regional Backbone Infrastructure in Africa
Commissioned by the Global ICT Department - December 2004

This report deals with key policy and regulatory impediments, restrictions and bottlenecks that need to be addressed in order to ensure open, fair and pro-competitive access to the proposed infrastructure in East African countries. The report is complemented by a set of country case studies, including examinations of Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda.

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Output-Based Aid in Nepal: Expanding Telecommunications Service to Rural Areas
in: OBA Approaches - December 2004

A landlocked country which is covered largely by hills and mountains, Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world, where many people are isolated and without formal means of communication. Despite recent telecommunication sector reforms, rural areas have not been served. Recognizing this, the Government of Nepal, with the assistance of the World Bank, has developed an initiative whereby the private sector would provide telecommunications services to certain rural districts. To make the project commercially viable, a one-time subsidy financed by an IDA credit was granted with the 10-year renewable license. The subsidy would be paid based on outputs delivered - i.e., network roll-out. The result has been one of the first OBA projects for telecommunications in which the World Bank has funded the subsidy. Furthermore, the project has made progress toward simulating market conditions despite a very risky political and regulatory environment. This has demonstrated that OBA projects can be developed in difficult conditions, and that output-based assistance may be one solution for delivering basic services to the poor in the poorest countries.

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Morocco: Developing Competition in Telecommunications
by Global ICT Department - December 2004

This paper addresses efforts to promote competition in Morocco's telecommunications sector. It suggests that accelerated development of network competition, focusing regulation on fair competition, further adjustments in the legal and regulatory framework, and building closer ties with regional and global regulatory regimes through trade and economic agreements would contribute to sustainable development of a competitive telecommunications sector in Morocco.

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The Postal Sector in Developing and Transition Countries: Contributions to a Reform Agenda
by Global ICT Department, edited by Pierre Guislain - September 2004

The postal sector has started a transition process witnessed before in telecommunications and other network industries, from state monopoly to private-sector-led competition. This compilation was prepared as a contribution to the Universal Postal Union's 23rd Congress (Bucharest, September-October 2004) and its World Postal Strategy Forum. It includes several articles addressing key issues postal policymakers, regulators and operators are facing today. Each chapter looks at the reform process from a different angle, and the views of the various authors do not always coincide.

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Private Provision of Rural Infrastructure Services: Competing for Subsidies
by Bjorn Wellenius, Vivien Foster, Christina Malmberg-Calvo - August 2004

An increasing number of countries are beginning to experiment with extending the market paradigm to infrastructure services in rural areas that are often less attractive in commercial terms. In these cases, subsidies are used to close the gap between market requirements and development needs, and are increasingly determined and allocated on a competitive basis. The authors discuss the conditions under which competition among firms for such subsidies – successfully used in the telecommunications sector in a number of middle-income countries – could also be applied to electricity, water and sanitation and transportation services in lower-income countries.

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Operational Guidance for World Bank Group staff: Public and Private Sector Roles in the Information and Communication Infrastructure Sector
by Global ICT department - July 2004

This paper provides guidance to World Bank Group staff on assessing the suitability of available options for public-private roles in the financing and provision ICI, the potential role of the Bank in the various parts of the ICI sector and the main steps which staff should take to analyze these options. It also links to appropriate World Bank Group instruments, relating them to the different public-private models.

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Postal Telecenters in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia: Report and Business Model
by Global ICT Department - July 2004

This study looks at the potential for installing internet facilities in rural post offices in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia and the role the private sector might play in participating in such a venture. The World Bank, through the Dutch Trust Fund, has funded this study to assess the potential for private sector provision of internet facilities through the post office network and PricewaterhouseCoopers have been appointed as consultants to carry out this study through local research in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia.

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The World Bank and Telecommunications Lending: A Preliminary Evaluation of the 1990s
by Charles Kenny and Anat Lewin of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - July 2004

This paper focuses on the performance of the World Bank Group's (the Group's) activities in the telecommunications sector during the 1990s, using data on telecommunications rollout and reform as well as data on the Group's projects. The data suggests that World Bank projects are associated with progress in telecommunications reform and an increase in the growth rate of telecommunications networks. The data also suggests that International Finance Corporation (IFC) projects are associated with more rapid rollout of telecommunications services at the national level.

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Framework for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Telecommunications Regulators in Sub-Saharan Africa
Commissioned by the Global ICT Department - April 2004

This report, by NERA Economic Consulting, develops an assessment framework and decision-making tool that, it is hoped, will facilitate the effectiveness of telecommunications regulators in sub-Saharan Africa by regulators themselves, World Bank staff, other institutions and their consultants.

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Meeting the Competitiveness Challenge in the Middle East and North Africa: The Role of Telecommunications Sector Reform
by Mostafa Terrab, Alexandre Serot and Carlo Rossotto of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - March 2004

The relative weakness of the telecommunications sector in the Middle East and North Africa region has become a significant bottleneck to private sector development, trade, competitiveness, employment creation and growth. Competitive information and communication networks and services are no longer a luxury for companies competing in the global economy: they have become a necessity. MENA countries should implement an agenda of accelerated market liberalization across the sector, including international, data and leased lines, as well as strengthen regulatory institutions and processes. This paper outlines a framework for managing the transition to full competition and suggests related policy initiatives and regulatory changes.

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Connected for Development - Information Kiosks and Sustainability
by Bruno Lanvin and Robert Schware of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - February 2004

This publication is a compilation of the various models of information kiosks being tested and deployed around the world, as well as insights from experts in this field about the different key components necessary for success. By looking at ways in which traditional technologies (such as community radios) and more advanced ones (such as WiFi) can be used to reach and empower local communities, this book can help identify and promote new ways of using ICT for development.

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Chile New Economy Study
by Finance, Private Sector and Infrastructure group of Latin America and the Caribbean Region; with contribution from the GICT Department – February 2004

Chile faces the challenge of increasing it s economic growth rate, which faltered in 1997 after a decade of remarkable 7.7% annual growth. In the last six years, the rate of economic growth has declined to an average of 2.5% per year. Chile’s GDP recovered to 3.2% in 2003, and the outlook for the short term is positive - the economy is expected to grow at around 4% in 2004.2 Nevertheless, restoring even higher growth rates would allow Chile to gain a place among developed nations, reduce its poverty rate and improve its social indicators. The objective of this study is to assess Chile’s performance in areas that could affect productivity and growth in the future. The study does not attempt to stipulate a comprehensive and final set of policy reforms. Rather, it should be considered a first step toward further research intended to support the Chilean Government in devising a reform agenda for the coming years.

PDF Volume 1: Executive Summary and Policy Recommendations
PDF Volume 2: Background Documents 
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Telecommunications Challenges in Developing Countries: Asymmetric Interconnection Charges for Rural Areas
by Andrew Dymond – February 2004

This report addresses the important issue of interconnection, the application and enforcementof which is widely recognized to be key to effective liberalization strategy, or often a key reason for failure. Nowhere is this more critical than in the area of rural telecommunications, where network costs are known to be high and where the traditional consensus has been that services cannot be rolled out without subsidies. In a liberalizing environment, the issue becomes even more critical. Rural areas must be better connected, but subsidies—even best-practice explicit subsidies applied in a so-called "smart" way—cannot cover all of the areas that will remain without service unless better means of incentivizing investment are explored. This report also investigates an approach to rural telecommunications investment that would seek to bridge most of the so-called rural "access gap" by revising the network interconnection regime, such that operators serving high cost areas would receive higher call termination fees. The new regime would be built on geographically de-averaged termination charges, to be more indicative of network cost differences between urban and rural networks.

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Competition in International Voice Communications
by Global ICT department - January 2004

This paper presents the case that opening international voice communication to competition plays a key role in reforming the telecommunications sector, is sustainable in developing countries, and results in major gains to consumers, business users, and the economy overall. It makes the case for opening developing country markets quickly rather than gradually, and identifies regulatory matters that need to be tackled in opening the markets to competition.

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GICT 2003 Publications

Contribution of ICT to Growth
by Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang, Alexander Pitt and Seth Ayers - December 2003

This paper focuses on the linkage between ICT and output growth and summarizes the findings in the literature on the contribution of ICT to economic growth arising from capital deepening and increases in total factor productivity. It looks at the methodologies used to assess the magnitude of the different channels through which ICT influences productivity growth, summarizes the key factors that increase and obstruct ICT expansion, and outlines the challenges developing countries face in maximizing ICT's contribution to growth.

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A Model for Calculating Interconnection Costs in Telecommunications
by PPIAF with contribution from the Global ICT Department - December 2003

Determining interconnection tariffs is a complex and extremely sensitive task. In Africa, the absence of accurate cost information has rendered the situation all the more complex. In fact, some telecommunications regulators resolve interconnection disputes on the grounds of available tariff benchmarking, although these tariffs may not always be relevant. This guidebook provides a sound methodology to help regulators and telecommunications operators adopt a tariff regime and deal with interconnection disputes on the basis of a rigorous cost model.

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Information and Communication Technologies and Broad-Based Development: A Partial Review of the Evidence
by: Jeremy Grace, Charles Kenny, Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - December 2003

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are increasingly seen as integral to the development process. This paper reviews some of the evidence for the link between telecommunications and the Internet and economic growth, the likely impact of the new ICTs on income inequality and anecdotal evidence regarding the role of the Internet in improving government services and governance. It looks at methods to maximize access to the new ICTs, and improve their development impact both in promoting income generation and the provision of quality services.

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ICT and MDGs - A World Bank Group Perspective
by Global ICT Department - December 2003

The adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) at the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000 provides an agreed political benchmark for measuring the progress of global development. The international community is now recognizing that ICT has an important role to play in achieving all of these goals. This report looks at how ICT is already being used to promote development in the areas of poverty reduction, education, gender issues, health, environmental sustainability, and global partnerships.

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ICT and Development - Enabling the Information Society
by Global ICT Department - December 2003

This compilation examines the characteristics of ICT that make it an essential tool for development efforts, as well as discussing mechanisms to roll out ICT access to rich and poor alike. The compilation has three sections covering the role of ICT in development, the role of competition in expanding access to ICTs and methods to ensure access beyond the market.

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Broadcasting and Development: Options for the World Bank
by Carter Eltzroth and Charles Kenny - September 2003

It is increasingly recognized that broadcasting has an important role to play in development—as a widespread tool of information transfer, as a method to improve governance, as an important economic sector in its own right and as a potential access point to new information and communications technologies. Sector reform is long overdue, with the state dominating radio broadcast in approximately 75 percent of the world, for example. Reform in the broadcasting sector can have a significant development impact especially in improving governance and transparency. This note discusses the potential role of the World Bank in supporting broadcast sector reform.

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Evaluation of Postal Sector Reforms: Synthesis and Case Studies from Tanzania and Uruguay
Commissioned by the Global ICT Department - June 2003

The synthesis report follows the completion of two detailed case studies of postal sector reform. One case study covered the Republic of Tanzania and the other Uruguay. The main objective of this report is to synthesise the findings of the detailed case studies, which have been issued separately. This is intended to facilitate the development of the World Bank’s strategy for postal sector reform.

PDF Synthesis report
PDF Case study from Tanzania
PDF Case study from Uruguay 
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Bringing broadband Internet to Chile's Rural Areas
Commissioned by: the Global ICT Department – May 2003

Chile is a leader in telecom reform with one of the most liberalized telecom sectors in the world. The past three years, broadband has been developing rapidly in Chile, but almost exclusively in urban areas. Therefore the Government of Chile, represented by its telecom regulator SUBTEL, wants to take further steps to bring Internet access to its rural areas. SUBTEL is aware that the business cases for connecting these areas are not favorable. Therefore, SUBTEL is looking for the right set of business catalysts that will trigger telecom operators to invest in Internet connectivity in these rural areas. The World Bank has initiated a study project with the objective of developing a sustainable business model for providing rural broadband Intenet services, using the FDT subsidy mechanism. This report describes the results of this study.

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Deploying e-Government Programs: The Strategic Importance of "i" before "e"
by Robert Schware and Arsala Deane - April 2003

Many developing countries are in the initial phases of adopting electronic government (e-government) programs to improve public services and deliver them as efficiently and conveniently as possible. Experience with a variety of governments throughout the developing world at different stages of implementing e-government programs with citizens (G2C), businesses (G2B), and other entities of government (G2G) suggests that a major reason behind the success or failure of e-government projects is the extent to which, first, the governments address technological infrastructure encouraged by appropriate telecommunications policies; and second, the legal and regulatory instruments required for e-government. Information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure (the ``I’’) development is at the heart of successful deployment and sustainability of e-government programs.

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Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Agencies: Functions, Structures and Best Operational Practices
by Robert Schware of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - March 2003

A growing number of small states are in the process of establishing ICT agencies to address information society issues of e-government, e-infrastructure, e-industry, e-learning, and e-commerce. Some large countries are in the process of integrating telecommunications, IT, and broadcasting into a single ICT agency. This paper outlines the functional requirements for such an agency, and presents a range of international best practices for their focus and operation. The paper also suggests interim measures that can be taken before such agencies are legally established.

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GICT 2002 Publications

Information and Communication Technologies - A World Bank Group Strategy
by the Global ICT Department - April 2002

ICT provide the basis for increasing and applying knowledge in the private and public sectors. Countries with strong information infrastructures that employ innovative information technology applications, have many advantages for sustained economic growth and social development. This publication is, primarily, a business strategy which explains the World Bank's role in the development of information infrastructure. It details a plan for expanding the institutional development capacity within the World Bank and in the regions in order to successfully implement this strategy. This publication also discusses issues relating to information technology quality assurance and improving the World Bank's capacity to ensure such quality.

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Telecommunications and Information Services for the Poor: Toward a Strategy for Universal Access
by Juan Navas-Sabater, Andrew Dymond and Niina Juntunen - April 2002

This discussion paper outlines a number of policy and regulatory measures, including incentives to attract investors to challenging areas, that can be used to close the digital divide. While Bank Group experience shows an increasing number of projects with specific universal access components, this paper proposes alternatives for Bank Group support for universal access policies, through an appropriate mix of technical assistance, and investments.

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Telecommunications Liberalization: Best Practice in Universal Service Obligation and Fiscal Impact
by Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) with contribution from the Global ICT Department - April 2002

This PPIAF activity reviewed international experience in liberalizing telecommunications markets, with the aim of supporting a dialogue on reform with the Government of Morocco. The studies used empirical evidence from countries that have reformed their telecommunications sectors.

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Information and Communications Technology: Contribution to Growth and Employment Generation (Volume 1 - Policy Note)
by Finance, Private Sector and Infrastructure Group Middle East and North Africa Region and Global ICT Department - March 2002

This policy note is the first of two volumes, drafted in conjunction with a more detailed technical report. It was prepared in response to a request by the Government of Tunisia for Bank assistance to formulate an ICT development strategy, in accordance with the targets set in the Government of Tunisia’s 10th Development Plan. The policy note highlights current constraints to ICT sector development and proposes measures to eliminate them. It should be read in conjunction with the broader strategy report (Vol 2: Technical Report), which contains complementary data and technical information. The report compares the state of ICT development in Tunisia that of other economies, taking into account Tunisia’s relative strengths and weaknesses in developing a competitive and robust ICT industry. The report outlines the pillars of a strategy and specifies measures to be implemented by the Government, the private sector, and other stakeholders.

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Information and Communications Technology: Contribution to Growth and Employment Generation (Volume 2 - Technical Note)
by Finance, Private Sector and Infrastructure Group Middle East and North Africa Region and Global ICT Department - March 2002

This technical report note is the second of two volumes, drafted in conjunction with a policy note. It was prepared in response to a request by the Government of Tunisia for Bank assistance to formulate an ICT development strategy, in accordance with the targets set in the Government of Tunisia’s 10th Development Plan. This report, in conjunction with the policy note, highlights current constraints to ICT sector development and proposes a strategy to eliminate them. The strategy is aimed at bolstering the country’s emerging ICT sector and maximizing its ability to compete in local, regional, and global markets. In this context, its major objectives are to: (a) maximize the ICT contribution to growth and employment generation; (b) position Tunisia in the global ICT market; and (c) integrate ICT into the Tunisian economy.

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Closing the Gap in Access to Rural Telecommunications: Chile 1995 - 2002
by Bjorn Wellenius of the World Bank's Global ICT Department - February 2002

The study documents, and reviews the Chilean experience in rural telecommunications, by focusing on the principles, practical organization, basic design, and outstanding issues for extension of a more advanced form of approach to communication, and access to information. It examines in depth the results, and success factors of the Telecommunications Development Fund, established in 1994, a success largely due to the extensive reliance on market forces to determine, and allocate subsidies, to minimal regulatory intervention, and relatively simple processing.

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GICT infoDev Publications

infoDev is a partnership of international development agencies, coordinated and served by an expert Secretariat housed at the World Bank, one of its key donors and founders. It acts as a neutral convener of dialogue, and as a coordinator of joint action among bilateral and multilateral donors —supporting global sharing of information on ICT for development (ICT4D), and helping to reduce duplication of efforts and investments. Click here to access infoDev's Publications.

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