Disclaimer: The World Bank Group does not endorse or guarantee the reliability of content from external websites.
Data on poverty
Measuring and Analyzing Poverty
- Atkinson, A. B. and F. Bourguignon (1982), ”The Comparison of Multi-Dimensioned Distributions of Economic Status”, Review of Economic Studies, Vol XLIX, p. 183-201.
- Bidani, B. and M. Ravallion (1994), How Robust is a Poverty Profile, World Bank Economic Review 8, pp. 75-102.
- Christiansen, L. and Boisvert, R. N. (2000), ‘On Measuring Household Food Vulnerability: Case Evidence from Northern Mali’, Department of Agricultural, Resource, and Managerial Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 2000-05.
- Coudouel, Aline, Jesko Hentschel and Quentin Wodon (2002), Poverty Measurement and Analysis, in the PRSP Sourcebook, World Bank, Washington D.C.
- Cowell, F. (1995), Measuring Inequality, London. Prentice Hall.
- Datt, G., and M. Ravallion (1992), “Growth and Redistribution Components of Changes in Poverty Measures: A Decomposition with Applications to Brazil and India in the 1980's” Journal of Development Economics 38:275–95.
- Deaton, Angus (1997), The Analysis of Household Surveys: A Microeconometric Approach to Development Policy, Johns Hopkins University Press, World Bank, Washinton D.C.
- Deaton, A. and S. Zaidi (2002), A Guide to Aggregating Consumption Expenditures, Living Standards Measurement Study, Working Paper 135. Also in Russian.
- Foster, J.E., J. Greer, E. Thorbecke (1984), A Class of Decomposable Poverty Indices, Econometrica 52, pp.761-766.
- Gacitua-Mario, E., and Q. Wodon (Eds) (2001), Measurement and Meaning; Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America, World Bank Technical Paper 518, Washington, D.C.
- Goedhart, T. V. Harberstadt, A. Kapteyn and B.M.S. van Praag (1977), ‘The poverty line: concept and measurement’, Journal of Human Resources, Vol 12, No. 4, pp. 503-520.
- Hentschel, J. and P. Lanjouw (1996), Constructing an Indicator of Consumption for the Analysis of Poverty, World Bank Living Standard Measurement Study 124, Washington, DC.
- Hentschel, J., J. O. Lanjouw, P. Lanjouw, and J. Poggi (2000). “Combining Census and Survey Data to Trace the Spatial Dimension of Poverty: A Case Study of Ecuador,” The World Bank Economic Review, 14 (1).
- Hentschel, Jesko and Radha Seshagiri (2000), The City Poverty Assessment: A Primer, The World Bank, Washington D.C.
- Howes, Stephen R. and Jea Olson Lanjouw (1997), Poverty Comparisons and Household Survey Design, Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper 129, World Bank, Washington D.C.
- Jalan, J. and Ravallion, M. (1998), “Determinants of Transient and Chronic Poverty: Evidence from Rural China”,World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper No. 1936.
- Lanjouw, P. and M. Ravallion (1995), “Poverty and Household Size.” Economic Journal; 105: 1415-34.
- Lanjouw, Jean O. and Peter Lanjouw (1997) "Poverty Comparisons with Noncompatible Data," The World Bank: Washinton D.C.
- Lanjouw, Peter and Martin Ravallion (1996) "How Should we Assess Poverty Using Data from Different Surveys," Poverty Lines Newsletter, September 1996, The World Bank: Washington D.C.
- Litchfield, J. (1999), Inequality Methods and Tools, STICERD, London School of Economics, March.
- Pradhan, M. and M. Ravallion (1998), “Measuring Poverty Using Qualitative Perceptions of Welfare.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2011, Washington, DC.
- Pritchett, L., Suryahadi, A., and Sumarto, S. (2000), ”Quantifying Vulnerability to Poverty: A Proposed Measure, Applied to Indonesia”,World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2437.
Ravallion, Martin (1996), "Issues in Measuring and Modeling Poverty", Economic Journal, Vol. 106, September 1996, pp. 1328-44.
Ravallion, Martin (1994), Poverty Comparisons, Fundamentals of Pure and Applied Economics Volume 56, Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Measuring and Analyzing Inequality
Cowell, F.A., 1999, "Measurement of Inequality
" in Atkinson, A.B. and F. Bourguignon (eds) Handbook of Income Distribution, North Holland, Amsterdam.
Cowell, F.A. and S.P. Jenkins, 1995, "How Much Inequality Can We Explain? A Methodology and an Application to the USA", Economic Journal, 105: 421-30.
Dalton, H., 1920, "The Measurement of the Inequality of Incomes", Economic Journal, 30: 348-61.
Fields, G.S., 1980, Poverty, Inequality and Development, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
OECD, 1995, Income Distribution in OECD Countries: Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study, OECD, Paris.
Saposnik, R., 1981, "Rank-Dominance in Income Distribution" Public Choice, 36 pp147-151.
Saposnik, R., 1983, "On Evaluating Income Distributions: Rank Dominance, the Suppes-Sen Grading Principle of Justice and Pareto Optimality", Public Choice, 40: 329-36.
Sen, A.K., 1973, On Economic Inequality, Oxford University Press, London.
Sen A.K., 1976, "Poverty: An Ordinal Approach to Measurement" Econometrica, 44.
Shorrocks, A.F., 1983, "Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components", Econometrica, 50: 193-212.
Shorrocks, A.F., 1982b, "The Impact of Income Components on the Distribution of Family Incomes", Quarterly Journal of Economics, 98: 311-26.
Shorrocks A.F., 1983, "Ranking Income Distributions", Economica, 50: 3-17.
Theil, H., 1979, "The Measurement of Inequality by Components of Income", Economics Letters, 2: 197-9.
Yitzhaki, S. and R.I. Lerman, 1991, "Income Stratification and Income Inequality", Review of Income and Wealth, 37: 313-329.
Zellner, A., 1962, "An Efficient Method of Estimating Seemingly Unrelated Regressions and Tests for Aggregation Bias", Journal of the American Statistical Association, 57: 346-368.
The software packages below can be used to carry out projections and simulations. These tools use both grouped consumption (or income) data and unit record data from household surveys. They vary by the type and complexity of the analyses they can perform.
ADePT: Software Platform for Automated Economic Analysis
— ADePT software was developed in the research department of the World Bank to automate and standardize economic analysis. ADePT is now freely available for download from this site for applied economics researchers willing to quickly and reliably analyse their data using most modern statistical and econometric techniques.
— An interactive computational tool that allows you to replicate the calculations made by the World Bank’s researchers in estimating the extent of absolute poverty in the world ($1 a day). It also allows you to calculate the poverty measures under different assumptions and to assemble the estimates using alternative country groupings or for any set of individual countries of your choosing. PovcalNet is self-contained. PovcalNet is a product of the World Bank's Development Research Group.
— an Excel based program that produces forecasts that vary by level of complexity depending on the availability of reliable data for the post survey period and on the extent to which various factors influencing poverty levels are incorporated. You will find a chapter
describing the tool, as well as a file with the program itself.
» More Document and Links
Guidance on Poverty Assessments
For readings on related topics, see:
Back to Poverty Analysis Home