Click here for search results

Documents and Links

The examples provided on this page, and the documents which support them, are only meant to be illustrative and do not indicate World Bank endorsement of any data, methodologies, or geographic boundaries.

Contents

Overview

Small Area Estimation (SAE)

Spatial analysis tools
Alternative approaches
External websites
This page contains a collection of resources on poverty mapping that may be used for reference and research purposes. The articles, reports, manuals and other literature are organized into the categories displayed in the highlight box to the right. (Use the free Adobe Acrobat Readerto view the files.)

Overview

  1. Davis, Benjamin (2003). Choosing a Method for Poverty Mapping. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  2. Deichmann, Uwe. "Geographic Aspects of Inequality and Poverty."World Bank. January 1999.
  3. Henninger, Norbert (1998). “Mapping and Geographic Analysis of Poverty and Human Welfare – Review and Assessment.”Report prepared for the UNEP/CGIAR Initiative on GIS, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
  4. Henninger, Norbert and Mathilde Snel (2002). Where are the Poor?: Experiences with the Development and Use of Poverty Maps. World Resources Institute.

Small Area Estimation (SAE)

Overview

  1. Ghosh, M. and J.N.K. Rao. (1994). Small Area Estimation: An Appraisal,Statistical Science, 9(1):55-93.
  2. Hetschel, Jesko and Peter Lanjouw (1998). "Using Disaggregated Poverty Maps to Plan Sectoral Investments." PREM Notes. The World Bank.
  3. Hentschel, Jesko, Jean Olson Lanjouw, Peter Lanjouw, Javier Poggi. (1998). “Combining Census and Survey Data to Study Spatial Dimensions of Poverty and Inequality.”The World Bank Economic Review .
  4. Lanjouw, Peter. 2003. “Estimating Geographically Disaggregated Welfare Levels and Changes.” In Luiz Pereira da Silva and François Bourguignon, eds., The Impact of Economic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution: Evaluation Techniques and Tools. New York: Oxford University Press.
  5. Lanjouw, Peter, Berk Özler (2002). "Poverty on the Map."

Methodology

  1. Elbers, Chris, Jean O. Lanjouw and Peter Lanjouw (2002). "Micro-Level Estimation of Poverty and Inequality." Econometrica 71:1, pages 355-364.
  2. Elbers, Chris, Jean O. Lanjouw, and Peter Lanjouw. 2002. “Micro-Level Estimation of Welfare."Research Working Paper 2911. World Bank, Development Research Group, Washington, D.C.

Examples

  1. How Low Can You Go? Combining Census and Survey Data for Mapping Poverty in South AfricaAlderman, Harold, Miriam Babita, Gabriel Demombynes, Ntabiseng Makhatha, and Berk Özler (2001). "How Low Can You Go? Combining Census and Survey Data for Mapping Poverty in South Africa".Journal of African Economies, Volume 11, Issue 3.
  2. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and the United Nations World Food Program (2004).  Local Estimation of Poverty and Malnutrition in Bangladesh. [2.85Mb]




    Creating a Poverty Map for Azerbaijan
  3. Baschieri, Angela and Falkingham, Jane (2004). "Creating a Poverty Map for Azerbaijan." University of Southampton, UK. Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute, 48pp. (S3RI Applications and Policy Working Papers, A04/12)

  4. Malawi: An Atlas of Social StatisticsBenson, Todd (2002). Malawi: An Atlas of Social Statistics. National Statistical Office, Government of Malawi and the International Food Policy Research Institute.



  5. Geographic Dimensions of Well-Being in Kenya: Where are the Poor? From Districts to LocationsCentral Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Planning and National Development, Kenya (2003).  Geographic Dimensions of Well-Being Kenya: Where are the Poor? From Districts to Locations, Volume 1.

    Ecuador Poverty Assessment (2004)
  6. Ecuador Poverty Assessment (2004). World Bank. Chapter 2 of the report is almost entirely devoted to poverty comparisons using a map of panels.


  7. Commune-level Estimation of Poverty Measures and its Application in CambodiaFujii, Tomoki.  "Commune-level Estimation of Poverty Measures and its Application in Cambodia."U.C. Berkeley. June 7, 2003. [1.49Mb]
  8. Haslett, S., and Jones, G. (2005) “Local Estimation of Poverty in the Philippines,” The National Statistics Coordination Board of the Philippines and the World Bank. [1.97Mb]
  9. Spatially Disaggregated Estimates of Poverty and Inequality in ThailandHealy, Andrew J., Somchai Hitsuchon, Yos Vajaragupta. "Spatially Disaggregated Estimates of Poverty and Inequality in Thailand."Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Thailand Development Research Institute. September 3, 2003. [1.80Mb]
  10. Hentschel, J., J. Lanjouw, P. Lanjouw, and J. Poggi. 2000.  "Combining Census and Survey Data to Trace the Spatial Dimensions of Poverty: A Case Study of Ecuador." The World Bank Economic Review 14(1): 147-65.
  11. Povety and Inequality Mapping in BulgariaIvaschenko, Oleksiy (2004). “Poverty and Inequality Mapping in Bulgaria.”World Bank. [1.35Mb]


  12. Mapa de Pobreza: Metodología para su ElaboracíonMapa de Pobreza: Metodología para su Elaboracíon. (1999) República de Panamá Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas. [4.69Mb]

  13. Poverty and Inequality in Vietnam: Spatial Patterns and Geographic DeterminantsMinot, Nicholas and Bob Baulch. 2002. The Spatial Distribution of Poverty in Vietnam and the Potential for Targeting. Markets and Structural Studies Division. Discussion Paper 42. Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute.
  14. Minot, Nicholas, Bob Baulch, Michael Epprecht.  "Poverty and Inequality in Vietnam: Spatial Patterns and Geographic Determinants."International Food Policy Research Institute, Institute of Development Studies. 2003. [8.23Mb]
  15. Putting Welfare on the Map in MadagascarMistiaen, Johan, Berk Ozler (2002). "Putting Welfare on the Map in Madagascar." World Bank.



  16. Poverty Reduction & Economic Management, South Asia Region, World Bank (2005). “A Poverty Map for Sri Lanka: Findings and Lessons.” Department of Census and Statistics, Colombo, Sri Lanka, and the World Bank, Washington, U.S.A.
  17. Poverty, Inequality, and Geographic Targeting: Evidence from...Simler, Ken, Virgulino Nhate (2003). “Poverty, Inequality, and Geographic Targeting: Evidence from Small-Area Estimates in Mozambique.” International Food Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Planning and Finance, Maputo, Mozambique. [1.52Mb]

  18. How Poverty Came on the Map in Lao PDRVan der Weide, Roy (2004). "How Poverty Came on the Map in Lao PDR." [923Kb]

Extensions

  1. Demombynes, G., Elbers, C., Lanjouw, J.O., and Lanjouw, P. (2006). “How Good a Map? Putting Small Area Estimation to the Test,” mimeo, DECRG, the World Bank.
  2. Elbers, Chris, Jean O. Lanjouw, Peter Lanjouw (2004). "Imputed Welfare Estimates in Regression Analysis." Amsterdam Institute for International Development, Vrije University Amsterdam, U.C. Berkeley, Brookings Institution, Center for Global Development, World Bank. April 26, 2004.
  3. Micro-Level Estimation of WelfareElbers, Chris, Jean O. Lanjouw, and Peter Lanjouw (2002).  "Micro-Level Estimation of Welfare." Data from Ecuador.
  4. Elbers, Chris, Jean O. Lanjouw, and Peter Lanjouw (2005). “Determining Changes in Welfare Distributions at the Micro-level: Updating Poverty Maps,” paper presented at the international Statistical Institute, 2005, Sydney, Australia.
  5. Elbers, C., Lanjouw, J.O., Lanjouw, P., and Leite, P.G. (2001). “Poverty and Inequality in Brazil: New Estimates from Combined PPV-PNAD Data”, mimeo, DECRG, the World Bank.
  6. Ferreira, F., Lanjouw, P. and Neri, M. (2003) “A New Poverty Profile for Brazil using PPV, PNAD and Census Data,” Revista Brasileira de Economia, Vol 57, No. 1.
  7. Fujii, Tomoki, Peter Lanjouw, Silvia Alayon, Livia Montana."Micro-level Estimation of Prevalence of Child Malnutrition in Cambodia." U.C. Berkeley, World Bank, ORC Macro. February 1, 2004. [456Kb]
  8. Hoogeveen, Johannes G.  "Measuring Welfare for Small Vulnerable Groups: Poverty and Disability in Uganda."World Bank. DRAFT: December, 2003. (How one can use poverty mapping techniques to get poverty estimates for small populations that are otherwise 'statistically' invisible.) [84.6Kb]
  9. Updating Small Area Welfare Indicators in the Absence of a New CensusHoogeveen, Johannes G., Thomas Emwanu, Paul Okiira Okwi.  "Updating Small Area Welfare Indicators in the Absence of a New Census."World Bank, Uganda Bureau of Statistics, Economics Department, Makerere University, Kampala. DRAFT: November 13, 2003. (Reweighting household surveys, something that often has to be done in the course of poverty mapping.) [265Kb]
  10. Kijima, Y., and Lanjouw, P., (2005), "Economic Diversification and Poverty in Rural India," Indian Journal of Labour Economics, vol. 48, no. 2, April-June, pp. 349-374.
  11. Kijima, Y. and Lanjouw, P. (2003). “Poverty in India during the 1990s: A Regional Perspective,” Policy Research Working Paper No. 3141, DECRG, The World Bank.
  12. Minot, Nicholas and Bob Baulch. (2002).  Poverty Mapping with Aggregate Census Data: What is the Loss in Precision? Markets and Structural Studies Division. Discussion Paper 49. Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute.

Computational Tools

  1. Demombynes, Gabriel.  "A Manual for the Poverty and Inequality Mapper Module."  University of California-Berkeley and the World Bank. REVISED VERSION: April 2002. (83kb PDF). See also: Poverty and Inequality Mapper Module (114 kb SAS file)
  2. Zhao, Qinghua. User Manual for PovMap Version 1.1a, World Bank. [116Kb]

Policy

  1. Araujo, C., Ferreira, F., Lanjouw, P. and Ozler, B. (2006). “Local Inequality and Project Choice: an Application to Ecuador’s Emergency Social Investment Fund, 1993 – 97,” mimeo, DECRG, the World Bank. Demombynes, Gabriel.
  2. Demombynes, Gabriel, Berk Özler (2002). "Crime and Local Inequality in South Africa." World Bank.
  3. Demombynes, Gabriel, Chris Elbers, Jenny Lanjouw, Peter Lanjouw, Johan Mistiaen, Berk Özler. "Producing an Improved Geographic Profile of Poverty: Methodology and Evidence from Three Developing Countries." World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University discussion paper no. 2002/39. March 2002.
  4. Elbers, Chris, Peter Lanjouw, Johan Mistiaen, Ken Simler, and Berk Özler (2003).  "Are Neighbours Equal? Estimating Local Inequality in Three Developing Countries."
  5. Elbers, C., Fuji, T., Lanjouw, P., Ozler, B. and Yin, W. (2004) “Poverty Alleviation Through Targeting: How Much Does Disaggregation Help?”, Policy Research Working Paper Series 3419, The World Bank.
  6. Elbers, Chris, Peter Lanjouw, Johan Mistiaen, Berk Özler, Ken Simler. "On the Unequal Inequality of Poor Communities." Vrije University Amsterdam, World Bank, International Food Policy Research Institute. February 5, 2004.

Back to the top

Spatial Analysis Tools

  1. GIS Frequently Asked Questions. Maintained by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
  2. GIS and geography WWW resource list at the University of Edinburgh's Department of Geography. Links to university departments, public and commercial sites dealing with GIS and geography
  3. GIS and geography WWW resource list at the University of Utrecht (Netherlands). Links to university departments, public and commercial sites dealing with GIS and geography
  4. Anselin, Luc (1992).  Spacestat Tutorial: A Workbook for using Spacestat in the Analysis of Spacial Data.University of Illinois: Urbana-Champaign. [1..49Mb]
  5. United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD). Compilation of statistics; Standards development and technical advisory services for census taking.

Back to the  top

Alternative Approaches

  1. Bigman, D. and U. Deichmann (2000).  “Geographical Targeting: A Review of Methods and Approaches,” in D. Bigman and H. Fofack, editors, Geographical Targeting for Poverty Alleviation: Methodology and Applications. World Bank.
  2. Croft, T., S. Rutstein, J. Brunner and N. Abderrahim, 1997,West Africa Spatial Analysis Prototype: Development of a Geo-Referenced Regional Database, Technical paper, DHS/Macro International.

Policy Applications

  1. Bigman, David, Hippolyte Fofack. 2000.  "Geographical Targeting for Poverty Alleviation: An Introduction to the Special Issue." The World Bank Economic Review 14 (1): 129-145.
  2. Deichmann, Uwe, Somik V. Lall, Pragya Rajoria, and Ajay Suri. "Information-Based Instruments for Improved Urban Management."World Bank. March 19, 2003.
  3. Snel, Mathilde, Anna Ballance (2003).  "Workshop on the Impacts of Poverty Maps: Past Experiences and New Applications." Joint FAO/CGIAR/UNEP Poverty and Food Security Mapping Project background document.[374Kb]

Examples

East Asia & the Pacific

Vietnam: Poverty (estimated from household characteristics)

Agrawal, Nisha and James Beard (2002). "Localizing MDGs for Poverty Reduction in Vietnam: Eradicating poverty and hunger."Vietnam Poverty Task Force.

Centre for International Economics, Canberra and Sydney (2002).  Vietnam Poverty Analysis. Prepared for AusAID. [1.3Mb]

Minot, Nicholas. "Generating Disaggregated Poverty Maps: An Application to Viet Nam." International Food Policy Research Division, October 1998.
Pitt, M.M., M.R. Rosenzweig and D.M. Gibbons (1993). “The Determinants and Consequences of the Placement of Government Programs in Indonesia.”-World Bank Economic Review, 7(3): 319-348.
Ravallion, Martin (1994)."How Robust is a Poverty Profile." A case study on Indonesia. The World Bank Economic Review. 8(1): 75-102. [1.52Mb]

Europe & Central Asia

Tajikistan: Absolute Poverty Headcount Rate (absolute poverty line 47.06 Somoni, monthly consumption expenditure)

"Socio-Economic Atlas of Tajikistan 2005." University of Southampton, UK. Geo Data Institute.

Latin America & the Caribbean

Belize: Road Network - Market Locations

Chomitz, K.M. and D.A. Gray (1995). “Roads, Lands, Markets and Deforestation. A Spatial Model of Land Use in Belize.”World Bank.

Ecuador: Representación Parroquial de la Incidencia de la Pobreza en 10 Categorías

Larrea, Carlos, Malki Sáenz, Javier Cervantes, Carolina Chiriboga. "Métodos Utilizados para la Creacion de la Información Geografica y de Base de Datos."Ecuador. [1.99Mb]

 

Larrea, Carlos.  "Mapa Socioambiental Nacional."Ecuador. [144Kb]

Nicaragua PRSP (2001). Government of Nicaragua. Annex IV includes the poverty map, poverty tables and discussion of policy applications.

South Asia

 

Bigman, David, P. V. Srinivasan. "Geographical Targeting of Poverty Alleviation Programs: Methodology and Applications in Rural India."Journal of Policy Modeling Volume 24, Issue 3, June 2002, Pages 237-255.

 

Datt, G. and M. Ravallion (1993).  “Regional Disparities, Targeting, and Poverty in India,” in M. Lipton and J. van der Gaag, Including the Poor, The World Bank.

India: Bangalore Survey Locations and Ward Boundaries

Deichmann, Uwe, Somik V. Lall, Pragya Rajoria, and Ajay Suri. "Information-Based Instruments for Improved Urban Management." (India) World Bank. March 19, 2003.

Sub-Saharan Africa

West Africa: Subnational Infant Mortality Rates for West Africa

Balk, Deborah, Tom Pullum, Adam Storeygard, Fern Greenwell, and Melissa Neuman. (2004)  "Spatial Analysis of Childhood Mortality in West Africa." Population, Space and Place, Vol. 10, No. 3.

Burkina Faso: Poverty Index at Village Level (Province of Sanguie)

Bigman, D., S. Dercon, D. Guillaume, and M. Lambotte. (2000) "Community Targeting for Poverty Reduction in Burkina Faso." The World Bank Economic Review 14 (1): 167-93.

 

Croft, T., S. Rutstein, J. Brunner and N. Abderrahim (1997)West Africa Spatial Analysis Prototype: Development of a Geo-Referenced Regional Database, Technical paper, DHS/Macro International.

 

Fofack, Hippolyte. (2000) "Combining Light Monitoring Surveys with Integrated Surveys to Improve Targeting for Poverty Reduction: The Case of Ghana."The World Bank Economic Review 14 (1): 195-219.

Madagascar: Poverty Incidence (commune level)

Galasso, Emanuela.  "The Geographical Dimension of Public Expenditures and Its Link to Poverty: The Case of Madagascar." PowerPoint presentation World Bank.

Malawi: ADMARC Market Locations and Main Road Network (Primary and Secondary Roads)

Nucifora, Antonio (2003). "Reforming the Malawi Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation (ADMARC): Synthesis Report of the Poverty and Social Impact Analysis"World Bank.

Back to the top

External Websites

While we hope you find the links below useful, please note the World Bank is not responsible for the content of external websites.

  1. Center for International Earth Science Information Network: Global Distribution of Poverty - Columbia University
  2. Department of Geography, University of Leicester, International Inequality: Spatial Aspects. Interrelationships between the different dimensions of inequality and their spatial patterns.
  3. FAO, UNEP and the CGIAR
  4. FAO Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) Development of country level food security and vulnerability monitoring systems—extensive use of GIS.
  5. GIS and geography WWW resource list at the University of Edinburgh's Department of Geography. Links to university departments, public and commercial sites dealing with GIS and geography.
  6. GIS and geography WWW resource list at the University of Utrecht (Netherlands). Links to university departments, public and commercial sites dealing with GIS and geography.
  7. GIS Frequently Asked Questions. Maintained by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
  8. International Food Policy Research Institute
  9. International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia. Compilation of GIS data sets; projects investigating the relationship between poverty and agricultural development; focal center for GIS in the CGIAR.
  10. Stone Environmental. A US firm that manages Geographic Information Systems (GIS) projects on a variety of topics, including Information for Sustainable Development initiatives in Africa.
  11. USAID Famine Early Warning System. Large-scale monitoring systems, compilation of bio-physical and socioeconomic data—many in GIS format.
  12. United Nations Environment Programme/ Global Resource Information Database (UNEP/GRID). Poverty mapping initiative; UNEP/CGIAR cooperation in GIS use for agricultural research.
  13. World Food Programme Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping

Back to the top

Back to Poverty Mapping




Permanent URL for this page: http://go.worldbank.org/BEMW6IVCI0