Click here for search results

Abstracts and Conference Papers

conferencebanner

Listed By Author Last Name

Anarfi, John 

Anderson, Lisa

Azam, Farooq

Basu, Kaushik

Beall, Jo

Bennett, Lynn

Bonner, Ann-Marie, Jeremy Holland, Andy Norton, and Ken Sigrist

Boonyabancha, Somsook

Buvinic, Mayra, and Jacqueline Mazza

Chase, Robert and Michael Woolcock

Christiansen, Catrine, Bawa C Yamba, and Susan R Whyte

de Haan, Arjan

Delmon, Jeff

deSouza, Peter Ronald and Jayadeva Uyangoda

Dubash, Navroz K.

Francis, Paul and Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo

Friis-Hansen, Esbern

Gloppen, Siri

Grødeland, Åse Berit

Grzymala-Busse, Anna

Hall, Anthony

Harris, Elliott and Caroline Kende-Robb

Havemann, Kirsten and Pat Pridmore

Hopenhayn, Martín

Inglehart, Ronald

Johannsen, Lars and Karin Hilmer Pedersen

Kane, Minneh, Joseph Oloka-Onyango, and Abdul Tejan-Cole

Kessler, Timothy

Larrañaga, Osvaldo

Marc, Alexandre

Martin, Brendan 

Mehta, Pratap Bhanu

Michel, James

Molnar, Augusta, Andy White, and Arvind Khare

Mutizwa-Mangiza, Naison

Narayan, Deepa, and Soumya Kapoor

Paldam, Martin

Pinglé, Vibha

Posner, Daniel N.

Recondo, David

Ringold, Dena

Rodgers, Dennis

Sage, Caroline and Michael Woolcock

Satterthwaite, David

Varshney, Ashutosh

Widner, Jennifer

Wood, Davida

Wood, Geof and Julie Newton

Yeates, Nicola

 

TOWARDS THE SUSTAINABLE RETURN OF WEST AFRICAN TRANSNATIONAL MIGRANTS—WHAT ARE THE OPTIONS?

 

John Anarfi,   Institute of Statistical, Economic, and Social Research, Ghana

jkanarfi@isser.ug.edu.gh

Abstract:   Return migration is not an end in itself and changes with the expansion and deepening of the globalisation process. As further understanding of the process develops, focus is shifting from the migrant's presence at origin to include the returnee's social networks and his or her contribution to the development process at origin.

Remittances from transnational migrants have the potential to impact on the development of sending households, local communities and countries of origin. However in order to maximize this potential in a sustainable manner appropriate policies must be formulated, implemented and assessed.

 

Using existing data this paper explores the sustainable return of transnational migrants originating from West Africaand the impact of their remittances on the development process, further analysing the data for implications for policy.

 

Keywords:  migration, return migration, social networks, remittances, development impacts, West Africa

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here.

TOP

 

STUDENTS, BASES, PARTIES, MOVEMENTS:

PUBLIC WELFARE AND THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN

THE STATE AND ITS COMPETITORS IN THE MIDDLE EAST

 

Lisa Anderson, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University

la8@columbia.edu

 

Abstract:      This essay examines the costs and benefits of the imposition and decay of the modern state in the Middle Eastfor popular welfare. The modern European-style state, and particularly of the assignment of responsibility for welfare functions to the state, is a relatively new feature of the regional landscape. The widespread failure of many of the region’s states to fulfill these responsibilities in the second half of the twentieth century contributed to eroding the already frail legitimacy of formal state institutions, but it did not erase the need for, or expectation of, welfare provision by institutions that transcend private interests. In European and North American polities with long and stable histories of states, many of these welfare functions have been in recent years delegated to a “civil society” defined and delineated by the state; in the Middle East, the declining capacity of the state has instead been an impetus to imaginative constructions of institutional alternatives—rule by “students” or “parties of God”--that challenge and undermine the state itself. Yet the stable provision of social welfare seems to require the public service mission and the administrative capabilities of competent conventional states. Development therefore entails rebuilding rather than dismantling the state structures that were legacies of imperialism.

 

Keywords: state, imperialism, community, corruption, Islamist, social welfare

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here.

TOP

 

PUBLIC POLICIES TO SUPPORT MIGRATION IN PAKISTAN AND PHILIPPINES

 

Farooq Azam, Technical Assistance Management Agency

farooqi_azam@yahoo.com fazam@tama.org.pk

 

Abstract:  Pakistan and the Philippinesare two leading source countries for international migration. Currently about 3.75 million Pakistanis and 7.0 million Filipinos are estimated to be living or working overseas. Both the countries have nearly 3½ decades of experience of managing migration through sets of policies and programs aimed at promoting overseas employment opportunities for their citizens, maximizing the benefits of migration for migrants, protecting migrants against exploitation and hazards and improving the welfare of migrants and their families. Policies have also been introduced for maximizing the inflow of cash remittances through formal institutional channels.

 

The relevance and adequacy of the policy measures is examined from the perspectives of making migration more “affordable” to include more social groups, and productive use of capital and human assets resulting from migration for improved and sustainable livelihoods of migrants and their families. The paper highlights policy strengths and gaps based on available empirical evidence from the two countries and makes recommendations for policy improvements and further research.

 

Keywords: international migration, livelihoods, public policies, Pakistan, Philippines

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here.

TOP

 

PARTICIPATORY EQUITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:   POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR A GLOBALIZED WORLD

 

Kaushik Basu, Department of Economics,Cornell University 

kb40@cornell.edu

 

Abstract:    The role of a person’s identity and sense of integration into society as instruments of economic development has been vastly underestimated in the literature in economics. We talk of policies to subsidize the poor and give direct support to alleviate poverty. But in the long run, what is critical is that we instill in people a sense of belonging and having certain basic rights as citizens. What the poor and the marginalized in society lack is a sense of “participatory equity.” This paper tries to advance this perspective by building a new model where a person’s community identity matters, ex post, in determining if he or she will be poor, even though (unlike in the Spence model) all persons are identical ex ante.

 

The paper also draws on data collected from an NGO-run school in Calcuttato illustrate the role of a school child’s sense of ‘belonging’ in determining how the child performs academically. The theory and the empirical work are inputs into the larger, more general idea that when people feel marginalized in a society, tend to ‘give up’. A substantial part of the paper is devoted to the policy implications of these analytical ideas and empirical results in the context of national policies and globalization.

 

Keywords: social integration, poverty, participatory equity, community identity 

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

ASSET OR LIABILITY?TRADITIONAL AUTHORITY AND THE PURSUIT OF LIVELIHOOD SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA AND AFGHANISTAN

 

Jo Beall, Development Studies Institute, London Schoolof Economics

j.beall@lse.ac.uk

 

Abstract:    Guaranteed access to productive and reproductive resources, alongside various forms of mutuality and social insurance mechanisms, are the characteristics most often associated with informal social security systems. Under conditions of state fragility, whether due to political transition or war and conflict, the stress placed on traditional institutions is thought to be greater. The paper explores the role of traditional leaders and informal institutions in terms of social protection and public action in South Africa and Afghanistan, two countries that have experienced political upheaval and violent conflict to varying degrees. The paper analyses how state fragility impacts on traditional institutions and the implications for ordinary people seeking to survive and manage risk. Particular attention is paid to the urban context, where institutional pluralism is more starkly evident and engaged. The paper concludes that while traditional institutions are often the main vehicle through which livelihood security is attained under conditions of fragility, they are limited in significant ways. These limitations are most likely to be addressed under conditions of state stability and via wide platforms for public action. Conventionally social policy in developing countries has placed much reliance on traditional institutions. The paper points to the importance of recognising the contributions they make while locating these within a broader institutional terrain for the reduction of vulnerability and insecurity.

 

Keywords: livelihoods, social security, fragile states, traditional institutions, institutional pluralism, public action, South Africa, Afghanistan

 

For the complete paper please click here

For the presentation please click here. 

 

TOP

 

GENDER, CASTE AND ETHNIC EXCLUSION IN NEPAL:

FOLLOWING THE POLICY PROCESS FROM ANALYSIS TO ACTION

 

Lynn Bennett, World Bank, Nepal

lbennett@worldbank.org

 

Abstract:     This paper builds on the Nepal Gender and Social Exclusion Assessment (GSEA), a collaborative policy research study undertaken by World Bank and DFID.   The paper examines the GSEA – which will be followed by further joint work supported by a three year DFID Social Exclusion Action Programme (SEAP) – as an on-going effort to influence the formal policy making process and the messier, longer  term process of supporting the implementation of these policies and trying to make them a reality on the ground.  It confronts the fact that policy reform, if it takes hold, is actually culture change – especially when the policy issue examined is how to overcome the persistent legacy of caste, ethnic and gender-base exclusion.

 

The paper is divided into four parts. The first briefly presents the historical background of exclusion in Nepal and the conceptual framework used in the study. The second part presents the main findings of the GSEA research – including poverty outcomes by gender, caste and ethnicity, an analysis of government and civil society responses to gender, caste and ethnic discrimination, a review of legal issues, access to health and education, an analysis of group based approaches and efforts to evolve an affirmative action policy.   Part three offers the GSEA key policy recommendations and the final part looks ahead to the next stage of the GSEA process.  It examines some of the considerations that must be taken into account by the GSEA team as it moves more fully from policy analysis to supporting the Nepalis in government and civil society who want to make Nepala more inclusive state – and trying to influence those who do not.

 

Keywords: social exclusion, caste, ethnicity, gender, institutional analysis, Nepal

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

MONITORING SOCIAL POLICY OUTCOMES IN JAMAICA:

DEMOCRATIC EVALUATION AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

 

Ann-Marie Bonner, Policy Analysis and Review Unit, Cabinet Office, Jamaica

caboff-amb@cwjamaica.com

Jeremy Holland, University of Wales, J.D.Holland@Swansea.ac.uk

Andy Norton, Social Development, World Bank

anorton@worldbank.org

and

Ken Sigrist, ken_sigrist@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:  This paper documents a continuing initiative to monitor and improve social policy in Jamaica. Developed as a key component of the Jamaica Social Policy Evaluation (JASPEV) process, the initiative seeks to link technical innovation in the collection and flow of information to a process of institutional change and inclusiveness at different levels of governance.    Under JASPEV, the Jamaican Cabinet Office is promoting a system of locally-generated but nationally-comparable benchmark indicators designed to encourage institutional change in the relationship between citizens, the political directorate and technocrats that will improve social policy design and delivery. This involves citizens in sampled communities as primary gatherers of outcome and impact monitoring data on a chosen theme, the first theme chosen being “youth inclusion”. This institutional challenge is considerable. The politicised nature of institutions in Jamaica, the role of hierarchy and patronage and the prevalence of “turfism” within and between political parties is widely recognised. The challenge faced should not be understated, yet the set-up of JASPEV is beginning to create political space for institutional change and greater inclusiveness, through its emphasis on the interaction of nodes of local and national evidence-based policy discussions.

 

Keywords: social policy, social monitoring, institutional change, Jamaica

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

SCALING UP SLUMS AND SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS UPGRADING IN THAILAND

LEADING TO COMMUNITY-DRIVEN INTEGRATED SOCIAL

DEVELOPMENT AT CITY-WIDE LEVEL

Somsook Boonyabancha, Asian Coalition for Housing Rights

achr@loxinfo.co.th


Abstract: Typically, governments and international agencies support ‘upgrading’ programmes for ‘slums’ and squatter settlements through improvements in infrastructure or housing.  The paper discusses the merits of a different approach to reducing urban poverty by community organizations in large scale.  The paper examines the role of ownership of the upgrading process which has changed the relationship between urban poor communities and local governments so these communities become accepted as legitimate parts of the city and have more space and freedom to develop their own responses.


This paper describes an ambitious national slum and squatter upgrading programme “The Baan Mankong Program” launched by the Thai government in 2003 and implemented through the Community Organizations Development Institute (CODI).   If reconceived in this way, ‘upgrading’ can be a powerful intervention to rebuild strong social collective unit among poor people communities and to become basic safety net for poor members in the community, to reduce poverty and support decentralization and ‘good’ local governance. It concludes that upgrading brings about significant change and strengthens the social system and the internal relationship of people in the same community.

 

Keywords: urban poverty, slum and squatter settlements, slum upgrading, large scale
community based solutions, decentralization

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

 

TOP

 

 GENDER AND SOCIAL INCLUSION:

SOCIAL POLICY PERSPECTIVES FROM LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

 

Mayra Buvinic, Gender and Development, World Bank

mbuvinic@worldbank.org

and

Jacqueline Mazza, Inter-American Development Bank

jacquelinem@iadb.org

 

Abstract:     Based on recent experience and good practices with women’s inclusion, this paper analyzes some of the basic building blocks for social inclusion policies in Latin Americaand the Caribbean (LAC). It distinguishes 3 levels of interventions to advance social inclusion: (1) constitutional frameworks and national policies, (2) institutional arrangements, and (3) pro-active programs to counter specific forms of exclusion. In order to promote inclusion, first it is necessary to insure constitutional and legal protections for group rights. International and national anti-discrimination laws are among the necessary instruments to fight discrimination. National policies include counting excluded groups in national statistics and enacting land and property rights. Second, the paper examines the experience of LAC with government ministries or offices (“national machineries”) created to promote women’s empowerment. It finds that “mainstreaming” the concerns of excluded groups in agencies or ministries has worked in the case of gender inclusion, but success depends on strong support from the executive branch, close alliance with non-state actors and both cultural and political openings. Finally, the paper examines three sets of public policies in affirmative action, education and labor markets to promote inclusion, with particular emphasis on gender. LAC experience offers a good example of the need for both complementary actions in different sectors and participation of state and non-state actors to advance in social inclusion.

 

Keywords: social inclusion; gender inclusion; national machineries for women; affirmative action; social policy; inclusive education; inclusive labor markets

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

SOCIAL CAPITAL AND THE MICRO-INSTITUTIONAL

FOUNDATIONS OF CDD APPROACHES IN EAST ASIA:

EVIDENCE, THEORY, AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

 

Robert Chase, Social Development, World Bank

rchase@worldbank.org

and

Michael Woolcock, Development Research Group, World Bank

mwoolcock@worldbank.org

 

Abstract:  As the largest operational manifestation of ideas encapsulated in the term “social capital”, community-driven development (CDD) has attracted considerable acclaim and criticism as its profile has risen within the World Bank and the development community more broadly. While supporters and critics alike have compelling “stories” they can invoke to make their case (e.g., “empowerment” versus “lack of evidence”), we argue that it is the absence of a coherent theory of social and political change at the local level that is the primary obstacle to empirical and policy advancement. We provide such a theory, and use it to frame a review of recent empirical studies of CDD efficacy in East Asia. Solid theory and defensible evidence together offers the sturdiest platform on which to base policy and operational deliberations, and improve the analytic purchase of “social capital”.

 

Keywords: social capital, community driven development, institutions, theory, evidence

 

For the complete paper please click here..

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

 ARENAS OF CHILD SUPPORT

INTERFACES OF FAMILY, STATE AND NGO PROVISIONS OF SOCIAL SECURITY

 

Catrine Christiansen, University of Copenhagen

catrine.christiansen@nai.uu.se,

Bawa C Yamba, Diakonhjemmet University College

yamba@diakonhjemmet.no

and

Susan R Whyte, University of Copenhagen

susan.reynolds.whyte@anthro.ku.dk

 

Abstract:  This paper provides an overview of national policy on child welfare in Uganda and goes on to explore the provision of social security for children in three arenas: government programs, NGO projects, and family networks. While state and NGO interventions conform to the principles laid out in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990), family support is embedded in kinship expectations and obligations. We examine the contrast between the rights-based (state and NGO) approach to children as individuals and the kinship-based (family) treatment of them as embedded in social relations. We discuss the balance between government attempts to provide universal frameworks for child welfare, such as primary education, and NGO efforts to target support at specific vulnerable groups. The criterion for including some children as vulnerable and excluding others does not always fit with local realities. The paper is based on ethnographic research in eastern Ugandaand document reviews. Examples include support to children's education, protection from sexual harassment and inheritance of parent's property. The policy recommendations are: to strengthen collaboration between government, donors, and NGOs at local level; to take measures to improve universal child welfare; to base targeted interventions on local needs assessment and children as active participants; and to support children's long-term security in immediate social contexts.

 

Keywords: child rights, social protection, universalistic welfare, family, NGOs, state, Uganda

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

TOWARDS INCLUSIVE INSTITUTIONS

 

Arjan de Haan, DFID / University of Guelph

arjande@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract:  Donors have paid little attention to capacity of partner institutions, how they exclude, and influence patterns of exclusion and inclusion. This paper tries to develop a framework for interrogating practices of public institutions, how do include and exclude, and how donors relate to these. This is done partly through an analysis of policies for affirmative action.

 

In many contexts, deep-rooted differences and inequalities continue to pervade progressive public policy practices. The paper shows how in India, social differentiation has been reinforced by policy and political practices, including by donor engagement: through categories and classifications used, official inaction or delays, attitudes of officials, and modes of representation including through civil society organisations.

 

Policy recommendation revolve around strengthening our understanding about social policy institutions, how they include and exclude, and how they impact upon often informal practices of inclusion and exclusion. Engagement with welfarist policy arenas is important, as these provide important battle grounds for marginalised groups, and lessons from these areas provide insight about broader public policy instruments and their ability to promote inclusion. Realism is key, as changing deep rooted attitudes is extremely difficult, and donors need to become more strategic and self-aware in addressing this.

 

Keywords: social policy, exclusion and inclusion, affirmative action, social categories, attitudes

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

IMPLEMENTING SOCIAL POLICY INTO CONTRACTS FOR THE PROVISION OF UTILITY SERVICE

 

Jeff Delmon, World Bank

jdelmon@worldbank.org

 

Abstract:  To be successful, social policy must form an integral part of the political, legal and regulatory fabric of a country. When part of the delivery of utility services is performed by a private sector entity, social policy requirements need to be embedded in any contractual mechanisms used to define the relationship between the public and private sector. These contractual mechanisms are used by the private sector to protect it from the public sector’s power to unilaterally change the nature of their relationship through legal and regulatory functions and by the public sector to establish the role of the private sector and create incentives to keep the private sector focused on the desired outcomes. This note provides guidance on how each aspect of a contractual mechanism must contemplate social policy implications and adapt to social policy changes over time. It also suggests that in order for contracts to properly implement social policy, social policy experts need to play a fundamental part in contract negotiations; they need to be perceived by contract teams as forming part of the solution, rather than part of the problem.

 

Keywords: contract, tariff, connection, dispute resolution, incentive

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

POLITICAL TRUST, INSTITUTIONS, AND DEMOCRACY

IN INDIA, SRI LANKA, AND PAKISTAN

 

Peter Ronald deSouza, (CSDS)

peter@csdsdelhi.org

and

Jayadeva Uyangoda, University of Colombo

uyangoda@cmb.ac.lk

 

Abstract:  The working of democracy in South Asia throws up some interesting questions for scholars of democracy. One such relates to the issue of political trust which is seen as a litmus test of people’s perception of the performance of the political regime and the political system. An argument that has been put forward in South Asia is that people’s perception of the working of democracy is mediated through the prism of the community in which they are located. South Asia is seen as a democracy of communities. While the effect and durability of this prism, on perceptions, need further investigation, this paper attempts to link the global debate on political trust with the working of democracy in South Asia. Based on the first such cross sectional survey of people’s political attitudes, conducted in Sri Lanka, Pakistan and India, this paper examines how different regional, ethnic, social and economic groups perceive political institutions. The paper attempts two comparisons: of the region with the other regions of the world, by using an index of political trust, and of select public institutions within the region.

 

Keywords: political trust, South Asia, political attitudes, institutions, democracy

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

REGULATION AS AN ARENA FOR SOCIAL POLICY

EXAMPLES FROM ELECTRICITY IN ASIA

 

Navroz K. Dubash, IDFC Chair Professor, Governance and Public Policy

National Institute of PublicFinance and Policy (India)

ndubash@nipfp.org.in ; ndubash@gmail.com

 

Abstract:  Across the developing world, the notion of public utilities as social services is giving way new forms of economic organization around liberalized and commercialized sectors. Independent regulators are central to these new economic governance arrangements, which are intended to insulate utilities from government interference. By looking at the electricity sector in Asia, this paper explores the role of independent regulators as potential new arenas for social policy. I argue that with the re-organization of essential services around economic arguments, regulators will become increasingly important as a site for articulation of social concerns. I also suggest that the governance characteristics of regulatory agencies will be critical to articulation of social policy concerns in essential service sectors such as electricity or water.   This paper examines the genesis of regulation in Asia, the institutional and governance structure of emergent regulatory bodies, and the available evidence on use of regulators as an instrument of social policy. Based on this analysis, the paper concludes that regulatory bodies are an important new site for political contest over social policy. Since these institutions are new, there is a small window of opportunity to shape their mandate and their institutional culture to be open to social policy concerns.

 

Keywords: social policy, regulation, electricity, Asia

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

BITTER HARVEST: THE SOCIAL COSTS OF STATE FAILURE IN RURAL KENYA

 

Paul Francis, World Bank

pfrancis@worldbank.org

and

Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, African Institute for Health and Development

mnyamongo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:  Over the last two decades, Kenyans have suffered serious reverses in economic and social wellbeing. This paper, based on research in six districts, explores the causes and social consequences of economic decline in rural areas. Conceptually, three aspects of this process are distinguished. The driving factors responsible for the erosion of rural livelihood systems are identified as reduced access to land and other natural resources, the corruption or collapse of formal institutions, and declining human capital due in considerable part to the impact of HIV/AIDs. Second, the coping mechanisms by which individuals and groups have responded to declining assets, services and opportunities are explored. These strategies include economic diversification and new forms of local collective action. Thirdly, the paper describes the impacts of these processes of change on gender and inter-generational relations in rural households, in which livelihood stress is increasingly reflected in tension and violence. Social disintegration and anomie are signalled in the upsurge of crime, violence and insecurity which have become a recent characteristic of rural Kenya, and the paper goes on to consider the incidence and social consequences of these phenomena.

 

Keywords: Africa; Kenya; rural development; livelihoods; coping strategies; diversification; crime; violence; gender; social exclusion; anomie

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

 

TOP

 

    INSTITUTIONS, VOICE AND ACCOUNTABILITY:

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POVERTY AND ACCESS TO RELEVANT AGRICULTURAL ADVISORY SERVICES IN EAST AFRICA

 

Esbern Friis-Hansen, Danish Institute for International Studies

efh@diis.dk

 

Abstract:  The gaps in social policy between what is needed, what can be afforded and what is provided are today as wide as ever in rural areas of East Africa, where the majority of the poor live in rural areas. International debate on social policy in poor developing countries is arguing for a change in the focus and scope. Citizen-centered welfare pluralism relies on good governance, which in a social policy sense refers to how responsive a political regime is to the needs and wishes of its people.

 

The study examines patterns of social exclusion and marginalization from institutions that provide agricultural advisory services in East Africa.  Based on selected case studies, the study analyzes the characteristics of rural poverty and reviews underlying causes of marginalization and poverty reduction. The study further analyzes experiences with demand-driven advisory services and explains contrasting results in terms of farmer empowerment and institutional transformation of local  government extension staff.

 

The study concludes that (i) farmer empowerment through participation in farmer field schools and (ii) institutional transformation of local government staff have a positive effect on the social inclusiveness and effectiveness of demand-driven advisory services. Social policy perspectives of these findings are discussed.

 

Keywords: citizen-centered social policy, rural poverty, demand driven advisory services, farmer empowerment, farmer field schools, Africa

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION, SOCIAL RIGHTS AND SOCIAL POLICY

 

Siri Gloppen, Christian Michelsen Institute

siri.gloppen@cmi.no

 

Abstract:  The paper investigates litigation as a strategy to advance the social rights of marginalized people, asking under what conditions it is likely to be effective – in the narrow sense of winning cases, and in the broader sense of changing social policy. It draws on reported experiences with social rights litigation in different parts of the world to develop a framework identifying conditions that are favourable to public interest litigation by contributing to: effective voicing of social rights grievances; responsiveness of courts to social rights claims; judges’ capability to find appropriate remedies; authorities’ compliance with judgments and implementation through social policies. It finds that competent public interest litigators (supported by international expertise), is a key to winning cases in court, but that real policy impact is rare without organisations and social movements that can utilise the litigation process as part of a broader strategy of social and political mobilisation. Litigation on its own has limited potential to change the situation on the ground, but creates opportunities for other actors. With a ‘receptive apparatus’ in place litigation is very effective in bringing out facts that can be used for advocacy purposes, fed into social and political discourses and directly inform policy processes.

 

Keywords: social rights litigation; public interest litigation; social transformation; access to justice: judicial reform; judicial independence; legal culture

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

INFORMAL NETWORKS AND CORRUPTION IN THE JUDICIARY:

ELITE INTERVIEW FINDINGS FROM

THE CZECH REPUBLIC, SLOVENIA, BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

 

Åse Berit Grødeland, Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research

ase.grodeland@nibr.no

 

Abstract:  Judicial reform in post-communist states to date has only been partially successful, primarily as it has failed to address what may be coined a “culture of informality” and which has been carried over from communism. The paper presents findings from 360 elite in-depth interviews conducted in the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Bulgaria and Romania in late 2003/early 2004. Examples are given of how people’s understanding of the rule of law is influenced by their pre-transition experiences, how informal practices manifest themselves in the judiciary, and of personal exposure to contacts and informal networks. Although more common in Bulgaria and Romania than in the Czech Republic and Slovenia, informal practices are widespread in all these countries. Increasing judiciary independence, improving capacity and enhancing efficiency should reduce some of the scope for informal practices. Such measures should be accompanied by efforts to educate the general public in the rule of law and to enhance their understanding of the judiciary and how to approach it. More specific confidence building measures are also called for: the judiciary should demonstrate to the general public that everybody is equal before the law.

 

Keywords: judiciary, informal practices, contacts, informal networks, judicial reform

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

THE ROLE OF COMPETITION IN GENERATING LEGITIMATE AND EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE:   LESSONS FROM POST-COMMUNISM

 

Anna Grzymala-Busse, University of Michigan

abusse@umich.edu

 

Abstract:  The examination of post-communist trajectories shows that continuing elite competition is a critical factor in establishing legitimate and effective governance. Specifically, a robust competition—one that is clear, inclusive, and critical—both limits rent-seeking and generates greater consensus about the desirability and legitimacy of given modes of governance. As the post-communist states show, such competition thus not only helps to establish a new legitimate system of governance after the collapse of discredited authoritarian rule, but it helps to develop and sustain its effectiveness. First, the mutual criticism leads to a moderation of governing party behavior—or at the very least, greater subterfuge. Second, robust competition limits the capacity of governing parties to exploit the state, by creating incentives for formal constraints. Third, robust competition induces governing parties to share power, and to coopt their critics as much as possible.

 

Three main lessons emerge: first, external actors need to pay as much attention to the actions of the opposition as to those of the government. Paradoxically, the inclusion of discredited old actors can promote both democratic competition and lower rent-seeking. Second, given the critical role of elites and elite incentives, we need to lower our expectations about institution building. Third, and as a result, we need to focus on the elite actors and their interactions as much as on the institutions they produce: fostering elite competition and changing elite incentives for predatory or particularistic rule.

 

Keywords: competition, legitimacy, effective governance, post-communist, former authoritarian rulers, opposition

 

For the complete paper please  click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

GLOBALIZED LIVELIHOODS.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND CHALLENGES FOR SOCIAL POLICY:

THE CASE OF ECUADOR

 

Anthony Hall, London Schoolof Economics and Political Science

a.l.hall@lse.ac.uk

 

Abstract:  Ecuador exemplifies the growing phenomenon of international migration, seen as a response to economic crisis and the need to construct diversified, globalized livelihoods both as a short-term coping strategy and building for a more secure future. Since the late 1990s, Ecuadorian emigration to the US and Europe, especially to Spain, has risen dramatically as a result of the country’s economic and political instability. Some two million of its citizens or 15 percent of the population now work overseas, bringing in over US$1.6 billion annually in remittances, the second largest source of foreign earnings after oil. Migration generates substantial economic benefits for households, paying for basic items such as food, clothing, consumer goods, education and health. Yet there are significant social costs including split households, overburdened extended families and children’s psychological trauma. In the absence of systematic state policies to support migrants and their families, NGOs, the church and the private banking sector have helped fill the breach. Areas ripe for policy innovation and action to deal with these issues include strengthening the legal and regulatory framework for migration, promoting local economic development, providing social protection through controls on people-trafficking, counselling and education, while promoting longer-term social development and investment.

 

Keywords: social policy, international migration, livelihoods, Ecuador, globalization

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here.

TOP

 

INTEGRATING MACROECONOMIC POLICIES AND SOCIAL OBJECTIVES:

CHOOSING THE RIGHT POLICY MIX FOR POVERTY REDUCTION

 

Elliott Harris, Policy Department and Review, IMF

eharris@imf.org

and

Caroline Kende-Robb, Social Development, World Bank

ckenderobb@worldbank.org

 

Abstract:  Macroeconomic frameworks and social objectives need to be explicitly integrated at the conceptual stage. Macroeconomic policies aim at macroeconomic stability not as an end to itself, but as a necessary precondition for sustained growth, which is critical to poverty reduction. The range of available macroeconomic and social policy options may be constrained by a country’s situation, but the policies and reforms necessary for macroeconomic stability may themselves affect social and poverty outcomes, although there is always scope for increasing the pro-poor bias of macroeconomic policy through the choice of the appropriate policy instruments or the timing of reforms. However, integrating social and poverty reduction goals with macroeconomic goals is not simply about adding social policies to a pre-designed sound macroeconomic framework. It requires an full awareness of the tradeoffs and of both the short- and long-term impacts of macroeconomic policies on social outcomes and vice versa that can only be gained through an interdisciplinary approach that uses social, economic, institutional, and political analysis to identify the links and transmission mechanisms between macroeconomic policies, poverty, and livelihoods. This approach can contribute to enhanced public transparency and ownership, and identify the best policy combination for equitable growth, poverty reduction, and social justice.

 

Keywords: macroeconomic policy, social policy, PSIA, poverty reduction

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

SOCIAL COHESION:

THE MISSING LINK TO BETTER HEALTH AND NUTRITION

IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD

 

Kirsten Havemann, World Bank

khavemann@worldbank.org

and

Pat Pridmore, Institute of Education, University of London

p.pridmore@ioe.cc.uk

 

Abstract:  This paper argues that health and social sector planners do not take sufficient account of the social determinants of health when aiming for better outcomes.   Based on a literature review on social cohesion and health development planning, the paper presents a conceptual framework for assessing health and nutrition outcomes and then employs this framework by drawing on fieldwork from Kenya. The study examines the link between the use of a social educational process to promote social cohesion and a change in the nutrition and health status of children under five years of age. It then identifies factors at the community level that helped or hindered health outcomes. Finally, the paper draws out the lessons learned for further development of social sector policies.  It asks whether health and social planners are being adequately exposed and trained to effectively respond to social issues and calls for a wholesale re-tooling of the public health work-force to balance the individualistic biomedical and economic view of the world with a collective, social science focus on community and social structures.

 

Keywords: social cohesion, health and social policy, nutrition, Kenya

 

For the complete paper please click here

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

RECOGNITION AND DISTRIBUTION:

EQUITY AND JUSTICE POLICIES FOR DISCRIMINATED GROUPS IN LATIN AMERICA

 

Martín Hopenhayn, Cepal

Martin.Hopenhayn@cepal.org

 

Abstract:  This paper addresses –for the case of Latin America - the challenges that identity or ascription-defined groups pose to public policy and the justice system, in a context characterized by acute inequalities. The information provided here shows how ethnic minorities, women, and - to some extent, young people –suffer a situation of relatively greater exclusion, vulnerability, poverty and/or social exclusion in Latin America. This illustrates the link between inequality and cultural and ascriptive conditions. Thus, inequality goes hand-in-hand with difference. Indigenous groups pose new precedents, in the sense that they bring forth the juridical and political problems that question the very rationality of social resources distribution, the individual basis of law, and the State-Nation sovereignty. In this framework, differentiated policies in education and health, greater political and public recognition of ascription and or cultural identity-defined groups, the right to self-government and the holding of collective rights in the case of indigenous peoples, the judicial reforms to balance out access to justice and revert age-old forms of discrimination, are the main proposals that are set forth and proposed in this paper.

 

Keywords: culture, ascription, multiculturalism, social integration, social policy, justice, inequality

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

MONITORING MASS VALUES AND BELIEFS:

A NEGLECTED FACTOR IN SOCIAL ANALYSIS

 

Ronald Inglehart, University of Michigan

rfi@umich.edu

 

Abstract:  Throughout the world, mass publics are playing an increasingly important role in the success or failure of social policy. Survey data from more then 80 countries shows that mass beliefs have a major impact on fertility rates, gender equality, equitable treatment of minorities and other out-groups, the extent to which good governance prevails and the emergence and flourishing of democratic institutions in their society. Moreover, time series evidence shows that during the past two decades, publics have become increasingly likely to intervene in political and social decision making processes that were once largely left in the hands of elites. It is widely recognized that successful social policy-making requires feedback about the economic and social consequences of given actions. This paper demonstrates that successful social policy also requires accurate information about changing levels of interpersonal trust, tolerance of outgroups and social capital, and charts ongoing trends in each of these domains in rich and poor countries.

 

This paper analyzes the extent to which mass belief systems have an impact on important areas of social policy, and identifies specific orientations that have an important impact on given policy areas. It also explores the probable trajectory of changing belief systems: the fact that we find substantial intergenerational differences in many basic values and beliefs, makes it possible to estimate the direction and magnitude of change as younger generations replace older ones in the adult population. The analysis is based on data from the World Values Survey, covering more than 80 societies containing 85 percent of the world's population and capturing a broad range of economic, political and cultural variation.

 

Keywords: equitable treatment of minorities, gender equality, intergenerational change, interpersonal trust, social capital, World Values Survey

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

THE RESPONSIVE STATE:

OPENNESS AND INCLUSION IN THE POLICY PROCESS

 

Lars Johannsen, University of Aarhus

johannsen@ps.au.dk

and

Karin Hilmer Pedersen, University of Aarhus

khp@ps.au.dk

 

Abstract:  This paper argues that the concept of the responsive state, i.e. a state characterized by dense co-operation between public authorities and civil society supported by values of participatory democracy, is nurtured by increasing wealth, but also adds an explanatory dimension to traditional theories by arguing that responsiveness has consequences for political outcomes.   Furthermore, the concept of the responsive state seeks to escape the determinism associated with modernization theory by combining values and organization, and remaining open to the impact of international society.

 

This cross-sectional study is aggregated from elite surveys in fifteen post-communist states. The paper seeks to 1) track variations in degrees of openness and inclusion, 2) contribute to the debate about Europeanization, i.e. to ascertain if pro-active policies pursued in the enlargement process encourage the development of participatory values and dense networks between the state and civil society, and 3) explore if responsiveness reduces poverty and promotes equality.

 

We find that state responsiveness can be fostered by international commitment and institutional pressure, and that state responsiveness does impact policy outcomes. Responsive states are, to paraphrase Lijphart (1999), kinder and gentler.

 

Keywords: corporatism, pluralism, inequality, poverty, responsive state, Europeanization, civil service, civil society

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

REASSESSING CUSTOMARY LAW SYSTEMS AS A VEHICLE FOR PROVIDING EQUITABLE ACCESS TO JUSTICE FOR THE POOR

 

Minneh Kane, World Bank

mkane@worldbank.org

and

Joseph Oloka-Onyango, Makerere University/Human Rights & Peace Centre

and

Abdul Tejan-Cole, A. Tejan-Cole & Associates

atejancole@hotmail.com

 

Abstract:  This paper describes the main advantages and disadvantages of customary law systems, and concludes that they meet a fundamental need in society. It notes, however, that insufficient empirical research has gone into understanding customary law systems. It recommends that user surveys be carried out to better understand user perceptions of customary tribunals and user preferences among the various dispute resolution services available to them and reasons for such preferences. It further notes that customary laws naturally evolve with changing circumstances, and recommends that empirical and participatory assessments of the contemporary status and content of customary laws be carried out. These would demystify customary laws, and ensure that the voices of all stakeholders are heard as these laws naturally evolve. Empirical assessments would also validate the day-to-day social practice of customary law, over the ideology of customary law which tends to be articulated for political or other gain, or by ideological extremists. Finally, it recommends that the limits of customary (or written) law reform be more openly discussed and that multidisciplinary expertise be more effectively engaged to deal with behaviors and practices that are symptomatic of psycho-social dysfunction.

 

Keywords: access to justice, common law, customary law, Uganda, Sierra Leone

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

SOCIAL POLICY DIMENSIONS OF WATER AND ENERGY UTILITIES: KNOWLEDGE GAPS AND RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES

 

Timothy Kessler, Centro de Investigación para el Desarrollo, A.C.

timkessler@prodigy.net.mx

 

Abstract:  While health care and education are widely considered to be “social” services that provide public goods, much of the development policy community views water and energy utilities as services supplying private consumption that should be run “like a business.” Notwithstanding the legitimacy of goals to improve efficiency and financial sustainability, water and energy services also represent fundamentally social services. Moreover, the public goods derived from utilities cannot be supplied through private markets alone. Existing policy research focuses mostly on technical and economic improvements, giving less attention to achieving explicitly social goals and reducing poverty.

 

Emphasizing the importance of feasibility and institutional constraints, this paper identifies “social dimensions” of utility governance in which further research is needed. These include: legal foundations, pricing and subsidy mechanisms that promote affordability and sustainability, regulatory framework and capacity required for different reform approaches, challenges of contract design, as well as mechanisms for empowering citizens and local government to participate in decisions about utility service delivery. The paper questions the appropriateness of common policy prescriptions informed by the experience of wealthy northern countries, especially in the context of weak institutional environments.

 

Keywords: public services, utilities, governance, regulation, reform, water

 

For the complete paper please click here

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

INCORPORATING SOCIAL (MINIMUM) SERVICES IN THE MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF POVERTY: CONCEPTUAL AND POLICY ISSUES WITH AN APPLICATION TO CHILE

 

Osvaldo Larrañaga, Department of Economics, University of Chile

osvaldol@econ.uchile.cl

 

Abstract:  Income poverty refers only to those needs which are addressed with market commodities, excluding social services which are distributed in a subsidized basis to the middle and low income population. However, access to education, health care and housing are also essential determinants of the standards of living of the population. This paper addresses the issue of incorporating the notion of minimum social services in the measurement and assessment of poverty, from a conceptual and policy applied perspectives. The first section presents some analytical considerations, including the evaluation space, the measurement of multidimensional poverty, the resource vs output debate and the role of public policies guarantees and rights. The second section discusses a set of possible indicators to measure the lack of access to health, education and housing. Section three presents the case of Chile, where the National Foundation for Overcoming Poverty –an important non government organization- has developed two comprehensive proposals that guaranteed the access of the population to minimum social services. Some of these initiatives have been transformed in public policies, such as the guaranteed health package, a progressive per student subsidy to finance public and private subsidized schools, and twelve years of compulsory schooling.

 

Keywords: social services, multidimensional poverty, guarantees and rights

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND SERVICE DELIVERY

WHERE DO WE STAND?

 

Alexandre Marc, World Bank

amarc@worldbank.org

 

Abstract:  The last twenty years has witnessed a growing recognition of the importance of taking cultural and ethnic diversity into account in the design and implementation of development programs. The increasing cultural diversity of societies throughout the world and the important role of culture in identity formation in a global society, creates a major challenges for national governments as well as local governments in ensuring social cohesion and social inclusion.

 

This paper reviews recent approaches in taking into account cultural diversity in delivery of basic services. It first discusses the idea that supporting cultural diversity can help achieve social inclusion and social cohesion. It provides an outlook on the debate on multiculturalism from various perspectives and discusses the benefits and risks of policies supporting cultural diversity. The paper then examines policies and programs supporting cultural diversity in the delivery of basic services: education, health care, customary law, traditional governance systems and cultural services. For each of these services the paper reviews the main challenges and describes best practices. Finally the paper attempts a synthesis of what has been learned of the experience of taking cultural diversity into account in delivery of services.

 

Keywords: cultural diversity, service delivery, social policy, public policy, social inclusion

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

 SOCIAL DIALOGUE AND DELIVERY OF PUBLIC SERVICES

 

Brendan Martin, Public World

bmartin@publicworld.org

 

Abstract:  The paper concerns the role of deliberative participatory processes in enabling citizen-users of public services, and personnel of organisations that provide them, to exercise power over the design and operation of public services, and to take more responsibility for equitable mobilisation of resources, and efficient and effective use of those resources, as a result.

 

While the constitutive value of 'civil society participation' in public service governance has become universally accepted, service reforms in some cases attempt to use it to transfer state responsibilities for financing services to social organisations and/or poor citizen-users.

 

The paper outlines three examples that illustrate problematic results of designing civil society participation around cost recovery. It also outlines three others that illustrate how financial efficiency and sustainability can be improved by devolving wider aspects of power and responsibility to participatory bodies, at community and workplace level.

 

It concludes that civil society and employee participation can improve cost recovery and financial efficiency best if they enhance and strengthen representative democracy and public administration rather than attempting to transfer financial responsibility without governance power to social organisations and poor citizens-users.

 

Keywords: participation, social dialogue, cost recovery, public services, efficiency, sustainability

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

ACCOUNTABILITY AND CITIZENSHIP IN INDIAN INSTITUTIONS

 

Pratap Bhanu Mehta, Center for Policy Research, India

pratapbmehta@yahoo.com.in

 

Abstract:  This paper argues that any adequate theory of accountability needs to focus, not just on the formal allocation of institutional power, but the “practices of citizenship” that accompany those institutions. It argues that accountability involves tradeoffs between different goods: representation, transparency, responsiveness, effectiveness, centralization and decentralization and so forth. What exact tradeoffs a society makes can be explained only by the practices of citizenship. Using India as a case study, I elaborate on how its practices of citizenship give its politics a distinctive hue that in turn affects how accountability is construed. To put it simply, we need a better understanding of what citizens think politics is for, and should not assume that an answer to this question is self evident. The paper then goes to show how an answer to this question, in turn explains the trajectory of accountability in India. In the last section, the paper explores some of the policy implications of these findings for institutional design.

 

Keywords: citizenship accountability representation identity institutions trust Indiasocial cooperation reciprocity

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

HUMAN SECURITY AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

COMPARATIVE RESEARCH IN FOUR ASIAN COUNTRIES

 

James Michel, ICNET

jamesmichel@erols.com

 

Abstract:  This report is based on current research on human security and social development Bangladesh, Cambodia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Human security is defined as a condition in which people are protected and empowered to cope with severe and sudden threats to their survival, livelihood and dignity. The research hypothesis is that human security derives from a structure of protection and empowerment; increasing human security will remove obstacles, facilitate trust and improve the environment for social development.

 

This study identifies (1) useful indicators of human security and practical means to collect data on those indicators; (2) ways in which human security analysis can help to evaluate trends, inform policy, and advance social development. Indicators of survival, livelihood, and dignity help create a profile of the state of human security and to guide in-depth country research.

 

Preliminary findings suggest that:

 

           There is a strong correlation between poverty, low levels of human security and impaired social development.

           Human security is largely a local phenomenon. Indicators based on national data and statistics do not provide much guidance on effective policies and actions to strengthen human security.

           Community level research can identify specific causes of insecurity and suggest means to protect and empower people to cope with threats to their security.

 

Keywords: human security, empowerment, protection, indicators, survival, livelihood, dignity, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Thailand

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

FOREST RIGHTS AND ASSET BASED LIVELIHOODS:

CATALYSING RURAL ECONOMIES AND FOREST CONSERVATION THROUGH POLICY REFORM AND COLLECTIVE ACTION

 

Augusta Molnar, Andy White, and Arvind Khare

ForestTrends and the Rights and Resources Institute

amolnar@forest-trends.org

 

Abstract:  A change is underway in the forest sector that is fundamental and potentially far-reaching, creating new opportunities and challenges for the forest industry, forest conservation, the rural economy, and rural communities and forest dwellers. Through this on-going transition, the forest sector could be a much greater contributor to asset-based livelihoods for rural communities, with positive impacts on cultural and social well-being and forest conservation. Many current policy and regulatory frameworks create barriers --criminalizing activities, setting strict boundaries between conservation and productive use, or imposing costly requirements. This paper is a summary of a series of strategic analyses by Forest Trends and its partners looking at global trends and their implications for the future of forestry.

 

Social policy has an important role to play in shaping the vision of policy-makers around forests and asset-based livelihoods, and ensuring that environmental regulation does not hinder small-scale forest enterprise and management.  Without appropriate policy and regulatory reforms to recognize tenure rights and market opportunities and better resource allocation by governments, the private sector, and donors, forest communities and low-income producers will remain marginal actors and the conservation agenda become increasingly conflictive.

 

Keywords: forest rights and tenure, asset-based livelihoods, policy and regulatory framework, community forest enterprise, global markets in transition

 

For the complete paper please  click here. 

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

SOCIAL POLICY CHALLENGES OF FINANCING URBAN SHELTER: LESSONS FROM THE GLOBAL REPORT ON HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 2005

 

Naison Mutizwa-Mangiza, UN-HABITAT

Naison.Mutizwa-Mangiza@unhabitat.org

 

Abstract:  This paper presents the main findings of Financing Urban Shelter: Global Report on Human Settlements 2005 and reflects on the implications of these findings to social policy.

 

The paper highlights four major global trends identified in the Global Report on Human Settlements 2005: first, the general expansion of mortgage finance during the last decade and the continuing exclusion of the poor; second, the declining importance of social housing in Europe and in countries with economies in transition; third, the emergence of shelter micro-finance and its relatively limited scale of operation; and, fourth, the increasing use of community-based finance for settlement upgrading, new housing and access to housing subsidies in developing country cities.

 

In light of the general exclusion of the urban poor from mortgage finance, the paper argues that social housing continues to be necessary in both developed and developing countries. It further argues that, given the general success of small loans and the increasing urbanization of poverty in developing countries, policies supportive of shelter micro-finance and community funds, which have many advantages for low-income households, are necessary.

 

Keywords: housing finance, human settlements, slum upgrading, urban poor

 

For the complete paper please click here. 

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

BEYOND IDEOLOGIES: CREATING WEALTH FOR THE POOR

 

Deepa Narayan, PRMPR, World Bank

dnarayan@worldbank.org

and

Soumya Kapoor, PRMPR, World Bank

Skapoor3@worldbank.org

 

Abstract:  Poor people work hard and are the most motivated to move out of poverty. Yet pervasive inequality in opportunity, agency, organization and human development prevents them from getting fair returns and keeps them trapped in poverty.

 

The demise of the Washington Consensus has created a need for new consensus that supports poor people's direct participation in economic growth on fairer terms. This paper proposes creating wealth from below as a new strategy to support market based approaches that are value based and build on poor people's strengths. It requires breaking through the ideological mindsets of state vs. civil society vs. private sector.

 

This paper uses the framework of opportunity structure and agency as the two building blocks to understand the obstacles to economic empowerment in an unequal world. Opportunitystructure consists of the institutional climate and the deeper political and social structures that govern the interaction between poor people and other actors. The concept of collective agency is viewed as particularly important. It consists of collective organization, voice, representation and identity which interact with poor people's individual assets and capabilities. The framework also points to possible policy intervention points.

 

The paper then analyses and draws lessons from four large scale programs, AMUL, SEWA, e-choupals and women's self help groups from Andhra Pradesh in India implemented by civil society, private sector and the state that have raised poor people's incomes to varying degrees.

 

Keywords: agency, opportunity, collective action, poverty, inequality, inclusion, participation, accountability, information

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND SOCIAL POLICY:   A RESEARCH PERSPECTIVE

 

Martin Paldam, Department of Economics, Aarhus University

martin@paldam.dk

 

Abstract:  The paper presents preliminary results and thoughts from a project that has posed the same questionnaire to about 1500 people in each of 21 countries in East Asia, Eastern and Western Europe and Latin America. We believe that we are close to being able to measure social capital, and that a fairly simple pattern emerges. As social budgets in poor countries are poor too, it is of paramount importance that as much as possible can be organized in the form of self help and local projects. Social capital is precisely the ability of people to self organize in the solution of local problems. Thus in the presence of high social capital it is possible to get much further in the solution of social problems than in countries with low social capital. However, our main result is that social capital appears to be quite closely related to average income, much as the closely related phenomenon of corrup¬tion. Fortunately some countries deviate from the general pattern giving them a relatively good or bad development potential. And frequently one of the dimensions in social capital is relatively high even when the general level is low. Thus there may be a strategic factor to use.

 

Keywords: social capital, decentralization, social policy

 

For the complete paper please  click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

MICRO-BUSINESS AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS

 

Vibha Pinglé, Development Consultant

pingle@pinglevarshney.org

 

Abstract:  In situations of entrenched poverty micro-enterprises arguably offer women a way of supporting themselves and their families.   However, while a large number of women start micro-enterprises, only a small number of these women are successful at generating a sustainable living from their micro-enterprise.  Two questions thus arise:  first, what resources and strategies enable some women to gain sustainable livelihoods from their micro-business, while others fail?  Second, what social policies might assist other women living in poverty to earn sustainable livelihoods from their micro-business activity?

 

Data from South Africa, Egypt, and Nigeriasuggest that social capital generated via membership in local community associations has no noticeable positive impact on the ability of women micro-entrepreneurs to generate sustainable livelihoods.   On the contrary, women micro-entrepreneurs who are at the periphery of their communities and thus have greater space for autonomous action, but who are integrated into extra-local inter-community networks, are more likely to develop sustainable micro-enterprises.

 

States and NGOs can assist women micro-entrepreneurs in earning sustainable livelihoods from their entrepreneurial activities by (a) integrating small communities into wider networks; and (b) by enhancing individual autonomy of women via the provision of childcare support, and emergency and regular medical care.

 

Keywords: micro-entrepreneurs, social capital, capabilities approach, South Africa, Egypt, Nigeria, women's empowerment

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

ETHNIC DIVERSITY AND LOCAL PUBLIC GOODS PROVISION:

EVIDENCE FROM KAMPALA, UGANDA

 

Daniel N. Posner, Department of Political Science, UCLA

dposner@polisci.ucla.edu

 

Abstract:  One of the ways that developed nations differ from developing nations is in their degrees of ethnic diversity. This difference has been seized upon in a broad spectrum of recent work to account for the lower rates of economic growth, governmental performance and public goods provision and the higher rates of corruption that are commonly found in developing countries. This paper draws on a unique data set from Kampala, Ugandato test the impact of ethnic diversity on public goods provision in an urban African setting. In keeping with theoretical expectations – and with evidence from American cities (Alesina, Baqir and Easterly 1999) and rural Kenya (Miguel and Gugerty 2005) – I find evidence that ethnic diversity is associated with fewer community initiatives designed to provide local public goods and lower willingness of individuals to contribute to such endeavors. The paper concludes with a discussion of steps that might be taken by policymakers in ethnically diverse developing nations to mitigate these negative effects.

 

Keywords: local public goods; ethnic diversity; collective action; Africa

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please  click here. 

TOP

 

LOCAL PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY IN LATIN AMERICA.

LESSONS FROM MEXICO AND COLOMBIA

 

David Recondo, CERI/FNSP

recondo@ceri-sciences-po.org

 

Abstract:  The decentralization process promoted through the 1990s in indigenous regions of Mexico and Colombia, have striking similarities. In both cases, participatory democracy is seen as a prerequisite for sustainable development. In both cases too, communitarian traditions are given official recognition as legitimate forms of local governance. Some contradictions inevitably arise, and the search for a more efficient public management often leads to imposing standard institutional devices that significantly reduce local citizens and authorities’ leeway. Nevertheless, the turnkey participatory devices promoted by central governments and multilateral agencies often induce original and non predicted forms of appropriation and reinvention.

 

Some lessons and recommendations for future action can the drawn from this comparison. First, the promotion of sustainable development should mobilize local and specific forms of social organization, and avoid searching for “best practices” likely to be exported elsewhere. Second, decentralized and participatory development supposes the pre-existence of a strong, stable and legitimate State. Third, any development assistance, even “social”, should consider and consciously deal with power relations and politics. Forth, any development strategy should be programmed on a long-term base.

 

Keywords: participatory democracy, decentralization, democratization, indigenous rights, Latin America, Colombia, Mexico

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

ACCOUNTING FOR DIVERSITY: 

POLICY DESIGN AND MAORI DEVELOPMENT IN NEW ZEALAND

 

Dena Ringold, World Bank

dringold@worldbank.org

 

Abstract:  Several key themes have characterized Māori development policy in New Zealand over the past two decades, including: a desire by Māori to take charge of their own development; interest in self-determination, autonomy, and involvement in the policies and programmes that affect them; a recognition that policy approaches need to consider the history, culture and position of Māori as the indigenous people of New Zealand; and a need to tackle socioeconomic disparities between Māori and non-Māori.

 

At the level of policy design and service delivery, New Zealand has sought to calibrate the extent to which policies should be universal, mainstreamed, and applicable to the entire society, and the extent to which they should be targeted to specific populations. This report looks at these questions, with a focus on the experience of programmes which have been targeted and tailored to Māori. These policy choices raise basic questions about the role of ethnicity and culture in policy-making. First, is ethnicity a useful indicator for allocating resources and programmes? And, second, how does inclusion of ethnicity and culture in policy design influence outcomes? The report also includes an overview of recent trends in Māori development and policy. These approaches provide a compelling record of experience and innovation for New Zealandand other countries with indigenous and ethnic minority populations.

 

Keywords: service delivery, inclusion, diversity, Maori, New Zealand

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

YOUTH GANGS AND PERVERSE LIVELIHOODS STRATEGIES IN NICARAGUA:

CHALLENGING CERTAIN PRECONCEPTIONS AND SHIFTING THE FOCUS OF ANALYSIS

 

Dennis Rodgers, London Schoolof Economics

d.w.rodgers@lse.ac.uk

 

Abstract:  On the basis of longitudinal ethnographic research carried out in a poor neighbourhood in Managua (Nicaragua) in 1996-97 and 2002-03, this paper describes the dynamics of urban youth gangs and their violence in order to highlight the way in which under certain conditions they can be seen as not solely destructive but socially constructive. In particular, it shows how gangs in “fragile” states are often forms of “social sovereignty” that provide localised systems of “meta-political” order allowing for the coherent articulation of livelihood strategies and asset building in areas where the state is predominantly absent. Such an analysis suggests that instead of thinking about gangs as “perverse livelihood strategies”, it is perhaps more important – and more accurate – that we think about the fact that they tend to emerge in “perverse contexts”, and that it is these that constitute the principal problem from a developmental perspective.

 

Keywords: gangs, violence, perverse livelihoods, social sovereignty, Nicaragua

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

BREAKING LEGAL INEQUALITY TRAPS: NEW APPROACHES TO BUILDING

JUSTICE SYSTEMS FOR THE POOR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

 

Caroline Sage, ESSD & International Law, World Bank

csage@worldbank.org

and

Michael Woolcock, Development Research Group, World Bank

mwoolcock@worldbank.org

 

Abstract:  There has long been broad agreement on the importance of building “rule of law” systems in developing countries, but efforts to do either of these things have an unhappy history. These failures, we suggest, are largely a product of a flawed theory of what “law”, “justice” and “institutions” are, how they come to take the form they do, and thus how they can be established elsewhere. This theory of reform, however, and the assumptions of which it rests, is not confined to the legal “sector”, but to this day pervades and is reinforced by our prevailing development discourse and practice, most obviously with respect to the status of categories such as or “social development” and imperatives to seek straightforward “policy implications” of social research. We outline the core tenants and assumptions of this theory, and show how its deployment in “legal judicial reform” has underpinned successive waves of disappointing outcomes. We also outline an alternative theory, and show how it is informing a new generation of innovative efforts to improve the accessibility, legitimacy, and effectiveness of justice systems for the poor.

 

Keywords: justice sector reform, access to justice, institutional reform, policy reform, social policy

 

For the complete paper please  click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

HOUSING AS AN ASSET AND AS AN ARENA FOR DEVELOPING SOCIAL POLICY: THE ROLE OF FEDERATIONS FORMED BY THE URBAN POOR

 

David Satterthwaite, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)

david.satterthwaite@iied.org

 

Abstract:  This paper describes the work of federations formed by the urban poor and homeless in driving changes in the policies of local and national governments for housing, land and basic services. National federations are well established in 12 nations and emerging in many more. Their programmes reach tens of thousands of people in many nations and hundreds of thousands in some. These federations also learn from, teach and support each other.

 

Community savings groups, mostly managed by women, are their foundations.  These develop their own housing solutions and use these as precedents, offering government partnerships for scaling up. This can be seen as social policy innovation driven by grassroots organizations that combine action with renegotiating their relationship with the state and this has implications for far more than housing. Their immediate priority is to change the practices of local governments but this can also change local policy and influence policy and practice at provincial and national levels. This is a reminder that much social policy has been built on or influenced by local innovation and precedent. These federations can be effective partners for official development agencies - but most such agencies lack appropriate channels to be able to support their work.

 

Keywords: housing, urban programmes, civil society, social policy

 

For the complete paper please click here.   

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

     SOCIAL POLICY, CONFLICT AND HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION

 

Ashutosh Varshney, University of Michigan

varshney@umich.edu

 

Abstract:  Social policy as an idea emerged in Western Europe. Is the idea transferable to the developing world?

 

With the neo-liberal turn towards markets in the developing countries, the need for social policies is obvious, but intellectual efforts at conceptualizing them have only recently begun.

 

Most developing countries have not gone through the three revolutions – national, bourgeois, and bureaucratic -- that Europedid before launching social policy. In what ways does this complicate the task of envisioning a social policy for the developing world?

 

Social policy implications of large informal labor markets, a consequence of the unfinished bourgeois revolution, and ineffective or illegitimate states, a result of the incomplete bureaucratic revolution, are examined by others in this conference. This paper concentrates on the implications of unfinished nation-building. What does it mean to have a social policy in conditions of endemic and rampant ethnocommunal conflict?  A case is made that horizontal social integration across ethnically diverse communities must itself be visualized as an important component of social policy in many developing countries. Such integration is often necessary for peace and order in multiethnic societies. What the state can do to promote social integration at the grassroots, and the conditions under which such integration may not be necessary, are also discussed at length.

 

Keywords: conflict, violence, social integration, social policy

 

For the complete paper please click here

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

CAN THE AFROBAROMETER SURVEYS TELL US ANYTHING ABOUT HOW TO BUILD RESPONSIVE INSTITUTIONS?

 

Jennifer Widner, Princeton University

jwidner@princeton.edu

 

Abstract:  The paper draws on data from several AfroBarometer surveys to help understand why some people are more inclined to use government services than others. Patterns of use vary across sector, with people turning frequently to government for medical assistance even when they are far less likely to rely on police, food relief, etc. The analysis focuses on the less-heavily used services and asks whether the admittedly blunt tools survey research affords can help us understand how to build clienteles.

 

Keywords: service use, legitimacy, constituency-building, institutions, Africa

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please  click here. 

TOP

 

TAKING POWER: SOCIAL AND POLITICAL DYNAMICS OF THE ENERGY SECTOR

 

Davida Wood, USAID

dwood@usaid.gov

 

Abstract:  Civil society organizations are resisting a redefined notion of “the public.” While corporatization processes associated with electricity sector reform primarily construct the public as “customers”, civil society organizations are asserting their voice as “citizens” and demanding access to decision making processes at all levels. The paper explores 1) how fundamentally different understandings of public participation amongst stakeholders have stunted meaningful dialog, 2) institutional frameworks where public and private interests intersect and 3) policy recommendations for supporting collaborative stakeholder partnerships during reform.

 

Institutional reform invariably involves a reckoning of its own, a sorting out of alternative versions of allegedly shared assumptions, and their selective translation into working practice. “Working misunderstandings” can sustain a merry band of reformers well on its way to wayward public prominence. At some point, however, political realities step in to call the question and tally the bill.

 

Keywords: electricity sector reform; corporate governance; public participation; regulation; democratic governance; corporatization; collaborative partnerships

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

FROM WELFARE TO WELL-BEING REGIMES: ENGAGING NEW AGENDAS

 

Geof Wood and Julie Newton, University of Bath

hssgdw@bath.ac.uk ; and  j.newton@bath.ac.uk

 

Abstract:  This paper moves us along from the comparative analysis of insecurity and welfare regimes across the world by Gough, Wood et al, 2004. It lays the foundations for linking theory and empirical analysis connecting ideas about well-being and social policy to the 'regime' conditions facing politically unsettled societies with large-scale poverty.

 

With the marriage between social policy and development studies, western social policy thinkers have moved towards a social development perspective where capacity building arguably becomes more significant than social protection. This takes us into discourses of capabilities, freedoms, competences and skill sets, well-being and the acquisition of resources for citizenship. These will involve a broader range of policy instruments than those associated with the more limited 'welfare' approaches to social policy, whereby state and non-state actors might act to engineer improvement.

Our previous work focused more upon the problematic of the state in terms of legitimacy and relative autonomy to act in technico-rational ways, and less on the cohesion and integration problems of politically unsettled societies. Thus the issue of political order needs to become more significant in our analysis as a precondition for social development. This implies that the business of social policy entails wider social development objectives and a corresponding broadening of instruments crucially including non-state actors.

 

Keywords: well-being, insecurity and welfare regimes, social policy, capacity building, social development, political order, non state actors.

 

For the complete paper please click here.   

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

MIGRATION AND SOCIAL POLICY IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT:

THE ANALYTICAL AND POLICY USES OF

A GLOBAL CARE CHAINS PERSPECTIVE

 

Nicola Yeates, The Open University

n.yeates@open.ac.uk

 

Abstract:  This paper examines the migration-social policy nexus in global context, using a ‘global care chains’ perspective to do so. Generally speaking, this perspective emphasises the centrality of care labour to livelihood strategies of households, be they located in ‘developed’ or ‘developing’ countries, as well as the internationalisation dimensions to these strategies and their socio-economic impacts at individual, household, community and national levels. It highlights that an asset-based approach to social policy must not only focus on formal and informal care labour but also analyse the transnational as well as national dimensions of social policy. The first part of the paper sets out the various analytical elements of this perspective, while the second part of the paper draws out its policy applications. In particular, through a focus on skilled and unskilled migrant care workers, the paper maps different policy approaches to the regulation of these workers in a variety of ‘host’ and ‘sending’ countries internationally and discusses the transnational dimensions and impacts of the various policies and practices identified.

 

Keywords: international migration; trade; nurses; global care chains; inequality

 

For the complete paper please click here.

For the presentation please click here. 

TOP

 

.




Permanent URL for this page: http://go.worldbank.org/1NX2RIW3B0

What's New

Conference

World Development Report

Culture and Public Action