The CALI methodology aims to provide a basis for understanding how adaptation interventions need to be structured so as to benefit the most vulnerable types of households and communities within a vulnerable region and how specifically local institutions can be mobilized to this end. In some respect, the methodology is built around Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)/Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) approaches, utilizing historical data to understand adaptation to climate hazards at the local level.
The research aimed to provide decision makers with practical recommendations in three areas:
- strategies for local capacity building through different kinds of institutions, and adoption of appropriate adaptation strategies;
- recommendations related to hard vs. soft adaptation options, and cost benefit estimates at the household level for such interventions; and
- suggestions for addressing institutional and social relationships that can provide a better coupling between adaptation options and local development
CALI study is closely linked to Social Component of the World Bank’s Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study. This study was carried out in six countries, including Ethiopia. The Social Component features both village-level investigations of vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and innovative Participatory Scenario Development approaches that lead diverse groups at local and national levels through structured discussions using GIS-based “visualization” tools to examine tradeoffs and preferences among adaptation activities and implementation mechanisms.
The research shows how the number of strategies adopted by households as well as the percentage of households that actually received support from different institutions in the implementation of adaptation strategies differ significantly between the three countries. At the same time, cooperation between households and institutions is essential for the successful implementation of the strategies. Even for low-cost and individual strategies like seed selection or the adaptation of planting dates, implementation is expected to be more successful if back-up is provided by institutions in terms of training and knowledge transfer.
Ethiopia is considered among the vulnerable countries to climate variability and change due to lower adaptive capacity (i.e. low level of socioeconomic development, high population growth, inadequate infrastructure, and lack of institutional capacity) and heavy reliance on natural resource-based socioeconomic activities which are highly climate sensitive. Although all sectors may directly or indirectly be affected by climate change, agriculture, water, and health are considered as the more sensitive ones. CALI study works closely with the Global Study of the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (GEACC), to identify vulnerability hot spots and downscale cost of adaptation practices for local institutions.
In Mali, CALI study contributes to the larger SLM framework and program, led by the World Bank and other donors, that aims to identify key institutional, financing, and economic elements for scaling up sustainable land management practices.
The study will be complementary to the GEF-supported project on Adaptation to climate Using Agrobiodiversity Resources in the Rainfed Highlands of Yemen, and will be developed in partnership with the ‘Rainfed Agriculture and Livestock Project’. This project targets the production, processing and marketing systems and proposes to protect natural assets (e.g. soil, water, rangelands and seeds) in 5 governorates in the rainfed mountainous areas of Yemen.
Both ABDCC and CALI studies are currently under way in the 9 countries, data collection happening in the field, and the first results should be available in the fall 2009. The results will provide some repository of adaptation practices, territorial development practices and adaptation cost-benefit estimates for the local institutions identified in the case studies. There will be a series of capacity building events at local and national level during the implementation of these studies. Wider dissemination of the final results and success stories for internal Bank partners and client countries is being designed in collaboration with the World Bank Institute.