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red arrowTools for Analyzing Public Expenditures in Human Development

Public expenditure reviews (PERs) are tools for analyzing public expenditures in the human development sectors and are part of a larger process to improve the treatment of human development issues. The specific goal of these interlinked PER guidance notes is to support and spark the imagination of people analyzing expenditures in the health, education, and social protection sectors to help them learn from better than average examples and to make it easier to use the many resources already available.

Labor Markets

red arrowCore Labor Standards Toolkit for Staff Preparing Country Assistance Strategies
This toolkit is designed to assist staff in analyzing core labor standards (CLS) in Country Assistance Strategies (CAS), according to the recommendations of donors. It provides background information on four principles from international conventions known as "core labor standards." The toolkit also includes links to resources for finding information on a country's compliance with each of the standards and suggestions for integrating an analysis of the standards into the CAS.

red arrowEmployment Policy Primer
The World Bank Employment Policy Primer aims to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date resource on labor market policy issues. This resource is based on the lessons from research and operational experience in designing and implementing labor market policies and interventions. The primer series includes two types of products:

  1. Papers that present, in some detail, new research results or up-to-date assessments of the literature and experience and
  2. Notes that summarize "best practice" on policy-relevant topics in a very concise and accessible manner.

Together, these products are intended to provide a practical toolkit for people who make or are concerned about employment policy. A flexible format with products published both on the labor markets website and in published form ensures that the latest developments are reflected.


red arrowPension Reform Primer
The World Bank Pension Reform Primer aims to provide a comprehensive toolkit for policy-makers on designing and implementing pension reform. It is based on continuously updated information from countries that have introduced reforms emphasizing the role of privately-managed individual retirement accounts. Their experience offers a number of useful lessons for policy-makers elsewhere.

red arrowModeling Pension Reform: The World Bank’s Pension Reform Options Simulation Toolkit (240kb pdf), 02/00. Also available in French (260kb pdf) and Spanish (262kb pdf)

Safety Nets

red arrow Building Resilience to Disaster and Climate Change Through Social Protection Toolkit

Social protection programs can play an important role in protecting poor and vulnerable populations from these events and help them reduce their exposure to them.This toolkit provides guidance on how to prepare social protection programs to respond to disasters and climate change. The examples of good practice and practical tips for implementation are intended to guide decision makers in countries facing these risks.

red arrowSafety Nets Primer
The World Bank Safety Nets Primer is intended to provide a practical resource for those engaged in the design and implementation of safety net programs around the world. Readers will find information on good practices for a variety of types of interventions, country contexts, themes and target groups, as well as current thinking of specialists and practitioners on the role of social safety nets in the broader development agenda. The Primer is designed to reflect a high standard of quality as well as a degree of consensus among the World Bank safety nets team and general practitioners on good practice and policy.

red arrowPublic Works Toolkit in English (2.2mb pdf) ¦ Français (1.3mb pdf)

The objective of this Toolkit is to provide guidance to policy makers and practitioners on ‘how to’ aspects in designing and implementing public works programs. The toolkit draws on past experiences of several country typologies where programs have been in operation and will propose a prototype set of procedures based on existing implementation manuals and documented experiences.

red arrowToolkit on Tackling Error, Fraud and Corruption in Social Protection Programs (580kb pdf)

This toolkit is intended to provide a concise but thorough resource for social protection practitioners on how to minimize error, fraud and corruption in their program(s). It is organized in five sections. The first section introduces the topic, by clarifying the key concepts and spelling out the rationale for this activity. The second section provides a generic framework for combating EFC, developed around four building blocks of prevention; detection; deterrence; and measurement. The third section reviews the instruments, tools and mechanisms used to combat EFC in social protection programs, structured by strategic actions (prevention; detection; deterrence), by level of government and over time (how these tools and instruments can be developed over time). Section four includes generic terms of reference for the assessment of the mechanisms for combating error, fraud and corruption (EFC) in social protection programs. The last section summarizes the main findings for three such diagnostics from the Kyrgyz Republic and the Ukraine.

red arrowA Toolkit for Calculating Indicators of Coverage, Generosity and Incidence of Programs

ADePT SP is part of the suite of software toolkits freely available from the World Bank’s research department that produce rapid diagnostics of poverty, labor market, gender, and social protection based on STATA/SPSS routines. The module creates about 15 standardized benefit incidence publication-ready tables and graphs based on household survey data.

Download Software
Download Manual (1.6mb pdf)

red arrowReference to analysis for other than the target country can provide helpful ideas and comparators. Extensive references, with links to the source documents, are available in:

"Spending on Social Safety Nets: Comparative Data Compiled from World Bank Analytic Work" (1.3mb excel) provides comparative figures on expenditures for safety nets and social protection. The information is provided in a manipulable spreadsheet to assist in new comparative analyses.

"Safety Nets in World Bank Lending and Analytic Work: FY2002-2007" (1.1mb pdf) provides a comprehensive list of all such work.

red arrowInstitutional Analysis Toolkit for Safety Net Interventions (215KB PDF)
Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 0418; Publication Date: 08/04
by Inke Mathauer

The toolkit provides key questions on issues of institutional and organizational capacity in order to (i) better understand the causes of poor performance of a program from an institutional point of view, and (ii) propose the optimal institutional arrangements for existing or planned programs. In fact, one may glean further insights to outcome problems through a detailed institutional analysis that goes down to the local level, and propose solutions. More so, an institutional analysis may reveal that a safety net strategy is inadequate in the given context. Thus, the toolkit sheds light on key performance issues, such as staffing and skills, staff incentives, service delivery procedures, accountability mechanisms and incentives, supervision structures, and interorganizational relations, social protection system, and their long-term effectiveness in preventing the inter-generational transmission of poverty.

Social Funds

red arrowReaching the Poor and Vulnerable: Targeting Strategies for Social Funds and other Community-Driven Programs (1.7mb pdf)
Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 0711; Publication Date: 05/07
by Julie Van Domelen

Social fund/CDD programs have gained increasing attention for their capacity to support poor communities, especially in the context of scaling up efforts to end extreme poverty. The main objective of this toolkit is to enhance program design to better serve the poor. The toolkit approach is designed to provide technical staff in the Bank and client Governments with the concepts, empirical evidence, noteworthy case studies of different approaches and the operational elements necessary to develop more comprehensive poverty and vulnerability targeting mechanisms.

red arrowEvaluating Social Fund Impact: A Toolkit for Task Teams and Social Fund Managers (362KB PDF)
Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 0611; Publication Date: 10/06
by Sarah Adam

In response to the growing demand for evidence of how social fund (and other CDD) projects achieve significant and measurable improvement in peoples lives, this toolkit aims to increase the number, expand the topical coverage and improve the quality of social fund/CDD impact evaluations. Designed for task teams and managers of social fund and other CDD projects, as distinct from evaluation practitioners, the toolkit first defines impact evaluation and introduces related concepts and methodologies and then guides this audience through the process of planning, designing and implementing an impact evaluation.

Social Risk Managment

red arrowMethods for Microeconometric Risk and Vulnerability Assessments (337KB PDF)
Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 0324; Publication Date: 12/03
by John Hoddinott and Agnes Quisumbing

This "toolkit" provides quantitative tools to practitioners who want to undertake risk and vulnerability assessments using household data. While one could use price, exchange rate, and balance of payments data to examine macroeconomic shocks, and rainfall data to assess the severity of droughts and floods, we are ultimately interested in their impacts on households - thus the emphasis on household data.

red arrowData Sources for Microeconometric Risk and Vulnerability Assessments (252KB PDF)
Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 0323; Publication Date: 12/03
by John Hoddinott and Agnes Quisumbing

This "toolkit" is designed to assist practitioners undertaking vulnerability assessments by identifying data sources, assessing their suitability for risk and vulnerability measurement, and proposing suggestions for data collection to supplement existing sources. It complements "Methods for Microeconometric Risk and Vulnerability Assessments: A Review with Empirical Examples" (Hoddinott and Quisumbing 2003), which discusses techniques for assessing vulnerability and issues relating to their application. The emphasis in both toolkits is on quantitative, survey-based methods for vulnerability assessment, although this document will also discuss contextual methods similar to those used in livelihoods-based approaches. This paper draws heavily on papers and discussions at an International Food Policy Research Institute/World Bank (IFPRI/WB) Workshop on Risk and Vulnerability: Estimation and Policy Implications held at the International Food Policy Research Institute in September 2002.

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