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Transport Notes Series

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TRN-45: Road Traffic Injuries: A Public Health Crisis in the Middle East and North Africa (PDF 633 KB)
Said Dahdah and Dipan Bose


The incidence of road crashes in the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries is rising at an alarming rate and is now the leading cause of death among young adults, as confirmed by recent public health reports. When comparing socio-economic indicators such as road crash fatality rates, healthy years of life lost due to crashes, and percentage of GDP lost, MENA countries now rank among some of the worst performers in the world. This note provides insight into the current situation, and examines why, in contrast to other high and middle-income countries, the increase in wealth among MENA countries in the last decades has not positively affected the road safety crisis.


TRN-44: Accessibility of Urban Transport for People with Disabilities and Limited Mobility: Lessons from East Asia and the Pacific (PDF 612 KB)
Julie Babinard


Accessibility of transport is not always a priority in transport planning and implementation. There can be barriers in the physical environment and delivery of services that render transport inaccessible. The principles of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CPRD) brings new momentum to ensuring accessibility in the delivery of transport infrastructure and services. This note summarizes the analysis done of the accessibility features of recent transport projects in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region. It seeks to highlight good practice in national laws, policies and project implementation to improve the welfare of transport users across projects. The overarching objective is to suggest how to improve the implementation of accessibility features in transport projects for people with disabilities and people with limited mobility.


TRN-43: World Bank Gender Transport Surveys: An Overview (PDF 934 KB)
Julie Babinard


Between 2008 and 2010 the transport sector initiated several country surveys to measure road transport needs and the constraints of both men and women, and more specifically how transport is facilitating or constraining access to resources, markets, and employment. The main recommendation of the analysis is that a standardized approach should be promoted for collecting and evaluating gender data in transport and the possible creation of a questionnaire module to be easily adaptable for future surveys to collect and report gender-disaggregated data that can meaningfully inform transport policy. Substantial background work in the transport sector was done to develop a transport module to be used in nationally representative surveys. This work could be expanded upon to focus on gender and transportation.


TRN-42: Addressing HIV/AIDS in South Caucasus Transport Projects (PDF 89 KB)
Christopher R. Bennett, Julie Babinard, Satoshi Ishihara, and Robb Butler 


Transport has been identified as a sector that is particularly vulnerable to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. For this reason, explicit provisions for HIV prevention and awareness training are now embedded in the World Bank standard bidding documents for procurement of works in excess of US$10 million. These provisions were developed for countries with high national prevalence rates for HIV/AIDS. However, countries of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) have low prevalence rates of 1 percent or below, even in the worst affected countries of the region such as Ukraine, Russian Federation, Belarus, and Moldova. Using funds from the Transport and HIV/AIDS Incentive Trust Fund supported by the Global AIDS Program (GHAP), a study was undertaken on the viability of developing a risk-based approach for HIV/AIDS interventions to be applied in low prevalence countries.  This note summarizes the findings of the work and presents an approach for addressing HIV/AIDS issues in transport projects in the South Caucasus.


TRN-41: Improving Secondary and Local Roads in Albania: Lessons from a Programmatic Approach  (PDF 429 KB)
Martin Humphreys, Artan Guxho and Satoshi Ishihara


Albania has made considerable progress since transition in overcoming the legacy of nearly forty years of autarky. But despite significant progress and some of the fastest rates of GDP growth in South East Europe, it remains one of the impoverished countries in Europe, with the majority of the population, and the majority of the poor, living in rural areas. In 2006, the Prime Minister established a task force to prepare a program to improve a significant proportion of the secondary and local network and requested the assistance of the World Bank to prepare, and contribute to the financing, of such a program. This Transport Note summarizes the experience of the World Bank and details the key factors underpinning what has became a very successful program, together with the main lessons learned.


TRN-40: Geohazard Management in the Transport Sector (PDF 393 KB)
Stephen Muzira, Martin Humphreys and Wolfhart Pohl 

 Geohazards can result in significant loss of human life as well as cause extensive damage to infrastructure. The magnitude and frequency of geohazard events ranges from earthquakes and tsunamis to landslides and flash floods. This technical note provides a summary of the typology of geohazards, prospective mitigation measures, and current practices in managing geohazards. It also outlines some key recommendations to facilitate improved management of geohazards in the transport sector. 

TRN-39: Improving Local Roads and Creating Jobs through Rapid Response Projects: Lessons from Armenia Lifeline Roads Improvement Project  (PDF 161 KB)
Satoshi Ishihara and Christopher R. Bennett

 In late 2008 the Republic of Armenia requested the Bank’s assistance to mitigate the impact of the global financial crisis. This technical note describes how the Lifeline Road Improvement Project (LRIP) was prepared and implemented as a Rapid Response Project, prepared in only six weeks. This project saw over 150 km of roads improved and almost 12,000 person-months of employment generated during an eight month period between May to December 2009. The lessons learned may guide other projects with similar objectives.

TRN-38: Planning and Implementation of Road Use Charging: Options and Guidelines (PDF 371 KB)
Jung Eun Oh, Svetlana Vukanovic and Christopher R. Bennett

 Road use charging is used by agencies for activities ranging from revenue collection, through demand and environmental management. It is applied on individual road segments, such as an expressway, or over geographic areas, such as zones in a city or even an entire country. When a government is considering implementing a road use charging system, it needs to consider four broad issues: (i) the technology to adopt; (ii) how it will be operated; (iii) how compliance will be enforced; and, (iv) the social impact of the system. This transport note addresses each of these four issues, and presents guidelines towards implementing a successful road use charging scheme. Also available in Russian (Русский) (PDF 637 KB) 

TRN-37: Assessment of Road Funds in South Asia Region  (PDF 585 KB)
Jean-Noel Guillossou and Natalya Stankevich

 Sustaining an adequate level of resources for road maintenance has been a continuous issue worldwide, including in South Asia. Since the late 1990s South Asia has developed different models of Road Funds (RFs) – at the national level, or in the case of India at the state and local level – to improve sources of financing for road maintenance and development. The World Bank South Asia Transport team has carried out a review of RFs in the region to draw lessons learned from the past experience. The review provides the analytical underpinning for advising governments on how to improve the performance of existing RFs or how to establish new RFs for road maintenance, and for providing guidance to the World Bank for revising its transport sector strategy in relation to road policy reforms in the South Asia region.
TRN-36: Railways in Development: Global Round-Up 1996-2005  (PDF 179 KB)
Paul Amos and Lou Thompson
 This Transport Note has been prepared as an adjunct to the 2006-07 updating of the World Bank’s Railways Databases ( It uses the databases for inferences on aggregate trends (and so subject to the caveats provided in the Explanatory Note cited) as well as other Bank documents and sources of policy information. It provides a high level view of traffic and policy developments. Particular emphasis is given to the Bank’s six regions of operations at a time when the Bank’s Transport Strategy is being updated with the intention of increasing the attention given to the role of railways in development.
TRN-35: Success Factors for Improving Logistics in a Middle-Income Country
(PDF 76 KB)
Gaël Raballand, Jean-François Arvis and Michel Bellier
 This note presents the main lessons drawn from an analytical and sector work on trade logistics in Morocco. Public and private counterparts recognized the positive impact of the World Bank’s report to catalyze and accelerate reforms’ pace and to facilitate cooperation between public and private parties involved in logistics reforms. 

TRN-34: Transport as a Factor in the Investment Climate  (PDF 125 KB) 
Naomi Aoki and Peter Roberts, August 2006

 This Note shows how, through a process of consultation between the World Bank Transport Sector and Private Sector Department, some focus on transport has been introduced into the Global “core” module of the Investment Climate Survey. The Note also shows the scope for achieving much more focus on specific transport constraints in Investment Climate Assessments for countries where these are expected to be particularly important. 
TRN-33: Surfacing Alternatives for Unsealed Rural Roads  (PDF 402KB) 
Theuns Henning, Peter Kadar, and Christopher R. Bennett, May 2006

The purpose of this Note is to provide guidance for decision makers, engineers and administrators on selecting the most appropriate surface for unsealed road given the prevailing conditions. It is based on the report "Surfacing Alternatives for Unsealed Roads" (Henning, et al.2005 - PDF, 4,404KB).


TRN-32: Highway and Railway Development in India and China, 1992-2002  (PDF 360KB)
Clel Harral, Jit Sondhi and Guang Zhe Chen, May 2006


India and China have both been experiencing high growth rates over the last two decades. Until a decade ago, the road networks in both the countries were severely deficient as compared to those in other developing countries, and the railways too desired substantial improvement. However, in the past 10 years both the countries have made good progress in these sectors. This note compares the experience of both the countries in terms of the development and performance of the highways and railways sector over a period of 10 years from 1992 to 2002.

TRN-31: How a Road Agency Can Transform Force Account Road Maintenance to Contracting (PDF 332KB) 
Adam Andreski, Subhash Seth, Wendy Walker, June 2006
 The objective of this Note is dissemination of best practice and knowledge sharing on how a Government road agency can prepare for phasing out force account procedures in the public sector and creating an enabling environment for contracting out road maintenance.

TRN-30: Data Collection Technologies for Road Management (PDF 145KB)
Christopher R. Bennett, Hernán de Solminihac and Alondra Chamorro, May 2006


The purpose of this note is to give a general view of the currently available survey technologies applied to pavements, bridges and traffic. This includes an assessment of the applicability of these technologies in developing countries. The goal is to assist managers in establishing an appropriate and sustainable data collection program and procuring the appropriate equipment to collect the data. This Note is a summary of the report 'Data Collection Technologies for Road Management.' The full report is available for download.


The TRN-29: Success Factors for Road Management Systems (PDF 118KB)
Kevin McPherson and Christopher R. Bennett, March 2006


This Note describes the different factors associated with ‘successful’ RMS implementations. It is a summary of the report ‘Success Factors for Road Management Systems’. The full report is available for download. A Chinese translation of the Note is also available (MS-Word 164 KB)


TRN-28: Rural Access and Mobility in Pakistan: A Policy Note (PDF 112KB).
Mohammed Dalil Essakali, December 2005


This note presents a number of policy options to improve basic access and promote the mobility of Pakistan’s rural population in support of the government’s Poverty Reduction Strategy. This is achieved through more focused and community driven interventions to meet the direct needs of the rural population. The current state of rural accessibility and mobility are examined together with their effect on both the social and economic dimensions of rural poverty. Key challenges and constraints to reform are identified.


TRN-27: Performance-based Contracting for Preservation and Improvement of Road Assets (PDF 197KB).
Natalya Stankevich, Navaid Qureshi and Cesar Queiroz, September 2005 (Updated August 2009)


The purpose of this Note is to review the worldwide experience with the PBC approach, highlight the main advantages, the steps involved and the results generated. The document is intended to provide World Bank transport sector staff, Ministries of Transport and road agencies of developing and transition countries with a clear understanding of the benefits, and risks, of applying the PBC approach. A separate Resource Guide offers more detailed information and resources pertaining to performance-based contracting.
This publication is also available in Français (PDF 171KB), Русский (PDF 498KB) and Español (PDF 189KB).

TRN-5 through TRN-26: Economic Evaluation Notes

January 2005


In response to many requests for help in the application of both conventional cost benefit analysis in transport and addressing of the newer topics of interest, we have prepared a series of Economic Evaluation Notes that provide guidance on some of issues that have proven more difficult to deal with.


TRN-4: Why Road Maintenance Is Important and How To Get It Done  (PDF 193KB)

Sally Burningham and Natalya Stankevich, June 2005

Roads, and means of transport, make a crucial contribution to economic development and growth and bring important social benefits. Poorly maintained roads constrain mobility, significantly raise vehicle operating costs, increase accident rates and their associated human and property costs, and aggravate isolation, poverty, poor health, and illiteracy in rural communities. This Note highlights the economic and social importance of regular road maintenance and recommends ways to achieve sustainable road maintenance with scarce public resources. This Note has been produced with the financial assistance of a grant from TRISP: a partnership between the UK Department for International Development and the World Bank for learning and sharing knowledge in the fields of transport and rural infrastructure services. The Note is also available in Spanish (PDF 226KB) and French (PDF 221KB).


TRN-3: Regulation of Taxi Markets in Developing Countries: Issues and Options
(PDF 80KB)
Kenneth M. Gwilliam, February 2005


Taxis perform an important function in urban transport markets in both developed and developing countries. Because of the perceived vulnerability of passengers to exploitation by operators, entry to the market and fares have been tightly regulated in many industrialized countries. This has typically produced high premium values for licenses, implying some monopoly profit for operators at the expense of users. Curiously, however, total deregulation has often increased fares. This note considers the reasons for increased fares despite deregulation, the regulatory options available, and the relevant considerations in applying this experience to developing countries.


TRN-2: Economically Justified Levels of Road Works Expenditures on Unpaved Road (English) (PDF 230KB)
Rodrigo Archondo-Callao, November 2004


This technical note, targeted to road sector professionals, presents a methodology for an analytical study done to access economically justified levels of road works expenditures on unpaved roads with different traffic levels. The results presented in this technical note should be considered no more than a first approximation of country specific results. To obtain country specific results, the methodology should be replicated and adapted with refined country data.
This publication is also available in Spanish.
(PDF 227KB)

TRN-1: Implementing the recommendations of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention (PDF 211KB)
Tony Bliss, April 2004

This Note summarizes the findings of the "World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention"¾ jointly issued on World Health Day 2004 by the World Health Organisation and the World Bank¾ which highlights the growing public health burden of road deaths and injuries in low and middle-income countries , and provides guidelines to assist with the implementation of its recommendations.
This publication is also available in French (PDF 231KB) | Russian (PDF 391KB) | Spanish (PDF 229KB) and Chinese (PDF 233KB)


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