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Transport Papers Series

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TP-41: Review of the Urban Transport Sector in the Russian Federation - Transition to Long-Term Sustainability (PDF 827KB)
JungEun Oh and Kenneth Gwilliam

This review of the urban transport sector in the Russian Federation aims to assess the current condition and performance of urban transport systems in medium-to-large size Russian cities and to identify key issues and underlying causes. The Review principally covers software of urban transport in the secondary cities of Russia1, including institutional arrangements, legal and regulatory issues, operation of public transport systems, traffic management, and parking, and less extensively hardware aspects, such as construction of road network. Based on the Review findings, an action plan is laid out that would contribute to sustainable urban living in the long term.

TP-40: Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions Generated by the Transport Sector in ECA: Policy Options (PDF 880KB)
Carolina Monsalve

This paper describes recent transport-related GHG emission trends in the ECA region, and subsequently reviews a variety of climate friendly policies for the road, rail and air transport modes. The objective is to propose a menu of policy options aimed at improving the functioning of the transport sector in ECA, while addressing the externalities generated by the sector.

TP-39: How to Decrease Freight Logistics Costs in Brazil (PDF 4,297KB)
Jorge M. Rebelo, Arturo Ardila Gomez, Michel L. Donner, Jennifer Sara, María Catalina Ochoa, Georges Darido, Sivan Tamir and Aires da Conceição

This study aims to provide recommendations to the Brazilian government, private sector and non-governmental organizations for the preparation of a freight logistics policy agenda that prioritizes investment projects and improvements in supply chain procedures with the highest potential to achieve cost-efficiency gains for the country.
TP-38: Air Transport and Energy Efficiency (PDF 4,630KB)
The air transport sector is enjoying an optimistic growth rate while at the same time eliciting growing concern, due to its environmental impact and its vulnerability with respect to energy security. This report aims to guide the air transport industry, policy makers, and development institutions on where to focus their investments or support in developing and emerging markets in order to address the energy and climate change challenges ahead.
TP-36: Performance-based Road Rehabilitation and Maintenance Contracts (CREMA) in Argentina (PDF 8,200KB)
Maria Marcela Silva and Gerard Liautaud
This paper aims to assess fifteen years of experience with Performance-based Rehabilitation and Maintenance Contracts in Argentina (1996-2010).
TP-35: Making a Small Market Thrive: Recommendations for Efficiency Gains in the Latin American Air Cargo Market  (PDF 3,000KB)
Tomás Serebrisky, Jordan Schwartz, María Claudia Pachón and Andrés Ricover
The evolution of the air transport sector has been closely linked with the fluctuations of the global economy. Air transport demand is heavily dependent on business activity, trade flows and tourism, and has experienced long periods of continued growth alternated with brief crisis periods of negative growth. In recent years, the worldwide air cargo has experienced lower rates of growth as a result of the high jet fuel prices in 2006 and 2007 and the financial crisis of 2008. However, estimates for the next 20 years shows that air cargo traffic will triple and the freight fleet will double. Overall, LAC region’s air cargo traffic, measured by freight ton-km (FTKs), mirrored the economic cycle as the GDP experienced sharp declines between 1997 to 1999 and 2001 to 2002, and a more modest deceleration from 2004 to 2005.
TP-34: Road Asset Governance Filter: Case Study Of Kazakhstan And Armenia (PDF 2,000KB)
Cesar Queiroz, Alejandro Lopez Martinez, Satoshi Ishihara and Kirsten Hommann
Building upon the Transport Governance Filter developed by the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) transport team, which identified several thematic principles and actionable indicators on the governance of the transport sector at large, this paper seeks to assess the overall governance performance of the road sector as well as the concrete issues that road administrations should address in order to improve sector governance. A pilot survey was conducted in Armenia and Kazakhstan, in which road sector stakeholders were asked to evaluate more than seventy questions structured along four governance dimensions: (i) transparency, disclosure and accountability of the road agency; (ii) transparent and accessible procurement processes; (iii) financial management system; and (iv) administrative procedures and anticorruption effort.
Russian version (Русский) (PDF 3,963KB) Armenian version  (Հայերեն) (PDF 1,778KB)
TP-33: Monitoring Road Works Contracts and Unit Costs for Enhanced Governance in Europe and Central Asia (PDF 829KB)
Victoria Alexeeva, Cesar Queiroz and Satoshi Ishihara
The study establishes a framework for cross-country comparative assessments of the procurement and implementation processes of road works contracts financed by the World Bank.
TP-32: A Review of Institutional Arrangements for Road Asset Management: Lessons for the Developing World (PDF 349KB)
Cesar Queiroz and Henry Kerali 
This paper reviews main factors affecting the efficiency of road agencies and describes the steps taken in creating a new institution, or transforming an existing one, and assesses the effort required to achieve such results. In all countries reviewed, the ministry responsible for the transport sector remains the authority responsible for the overall transport policy and for putting in place checks and balances for good governance and management of fiscal risk. The main aspects of institutional reforms that can contribute to increase the efficiency of road and transport agencies include: improved institutional structures, separation of the client and supplier functions, separation of client and supplier organizations, privatization of the supplier organizations, establishment of an executive agency or a commercialized (client) organization, user participation through oversight boards, improving management information systems, and seeking additional sources of financing.
TP-31: Performance Based Contracts in the Road Sector: Towards Improved Efficiency in the Management of Maintenance and Rehabilitation. Brazil’s Experience  (PDF 1,803KB)
Eric Lancelot 

The paper investigates and details Brazil’s successful experience with performance based contracts for the management of the road infrastructure and explores approaches for future improvements in Brazil’s performance based program.

TP-30: Private Participation in the Road Sector in Brazil: Recent Evolution and Next Steps  (PDF 846KB)
Adrien Véron and Jacques Cellier

The paper investigates and details Brazil’s successful experience with public-private partnerships (PPPs) for the management of the road infrastructure and explores approaches for future improvements in Brazil’s PPP program.

TP-29: Brazil: Improving the Appraisal Framework for Road Transport Infrastructure Investment. Elements for Consideration  (PDF 464KB)
Adrien Véron 

The paper expands on transport infrastructure project evaluation in Brazil, taking stock of current practices and suggesting possible next steps.


TP-28: Mainstreaming Gender in Road Transport: Operational Guidance for World Bank Staff (PDF 499KB) 

The paper aims to provide guidance for both transport and gender specialists on how to mainstream gender-related considerations into road transport projects to improve development effectiveness, sustainability and to reduce gender inequality. The paper draws attention to the most basic ways in which gender affects and is affected by transport policies and projects and provides practical approaches to address gender-related problems in road transport projects.
TP-27: Deterring Corruption and Improving Governance in Road Construction and Maintenance   (PDF 864KB) 
This Sourcebook is part of a broader program on governance and corruption in the transport sector. The Sourcebook is meant as a resource to sector practitioners to assess the extent and risks of corruption in the sector and to improve governance in ways that reduce corruption. As this is an emerging field, the sourcebook is not intended to be a manual, nor a set of directives but rather to organize and illustrate approaches and tools which sector practitioners may find useful.
TP-26: Air Freight: A Market Study with Implications for Landlocked Countries 
The report provides an in depth look at the importance of air freight in trade and development. It has been prepared by a team of experts with background in air-cargo, logistics, and development. It provides a robust foundation and inputs for analyzing export diversification projects and initiatives. To facilitate air freight, landlocked countries need to improve operations at their airports and liberalize access for foreign airlines. But until those countries become major exporters, it is unlikely that scheduled air cargo operators will have significant operations. Instead, most air cargo will move as belly cargo on passenger airlines, with some complementary use of chartered air freighters during shipment peaks. Landlocked countries should therefore provide greater access to foreign passenger airlines.
TP-25: Transport against HIV/AIDS: Synthesis of Experience and Best Practice Guidelines(PDF 900KB) 
This paper aims to provide guidance to World Bank transport and health staff on entry points for mitigating HIV’s impact on the transport sector while providing resources and recommendations for designing and implementing interventions. The paper also reviews interventions and approaches undertaken by the World Bank’s transport group, drawing attention to the role and resources of partner agencies, trade unions and key stakeholders.

TP-24: Private Participation in the Transport Sector - Lessons from Recent Experience in Europe and Central Asia (PDF 542KB)
V. Cuttaree, M. Humphreys, S. Muzira, and J-P Strand 

This report reviews recent experience in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region with contractual public private partnerships (PPPs) in the transport sector. The review and evaluation of successes and failures of past investment projects can provide valuable lessons to governments on the options they have for infrastructure spending and the pre-requisites for those options. Whilst the review covers the whole region, the primary focus is on the Central and Eastern European and South-Eastern European (CEE/SEE) countries as they were the first within the Europe and Central Asia region to follow the global trend of using PPPs in the implementation of infrastructure projects.


TP-23: Road User Charges: Current Practice and Perspectives in Central and Eastern Europe  (PDF 624 KB)
Cesar Queiroz, Barbara Rdzanowska, Robert Garbarczyk and Michel Audige

This paper covers the most commonly used means to charge road users, including fuel taxes, vehicle taxes, vignettes and tolls. It presents a brief survey of road user charging systems in selected European countries and a more detailed overview of current status and perspectives of road user charges in Poland. Consideration is also given to private financing of roads through different forms of public-private partnerships (PPP), including a review of potential applications of the World Bank Toolkit for PPP in Highways as an instrument to help decision makers and practitioners to define the best PPP approach for a specific country.


TP-22: Urban Transport for Development: Towards an Operationally-Oriented Strategy
 (PDF 624 KB)
Slobodan Mitric

This paper arose from the perception that a gap existed between the practice of project design and the formal Bank strategies for transport and urban sectors as stated in the cited reports. Formal strategies tend to be too general to be linked meaningfully to project designs. The paper attempts to close this gap by putting forward a different, operationally-oriented concept of urban transport strategy and derives one such strategy from a review of recent Bank-funded projects. The term “operationally-oriented” means that the strategy is expressed in terms of objectives, policies, institutions and investments, mimicking the structure common to all individual projects.


TP-21: Monitoring Road Works Contracts and Unit Costs for Enhanced Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa (PDF 1,872 KB)
Victoria Alexeeva, Gouthami Padam and Cesar Queiroz

This study is intended to develop a list of quantitative indicators to recognize and track vulnerabilities to corruption in the roads projects funded by the Bank. It is based on the procurement and implementation of the road works contracts in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study develops a new cross-country database with information on bidding, costs, performance, and other details of the Bank-financed road works contracts.

Annexes D - G of this paper are only available electronically as MSExcel files:
ANNEX D: Data on Bidding Information

ANNEX E: Data on Cost Information
ANNEX F: Data on Supervision Consultancy Contracts
ANNEX G: Data on Bridge Works Contracts


TP-20: Applying the HDM-4 Model to Strategic Planning of Road Works 
(PDF 1,661 KB)
Rodrigo Archondo-Callao

 This technical note presents the author’s experience applying HDM-4 and its predecessor, the Highway Design and Maintenance Standards Model (HDM-III), to road network strategic planning evaluations in developing countries, with the objective of providing recommendations and tools to the readers who are involved in strategic planning activities. The purpose of the evaluations, the methodology itself, the input requirements, the challenges, and the presentation of results to decision makers are each reviewed in turn. 

TP-19: Preparing a National Transport Strategy: Suggestions for Government Agencies in Developing Countries (PDF 647 KB)
John Lee and John L. Hine

 The purpose of this report is to assist policy makers and planners in developing countries in the preparation of a National Transport Strategy (NTS). The report highlights lessons that can be learned from NTSs developed by different countries around the world. It draws upon transport strategy and policy documents from 23 countries and from a range of World Bank source material. The aim is not to provide a ready-made strategy document but to identify relevant questions and choices that need to be considered in preparing an NTS. At each stage of the development of the NTS, a checklist of considerations is given, and, where appropriate, examples of good and bad practice are identified.

TP-18: Walk Urban: Demand, Constraints and Measurement of the Urban Pedestrian Environment (PDF 969 KB)
Brittany Montgomery and Peter Roberts

 Walking is nature’s mode of transport. For many people in the developing world, it is the only form of transport. The globe’s rapid urbanization, particularly in low-to-middle income countries, stimulates a high demand for low cost, sustainable urban transport. A well-designed and maintained walking network can satisfy this demand, while contributing to poverty reduction, health benefits, and saved lives. However, the complexities associated with the pedestrian environment often prevent interventions that benefit walkers.

TP-17: Towards the Mainstreaming of an Approach to Include Social Benefits within Road Appraisal: A Case Study from Uganda  (PDF 2,373 KB)
Jennaro B. Odoki, Farhad Ahmed, Gary Taylor and Sunday A. Okello

 This report builds on earlier work undertaken by the Transport Research Laboratory and others (Overseas Road Note 22: A guide to Pro Poor Transport Appraisal, 2004) to investigate how social benefits might be included within road appraisal. The approach uses Multi-Criteria Analysis to investigate how different groups (Communities, District officials and National officials) in Uganda would comparatively assess how the different social costs and benefits of road projects compare with economic and environmental costs and benefits.
TP-16: Review of Cost of Compliance with the New International Freight Transport Security Requirements: Consolidated Report of the Investigations Carried Out in Ports in the Africa, Europe and Central Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean Regions
(PDF 660 KB)

C. Bert Kruk and Michel Luc Donner 

This Paper examines the costs of meeting the new maritime transport security requirements as defined in the IMO International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS). It compiles an inventory of the different measures made mandatory by the ISPS Code, and establishes a range of costs assessments based on case studies covering ports and countries of different sizes and at various levels of development. It looks at both the costs incurred by governments and by private transport operators, and seeks to illustrate the impact on port handling costs, focusing in particular on containers.

TP-15: A Framework for Urban Transport Projects, Operational Guidance for World Bank Staff (PDF 2,113 KB) 

This Paper is meant to close the gap between nominal sector strategies and project design activities in urban transport by presenting an operationally-oriented strategic approach, i.e. an approach couched in the same terms as those used in project making. Since a great majority of Bank-funded urban transport projects consists of an investment program alongside specific policy and institutional changes under a set of common development objectives, the strategy laid out in this Paper is made using these same categories.

TP-14: The Financial Performance of Non-Urban Passenger Rail Services (PDF 450 KB)
Paul Amos and Richard Bullock, September 2007
 This Paper summarizes the main factors that influence the costs and farebox cost recovery of rail passenger services, with illustrations from a range of different countries in which the Bank is involved in rail passenger operations. Second, it provides a generalized passenger service costing model, including indicative sets of input unit costs representing different levels of efficiency: this model is used for illustrative purposes in this paper but the structure can be readily applied by transport planners and policy-makers, with use of local parameters, in developing and transition countries. Third, it illustrates the cost drivers of services and the sensitivity of costs to different market and operational drivers. 
TP-13: Best Practices in Management of International Trade Corridors (PDF 288 KB)
John Arnold, December 2006
 This report provides a comprehensive review of how transport corridors function, what institutional and operational structures are used to manage their performance, how that performance can be assessed and compared with that of other corridors, and what measures can be taken to improve corridor management and, through that, corridor performance. This is the first in a series of papers addressing transit for landlocked countries. 
TP-12: Maternal and Child Mortality Development Goals: What Can the Transport Sector Do? (PDF 288 KB)
Julie Babinard, Peter Roberts, August 2006
 This paper focuses on the ways in which transport and road infrastructure play key roles in the overall delivery of and access to health services, and in the effectiveness of the health referral process. 
TP-11: How a Road Agency Can Transform Force Account Road Maintenance to Contracting  (PDF 997KB)
Adam Andreski, Subhash Seth, Wendy Walker, June 2006 

The objective of this Paper is dissemination of best practice and knowledge sharing on how a Government road agency can prepare for phasing out force account procedures in the public sector and creating an enabling environment for contracting out road maintenance.


TP-10: Rural Access Index: A Key Development Indicator  (PDF 375KB)
Peter Roberts, Shyam KC, Cordula Rastogi, March 2006 


This paper describes the Rural Access Index (RAI), a headline transport indicator which highlights the critical role of access and mobility in reducing poverty in poor countries. The Index is part of the Results Measurement System for IDA 14. It is defined together with the official method of measurement which is on the basis of locally representative household surveys. The challenges for extending and updating the Index are described, together with the resources which have been developed to tackle these. Links are provided to those resources.


TP-9: Launching Public Private Partnerships for Highways in Transition Economies
(PDF 182KB)
Cesar Queiroz, September 2005 


In many countries the private sector has been involved in financing infrastructure through concessions under a public-private partnership (PPP) program. PPP schemes, however, are somewhat underutilized in transition economies, where the potential financing gaps are significant and growing, and there seems to be an enormous potential for more private sector involvement in the financing and operation of highway assets in these countries.


TP-8: Results of railway Privatization in Africa (PDF 390KB)
Richard Bullock, September 2005 


This is one report in a series of independent reviews of rail privatization experience commissioned by the World Bank's Transport and Urban Development Department. The author, Richard Bullock, gives his own view of the results of rail privatization in Africa.. The Report judges the impact of privatization on operational efficiency, services, investment and other impacts.The paper is published as an input to debate in an area of public policy that is of interest to many developing countries.


TP-7: Results of Railway Privatization in Australia and New Zealand  (PDF 728KB)
Robert Williams, David Greig, Ian Wallis, September 2005


This is one report in a series of independent reviews of rail privatization experience commissioned by the World Bank's Transport and Urban Development Department. The authors, Robert Williams, David Greig and Ian Wallis, give their own view of the results of rail privatization in Australia and New Zealand.. The Report judges the impact of privatization on operational efficiency, services, investment and other impacts. The cases covered include the separate trade sales of seven previously state-owned railway networks plus four public private partnerships (PPP). The paper is published as an input to debate in an area of public policy that is of interest to many developing countries.


TP-6: Results of Railway Privatization in Latin america (PDF 1,847KB)
Richard Sharp, September 2005


This is one report in a series of independent reviews of rail privatization experience commissioned by the World Bank's Transport and Urban Development Department. In the Note, consultant Richard Sharp gives his view of the results of rail privatization in Latin America. The Report judges the impact of privatization on operational efficiency, services, investment and other impacts. Countries covered include Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and Colombia. The paper is published as an input to debate in an area of public policy that is of interest to many developing countries.
This publication is also available in Spanish (PDF 1.8 MB)


TP-5: Development of a Transport Module for Multi-topic Household Surveys (PDF 378KB)
Judy L. Baker and William Denning, January 2005


This paper is aimed at providing guidance on transport issues for those involved in designing multitopic household surveys such as the Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS) surveys. It covers background on transport and multitopic household surveys, key transport policy concerns and data needs, approaches to analysis, issues of survey design, and prototype questions that could be included in existing surveys.


TP-4 Reform, Commercialization and Private Sector Participation in Railways in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (PDF 373KB)
Paul Amos, January 2005


The World Bank is currently undertaking a review of private sector participation in infrastructure in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. The intention is to write a regional report documenting the experience of private sector participation and commercialization in water, power and rail sectors in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The report will also evaluate the prospects for private participation in and commercialization of infrastructure in ECA going forward. This review of the rail sector in ECA will form an input to the wider regional infrastructure review, but is also published separately as it may be of specific interest to rail policy makers and industry leaders in the region.

TP-3: Affordability of Public Transport in Developing Countries  (PDF 124KB)
Robin Carruthers, Malise Dick and Anuja Saurkar, January 2005

To address the need for easily available and comprehensive comparative information on affordability of public transport fares, an Affordability Index has been developed that is easy to measure and can be used as a first indication of the affordability of fares in a particular city. The Index is computed for a person on an average income and for someone in the bottom quintile of the income distribution.

TP-2: Privatizing British Railways: Are There Lessons for the World Bank and Its Borrowers?  (PDF 1,068KB)
Louis S. Thompson, September 2004 

Authored by Lou Thompson, recently retired as the World Bank's Railways Adviser, this paper was written to see what lessons Britain’s experience of rail privatization might have for the Bank’s client countries

TP-1: Public & Private Sector Roles in the Supply of Transport Infrastructure and Services. Operational Guidance for World Bank (PDF 90KB)
Paul Amos, May 2004

The transport challenges facing developing countries are many and various. What may be an acceptable policy in one country may be anathema in another for political, geographical or historical reasons. Therefore, this Guidance Note does not prescribe fixed solutions. It offers guidance in thinking about the options available and the factors that are important in judging between them.
This publication is also available in Russian (PDF 376KB)

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