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Roads and the Environment

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TWU-31: Roads and the Environment Handbook
Complete document 
 (PDF, 22.3MB)


Front Cover and Table of Contents (PDF, 1.3MB)

List of Boxes, Figures & Tables, Executive Summary, and Other Front Material

(PDF, 972KB)
List of Boxes, Figures and Tables
Executive Summary


Chapter 1: Assessing the environmental impact of road projects (PDF, 1.1MB)
1.1 The environment and its ecosystems
1.2 Roads, the environment, and the need for environmental assessment
1.3 New, existing, rural, and urban project settings
1.3.1 New versus existing project types
1.3.2 Rural versus urban project types
1.3.3 The "mixed" rural-urban project
1.4 The environmental assessment (EA)
1.4.1 EA and road project development
1.4.2 Types of EA
1.5 Environmental assessment at the project level
1.5.1 The project-specific EA
1.5.2 The programmatic or class EA
1.5.3 Summary or initial environmental evaluation (SEE/IEE)
1.5.4 The regional EA (REA)
1.6 Environmental assessment at the strategic level
1.6.1 The sectoral EA (SEA)
1.7 EA duration and budget
1.8 References and bibliography
Chapter 2: Environmental assessment management and institutional issues
(PDF, 931KB)
2.1 EA and institutional development
2.2 Functions to be performed and the need for environmental skills
2.2.1 Developing the policy and legal directives
2.2.2 Conducting the EA studies
2.2.3 Implementing the environmental management plan (EMP)
2.2.4 Managing the EA process
2.3 Providing the requisite environmental training
2.4 Establishing the institutional structures
2.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 3: An overview of environmental assessment planning and EA reporting  (PDF, 980KB)
3.1 Early planning of EA
3.2 Screening and scoping
3.2.1 Description of the need for a project
3.2.2 Description of the proposed project and alternatives
3.2.3 Identification of valued ecosystem components (VECs)
3.2.4 Evaluation of potential impacts for alternative solutions
3.2.5 Early consultation
3.2.6 Selection of preferred project (solution) and identification of EA type to be applied
3.3 Preparation of the project terms of reference
3.4 Space, time and consultation
3.4.1 Space
3.4.2 Time requirements for the environmental study
3.4.3 Consultation
3.5 The environmental impact statement (EIS)
3.5.1 Executive summary
3.5.2 The environmental assessment team
3.5.3 Introduction and background
3.5.4 Approach and methodology
3.5.5 Existing conditions
3.5.6 Analysis of alternatives
3.5.7 The preferred design
3.5.8 The environmental management plan
3.5.9 Consultation
3.5.10 References
3.5.11 Appendices
3.6 Presenting information with maps in the EA report
3.7 References and bibliography
Chapter 4: Key steps involved in undertaking an environmental assessment  (PDF, 1,389KB)
4.1 Seven key steps
4.2 Description of baseline conditions
4.2.1 Collecting and analyzing existing basic documents
4.2.2 Assembling information from different sources
4.2.3 Consultation with local residents and professionals
4.2.4 The sampling design
4.2.5 The field investigations
4.2.6 Tracking project-induced versus natural environment changes
4.3 Analysis of potential environmental impacts
4.3.1 Determining significance
4.3.2 Impact characteristics
4.3.3 Impact types
4 .4 Consideration of alternatives
4.4.1 Alternative designs
4.4.2 Analysis of alternatives
4.5 Planning remedial measures
4.5.1 Avoidance
4.5.2 Mitigation
4.5.3 Including consultation in mitigation planning
4.5.4 Compensation
4.6 Monitoring and evaluation
4.6.1 Compliance monitoring
4.6.2 Effects monitoring (Evaluation)
4.7 The environmental management plan (EMP)
4.8 Documentation
4.9 Using maps in EA
4.9.1 Dealing with poor availability of maps
4.9.2 General maps
4.9.3 Thematic maps
4.9.4 Presentation maps
4.9.5 Synthesis maps
4.10 References and bibliography
Chapter 5: Public involvement in EA  (PDF, 1,128KB)
5.1 Guiding principles
5.1.1 Information dissemination
5.1.2 Information solicitation
5.1.3 Consultation
5.1.4 Application
5.2 When is public involvement necessary?
5.3 Determining who should participate
5.3.1 Enabling the poor to participate
5.3.2 Local and community participation
5.3.3 Government agencies and research institutions
5.3.4 Non-government organizations (NGOs)
5.4 A framework for public involvement
5.5 Public involvement format
5.5.1 The "open house" (Information displays and reports)
5.5.2 Interview survey
5.5.3 Public meetings
5.5.4 Individual or group discussions
5.5.5 On-site consultation
5.5.6 Rapid social appraisal
5.5.7 Rapid rural appraisal
5.6 Guide to information presentation
5.6.1 Written reports, newsletters, and leaflets
5.6.2 Graphic material
5.6.3 Audio-visual aids
5.7 References and bibliography
Chapter 6: Types of environmental impact  (PDF, 661KB)
6.1 Impact types
6.1.1 Direct impacts
6.1.2 Indirect impacts
6.1.3 Cumulative impacts
6.1.4 Ecosystem function impacts
6.1.5 Positive and negative impacts
6.1.6 Random and predictable impacts
6.1.7 Local and widespread impacts
6.1.8 Temporary and permanent impacts
6.1.9 Short- and long-term impacts
6.2 Impact severity
6.3 References and bibliography

Chapter 7: Impacts on soils  (PDF, 1,027KB)
7.1 Impacts and setting
7.1.1 Loss of productive soil
7.1.2 Erosion
7.1.3 Contamination of soil
7.1.4 Cumulative impacts
7.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
7.3 Remedial measures
7.3.1 Prevention
7.3.2 Mitigation
7.3.3 Compensation
7.4 Reducing impacts on soils: An action checklist
7.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 8: Impacts on water resources  (PDF, 733KB)
8.1 Impacts and setting
8.1.1 Surface water flow modification
8.1.2 Groundwater flow modification
8.1.3 Water quality degradation (surface and groundwater)
8.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
8.2.1 Drainage modifications
8.2.2 Water table modification
8.2.3 Water quality degradation
8.2.4 Sensitive habitat intrusion
8.3 Remedial measures
8.3.1 Prevention
8.3.2 Mitigation
8.3.3 Compensation
8.3.4 Enhancement
8.4 Minimizing impacts on water resources: An action checklist
8.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 9: Impacts on air quality  (PDF, 816KB)
9.1 Impacts and setting
9.1.1 Airmass contaminants
9.1.2 Movement of pollutants
9.1.3 Impacts
9.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
9.2.1 Assessment at the project level
9.2.2 Measurement of roadside pollutants
9.2.3 Computer modeling of pollutants
9.3 Remedial measures
9.3.1 Prevention
9.3.2 Mitigation
9.3.3 Compensation
9.4 Minimizing impacts on air quality: An action checklist 96
9.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 10: Impacts on flora and fauna  (PDF, 1,322KB)
10.1 Impacts and setting
10.1.1 Direct impacts
10.1.2 Indirect impacts
10.1.3 Ecosystem types and sensitivity
10.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
10.2.1 Extent of the project
10.2.2 Duration of the construction period
10.2.3 Evaluation of the affected systems
10.2.4 Use of indicator species or groups
10.2.5 Rapid appraisal
10.2.6 Modeling
10.2.7 Useful sources of information
10.3 Remedial measures
10.3.1 Prevention
10.3.2 Mitigation
10.3.3 Compensation
10.4 Minimizing impacts on flora and fauna: An action checklist
10.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 11: Impacts on communities and their economic activity  (PDF, 833KB)
11.1 Impacts and setting
11.1.1 The split community
11.1.2 The loss of roadside community business and social activity
11.1.3 The by-passed community
11.1.4 The reduced convenience of traditional modes of transport
11.1.5 The dilemma for tourism
11.1.6 The "culture shock" effect
11.1.7 The gentrification effect
11.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
11.2.1 The preliminary assessment
11.2.2 The social assessment
11.3 Remedial measures
11.3.1 Prevention
11.3.2 Mitigation
11.3.3 Compensation
11.4 Minimizing impacts on communities and their economic activity: An action checklist
11.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 12: Impacts arising from land acquisition and resettlement  (PDF, 915KB)
12.1 Impacts and setting
12.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
12.2.1 Stresses in the "host" community
12.3 Remedial measures
12.3.1 Prevention
12.3.2 Mitigation
12.3.3 Compensation
12.4 Minimizing impacts of land acquisition and resettlement: An action checklist
12.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 13: Impacts on indigenous peoples  (PDF, 830KB)
13.1 Impacts and setting
13.1.1 Loss of traditional sense of identity
13.1.2 Loss of livelihoods and violation of traditionally-exercised land rights
13.1.3 Health and social problems
13.1.4 Violation of rights to participate in development
13.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
13.2.1 Identifying the population and the affected area
13.2.2 Consultation and participation
13.2.3 The surveys
13.3 Remedial measures
13.3.1 Prevention
13.3.2 Mitigation
13.3.3 Compensation
13.4 Minimizing impacts on indigenous peoples: An action checklist
13.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 14: Impacts on cultural heritage  (PDF, 760KB)
14.1 Impacts and setting
14.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
14.2.1 Preliminary assessment
14.2.2 Cultural heritage
14.3 Remedial measures
14.3.1 Prevention
14.3.2 Mitigation
14.3.3 Compensation
14.4 Minimizing impacts on cultural heritage features: An action checklist
14.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 15: Impacts on aesthetics and landscape  (PDF, 669KB)
15.1 Impacts and setting
15.1.1 Links between aesthetic values and regional landscape design
15.1.2 Potential negative aesthetic impacts
15.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
15.3 Remedial measures
15.3.1 Prevention
15.3.2 Mitigation
15.3.3 Compensation
15.4 Minimizing impacts on aesthetics and landscape: An action checklist
15.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 16: Impacts on the noise environment  (PDF, 893KB)
16.1 Impacts and setting
16.1.1 Sources of road noise
16.1.2 Road noise impacts
16.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
16.2.1 Assessing noise impacts
16.2.2 Noise measurement
16.2.3 Noise level standards
16.3 Remedial measures
16.3.1 Prevention
16.3.2 Mitigation
16.3.3 Compensation
16.4 Avoiding impacts on the noise environment: An action checklist
16.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 17: Impacts on human health and safety  (PDF, 930KB)
17.1 Impacts and setting
17.2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts
17.2.1 Human health
17.2.2 Road safety
17.3 Remedial measures
17.3.1 Prevention
17.3.2 Mitigation
17.3.3 Compensation
17.4 Avoiding impacts on human health and safety: An action checklist
17.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 18: Environmentally sound construction and facility management practices  (PDF, 1,138KB)
18.1 New construction projects
18.1.1 Settings and Impacts
18.1.2 Remedial measures
18.2 Maintenance and rehabilitation (M & R) projects
18.2.1 Defining maintenance and rehabilitation
18.2.2 Setting and Impacts
18.2.3 Mitigation
18.3 The implementation of environmental requirements
18.4 Environmental risk
18.4.1 The failure of mitigative measures
18.4.2 Mitigative measures
18.5 References and bibliography
Chapter 19: Economic valuation of the impacts of road projects on the environment  (PDF, 1,168KB)
19.1 Economic valuation of environmental impacts (EVEI)
19.1.1 The fundamental problem
19.1.2 Alternative institutional approaches
19.1.3 The cost-benefit evaluation formats
19.2 EVEI in the context of public involvement
19.3 Procedural considerations
19.3.1 Some prerequisites
19.3.2 Choosing a valuation technique and scheduling the procedure
1 9.4 Common valuation techniques
19.4.1 A valuation typology
19.4.2 Direct valuation approaches
19.4.3 Surrogate market approaches
19.4.4 Preventive expenditures approach
19.4.5 Replacement cost approaches
19.4.6 Contingent valuation approach
19.5 Alternative economic format
19.5.1 Cost effective analysis approach
19.6 References and bibliography
Appendices  (PDF, 1,003KB)
Appendix 1: Example of environmental management plan
Appendix 2: Impact of road maintenance tasks on the environment in the Sahel
Appendix 3: Guide to defining natural and social indicators in environmental assessment
Glossary and Other Back Material  (PDF, 1,048KB)
Other sources of information

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