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Logistics in Lagging RegionsLogistics in Lagging Regions:  Overcoming Local Barriers to Global Connectivity
by Charles Kunaka,  December 2010 
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Using case studies of sisal and soybean supply chains in Brazil and India respectively, this publication explores the role and impact of intermediaries in facilitating trade in lagging regions and assesses the horizontal relationships between small-scale farmers and the vertical connections between different tiers of the same supply chains. The study finds that farmers linked through these different mechanisms are more integrated to international supply chains or are able to better manage supply chains longer than would otherwise be the case. Intermediaries play several roles including providing transport services and facilitating market exchanges, payments, risk sharing, and quality improvements.


Border Management ModernizationBorder Management Modernization
Edited by Gerard McLinden, Enrique Fanta, David Widdowson, Tom Doyle, November 2010
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Border clearance processes by customs and other agencies are among the most important and problematic links in the global supply chain. It takes three times as many days, nearly twice as many documents, and six times as many signatures to import goods in poor countries than it does in rich ones. Delays and costs at the border undermine a country’s competitiveness, either by taxing imported inputs with deadweight inefficiencies or by adding costs and reducing the competitiveness of exports.

This book is designed to shed new light on these problems and to identify a range of strategies that will help officials meet their traditional control responsibilities while at the same time facilitating legitimate trade. It also provides advice to development professional and key policy makers about what works, what doesn’t and why.



The Cost of Being Landlocked: Logistics Costs and Supply Chain Reliability

The Cost of Being Landlocked: Logistics Costs and Supply Chain Reliability
by Jean Francois Arvis, Jean-Francois Marteau, Gael Raballand, July 2010
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This book proposes a new analytical framework to interpret and model the constraints faced by logistics chains in landlocked countries. The case of LLDCs has naturally received special attention for decades, including a specific set of development priorities based on the idea of dependence over the transit state. In this context, efforts to tackle the cost of being landlocked have been mainly directed to ensure or facilitate freedom of transit through regional/multilateral conventions, and to develop regional transport infrastructure. In contrast, analysis of service delivery constraints has been seriously neglected and could explain the disappointing implementation of regional transit agreements and massive investments in corridors for exports diversification in landlocked economies.


Trade and Transport Facilitation AssessmentTrade and Transport Facilitation Assessment
by M.A. Mustra, J.F. Arvis, with J. Arnold, R.Carruthers and D.Saslavsky, March 2010
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The Trade and Transport Facilitation Assessment is a practical tool to identify the obstacles to the fluidity of trade supply chains. Taking the perspective of service delivery to traders, the TTFA assessment is founded on facts and data collected through a series of meetings and interviews with the main public and private participants to these international supply chains. They include customs and other border agencies, transport regulators, freight forwarders, transport operators, ports, and others.The toolkit helps design plans of action to improve logistics performance among its three  main dimensions: infrastructure, services, and procedures and processes.


nullTrade Logistics in the Global Economy
by Jean-François Arvis, Monica Alina Mustra, Lauri Ojala, Ben Shepherd and Daniel Saslavsky, 2010
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The capacity of countries to efficiently move goods and connect manufacturers and consumers with international markets is improving around the world, but much more is needed to spur faster economic growth and help firms benefit from trade recovery, according to a new World Bank Group survey on trade logistics. More >> 

Download the 2007 issue of this report



Air Freight: A Market Study with Implications for Landlocked CountriesAir Freight: A Market Study with Implications for Landlocked Countries
August 2009
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This publication, which contains a comprehensive analysis of issues related to air freight, addresses in detail air cargo operations in its most diverse dimensions. Like other growing industries, the air freight industry is expanding exponentially. The issues faced by the industry are complex and their impact on other business operators is tangible. Transportation, an essential service relied upon by the air freight industry, makes it inevitable that this industry affects almost every other business and brings to bear its relevance and interest to business management. There are few studies of this nature which have drawn information from a wide range of research in the manner in which the World Bank team of authors has accomplished, both effectively and adroitly.



Reforming Regulatory Procedures picReforming the Regulatory Procedures for Import and Export: Guide for Practitioners
by Alejandro Alvarez de la Campa, Bert Cunningham, Gerard McLinden, Frank Sader, Vincent Palmade, Uma Subramanian, and Marlon Lezama, June 2006
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The purpose of this guide is to assist World Bank (WB) and International Finance
Corporation (IFC) staff, in particular Business Development Officers/Task Managers
in the IFC field offices, as well as any other task managers, implement trade facilitation
and Customs reform programs.

This guide has been written from a non-technical perspective to be as practical as
possible. It draws upon a host of technical documentation prepared by various international
organizations involved in Customs reform and trade facilitation programs. It
identifies key areas necessary to implement efficient and effective import/export procedures
based on internationally recommended best practices.



Customs Modernization HandbookCustoms Modernization Handbook 
by Luc De Wulf , José B. Sokol, January 2005
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Also available in Spanish, Arabic, French, Russian and Vietnamese

Trade integration contributes substantially to economic development and poverty alleviation. In recent years much progress was made to liberalize the trade regime, but customs procedures are often still complex, costly and non-transparent. This situation leads to misallocation of resources.
Customs Modernization Handbook provides an overview of the key elements of a successful customs modernization strategy and draws lessons from a number of successful customs reforms as well as from customs reform projects that have been undertaken by the World Bank. It describes a number of key import procedures, that have proved particularly troublesome for customs administrations and traders, and provides practical guidelines to enhance their efficiency. The Handbook also reviews the appropriate legal framework for customs operations as well as strategies to combat corruption.



Customs InitiativesCustoms Modernization Initiatives: Case Studies
Edited by Luc De Wulf , José B. Sokol, August 2004
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A companion to the Customs Modernization Handbook, this book provides case studies on customs modernization initiatives in seven countries (Bolivia, Morocco, Mozambique, Peru, the Philippines, Turkey, and Uganda). The initiatives in each of these countries show similarities as well differences in their approach and design. Some have relied on a model of Independent revenue authorities (Uganda and Peru), others have called upon private sector service providers to initiate the modernization process (Mozambique), others have taken the drastic step of a complete overhaul of their customs staff (Bolivia and Mozambique), others introduced new information technology to streamline customs processes and to integrate other members of the trading community into an electronic network (Ghana), while still others have approached the modernization process as a pragmatic, well-focused, result-oriented process.



Last updated on Feb 2, 2011




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