Click here for search results

Promoting Intermediate Means of Transport for Women in Antomoro

Proposal Approved for Thematic Group Funding
Fiscal Year: FY01
Country: Madagascar
Coordinating Division: AFTTR (Africa Transport Department)
Implementing agency: LALANA (National NGO)

1. The project

The proposal is to evaluate the impacts of a pilot project to promote the use of intermediate means of transport (IMT) by rural women in Antemoro, a region in the South East of Madagascar. The target group for the project are women living in rural areas of Antemoro a province of Fianarantsoa. The project will focus on members of the women’s organization Anakavy-Amin-Dreny (AAD), the majority of whom are single mothers.

The strategic objectives of the project are:

  • To contribute to poverty reduction in the Lokomby zone.
  • To increase income for single parent households.

The specific objectives of the project concern:

  • Increasing the mobility of rural women
  • Reducing the transport burden of women
  • Acquiring and using IMT by members of the AAD women’s organization.
  • Increasing the amount of time that women can devote to income generating and socially beneficial activities.

The socio-economic context offers both advantages and constraints with respect to women’s access to IMT. Time budget studies have shown that women spend an average of 6 hours per day travelling outside the home. IMT could economize women’s time and energy, improving the quantity of the goods transported, and allowing women to devote more time to the education of their children and to income generating activities. Given the distances that women have to travel the project proposes to promote women’s access to wheel-barrows (brouettes), rickshaws (pousse-pousse), bicycles and motor power tricycles (tricycles a bac).

The project will target 540 households, comprising some 1700 individuals living in the communes of Lokomby and d’Ambalaroaka in the Department of Ambahive. The project has three phases:

  • Preparatory phase which includes the formal constitution of the women’s groups and awareness raising among the local authorities concerning the impacts of the project.
  • Project implementation which includes the procurement of materials, the management of the project through the women’s groups and the establishment of maintenance systems.
  • Operation of the project and impact evaluation.

2. Evaluating women’s transport needs

2.1 Analysis of women’s mobility

In normal times, women who are household heads can travel up to 15 km per day for the transport of fuel and water and for their agricultural activities. The distance can increase up to 20 km per day for the marketing of cash crops, notably:

  • Collecting produce to resell or to process (coffee, rice, pistachios, beans)
  • Manufacture of products for sale (food etc)
  • Transporting the above products to market

Women make 3 kinds of trips:

  • Short distances (up to 500 m) for collection of water and fuel, and for farm work.
  • Medium distances (up to 5 km) collection, delivery and sale of produce
  • Long distances (5-20 km) collection, delivery and sale of produce

2.2 Types of IMT recommended

It is proposed to promote three types of IMT:

  • Wheelbarrows: for short distances
  • Rickshaws: for medium distances
  • Motor powered tricycles and bicycles: for long distances.

2.3 Constraints on women’s use of IMT

3 sets of factors constrain women’s access to IMTs:

  • Environmental factors: Although environmental impacts of most IMT are quite limited, wood is required for the manufacture of rickshaws. Consequently a study should be conducted to assess these potential impacts.
  • Financial and economic factors: Most women do not have the financial resources to purchase most IMT. It would even be difficult for most household to make the purchase. For this reason the project will be targeted to women who are organized into associations, so that credit can be managed through the association. It is proposed that the IMT would be owned and managed by the association. Even though the volume of goods transported by an IMT is very small compared to a lorry, the cumulative effect will be to significantly reduced the transport load of the association members. The cost savings from the volume of goods transported should be sufficient to guarantee the repayment of the loans.
  • Gaining acceptance for the use of IMT. Malagache women are used to transporting goods on their heads, even for long distances. There is no guarantee that the change to using IMT will be accepted, and consequently the adoption phase must be planned carefully and sensitively. It is hoped that once other women see the benefits from time saved and increased earning capacity, they too will wish to adopt the IMT.

3. Intended impacts of the project

The immediate benefits will be saving of time and energy, and increased earning capacity. It has been estimated that women could save as much as 4 hours per day for households who have to travel up to 5 km to collect water and fuel, and as much as 5 hours per day for families having to travel up to 10 km. These effects may lead to:

  • Opportunities for women to devote more time to other activities
  • Improved health and longer life expectancy
  • Improved education and a brighter future for the children.
  • A more harmonious and integrated community

4. The evaluation

The present proposal would cover the evaluation of the implementation and impacts of the project. This would be achieved through:

  • Surveys with samples of households before and after the project to measure the changes in their travel time and to document how the time saved has been used. The survey would include both women who have and have not adopted the IMT to seek to understand the factors which influence the decision whether to adopt.
  • Focus groups with women and men (either separately or mixed) to discuss the implementation of the project and the impacts.

World Bank contact person: Susanne Holste. RTTP coordinator (based in Pretoria).


Permanent URL for this page: