The transport sector can play a role in mitigating the transmission of HIV/AIDS because transport routes as well as the nature and environment of the activities of the sector have been linked to the spread of HIV. Long distance transport operators (truck drivers, sailors, airline pilots, locomotive drivers and construction workers) and road construction workers work long hours away from family, putting them at risk of engaging in risky behavior that will lead to infection. Likewise, the movement of people through the opening of new traffic routes and improved access and mobility (from urban areas to rural areas; between countries; between areas of high and low HIV prevalence) can also contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Some of the highest incidences of HIV/AIDS infection have been found along transport corridors where there is a high turnover of truck drivers, migrant workers and commercial sex workers and local populations living in proximity of roads and transport construction sites. Finally, infection rates are particularly high at border crossings where transport workers can be subject to lengthy delays and both health and workplace services are often especially weak.