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Trade and Development Quarterly: The Global Dialogue

This seventh edition contains:

The World Bank recently participated in the 6th WTO Ministerial Conference held in Hong Kong (China) on December 13-18, 2006. The Bank's delegation was led by Danny Leipziger, Vice President of the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network and included senior staff from the International Trade Department. In conjunction with the International Monetary Fund and the International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development, the Bank organized a series of seminars on trade and poverty, trade facilitation, and on an issue garnering more and more attention--aid for trade. The Ministerial was also an opportunity for Bank staff to engage in a productive dialogue with representatives from Civil Society Organizations from throughout the world, the private sector, academics, policymakers and media. To learn more about the Bank's participation in the meetings, please visit our Hong Kong website at

New Publications

The World Bank Trade and Development Series: This timely series seeks to provide objective, accessible information about the new trade agenda and to encourage an informed dialogue about the role of trade in development, particularly the world's poorest countries.

  • Trade, Doha, and Development: A Window into the Issues ed. R.Newfarmer
  • Global Economic Prospects 2006: Economic Implications of International Remittances and Migration
  • Poverty and the WTO Impacts of the Doha Development Agenda ed. by T.Hertel and A. Winters
  • Economic Development and Multilateral Trade Cooperation ed. by S.Evenett and B.Hoekman
  • International Migration, Remittances, and Brain Drain by Ç.Özden and M.Schiff

New Trade Notes

  • Trade Note 26: "Why Market Access is the Most Important of Agriculture's 'Three Pillars' in the Doha Negotiations" by Kym Anderson, Will Martin and Ernesto Valenzuela

New Policy Research Working Papers of Interest

Recently released trade-related working papers, and all older papers, are also available using the   Document Search on the Bank's Development Economics Research website and on the  Social Sciences Research Network.

For the record...

November 30, 2006 Video Conference with CSOs

Of note...

  • New conference edition "Accession to the WTO: Country Experiences and Technical Assistance, A joint MNZ MNWA GTZ World Bank Conference held in Berlin on 17 to 19 November 2004"
  • Transfer of Technology for Successful Integration into the Global Economy ed. by B.Hoekman and B. Smarzynska Javorcik

New Publications

  • Trade, Doha, and Development: A Window into the Issues ed. by R.Newfarmer

    In today’s economically integrated world, trade matters more for development than ever before. This book addresses the key trade issues relevant to the ongoing multilateral trade negotiations and the evolution of the world trading system. Topics include: a general overview of the Doha Round, potential gains from trade liberalization for developed and developing countries, agriculture, manufacturing trade, services, trade facilitation, TRIPs and the regulatory agenda, regional trade agreements, aid for trade and much more. This is an essential and accessible primer for policymakers, development practitioners, academics, and journalists. The report can be ordered or downloaded chapter by chapter.

  • Global Economic Prospects 2006: International Migration and Remittances

    International migration, the movement of people across international boundaries to improve economic opportunity, has enormous implications for growth and welfare in both origin and destination countries. An important benefit to developing countries is the receipt of remittances or transfers from income earned by overseas emigrants. Official data show that development countries’ remittance receipts totaled $160 billion in 2004, exceeding development aid from all sources by 50 percent. This year’s edition of Global Economic Prospects focuses on the flow of international migrant remittances and improving their development impact. It presents available data on migration flows and examines current thinking on issues pertaining to migration and its development impact. The bulk of the book covers remittances, including their size, determinants, development impact, and steps to strengthen financial infrastructure and reduce transaction costs.

  • Poverty and the WTO Impacts of the Doha Development Agenda  ed. by T.Hertel and A.Winters

    Poverty reduction is deemed to be a centerpiece of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) currently being negotiated under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Yet there is considerable debate about the poverty impacts of such an agreement. Some are convinced it will increase poverty, while others are equally convinced that it will lead to poverty reduction. The purpose of this book is to bring the best scientific methods to bear on this question, taking into account the specific characteristics embodied in the DDA.

    Since the trade/poverty field is relatively new, the authors permit country authors to utilize a variety of different methods – based on their judgment of what is most appropriate for the country in question. However, all authors explore the same common set of scenarios, generated in a consistent manner. The editors have also asked authors to consider a range of complementary policies that might enhance the poverty outcome of the DDA, permitting poor households to take better advantage of new opportunities that might arise from such multilateral trade reforms. In addition, a 15 country study**, coupled with the global analysis, allow the authors to draw more general conclusions about the poverty impacts of a prospective DDA.

    Assuming an ambitious Doha Development Agenda, the authors find the near-term poverty impacts to be mixed; some countries experience small poverty rises and others more substantial poverty declines. On balance, poverty is reduced under this DDA, and this reduction is more pronounced in the longer run. It is also found that deeper cuts in developing country tariffs would make the DDA more poverty friendly. Finally, in order to generate significant poverty reductions in the near term, complementary domestic reforms are required to enable households to take advantage of new market opportunities made available through the DDA.

  • Economic Development and Multilateral Trade Cooperation  ed. by S.Evenett and B.Hoekman

    The "Doha Development Agenda", launched at the World Trade Organization (WTO’s) Ministerial Conference in November 2001 in Doha, Qatar, is the first multilateral round of trade negotiations where developing countries are playing a major role. A key challenge for the WTO is to address perceptions that the organization and the disciplines it embodies are not supportive of development. Whether the WTO is an organization that can be used to pursue development objectives is controversial—many are of the view that the focus of the WTO should be limited to increasing market access opportunities and negotiating away policies that impose negative spillovers on other countries. Others argue that the future of the WTO depends on changing the coverage and modus operandi of the institution to more directly address development issues.

    The purpose of this book is to bring together leading practitioners and analysts of the WTO to focus on the question how the Doha negotiating agenda could help to increase the development relevance of the WTO, addressing both the traditional domain of trade negotiations—market access—and efforts to extend the coverage of the WTO to "behind-the-border" regulatory policies that may only have an indirect link to trade. The chapters assess and draw lessons from the body of research that has emerged in the last 5 years on the role of the WTO and the economics of the issues that were put on the negotiating table, as well as the negotiating experience to date, to provide specific suggestions and ideas for moving forward on development in the WTO.

  • International Migration, Remittances, and Brain Drain  ed. by Ç.Özden and M.Schiff

    Interest in international migration has grown exponentially in recent years due mainly to increases in migration to the OECD, in the brain drain, remittances, and post 9/11 security concerns. The main lacuna in the migration area is data, a fundamental input in the design of sound migration policy. One of the objectives of the World Bank Research Program on International Migration and Development is to expand the migration data base through household surveys, census data, and the creation of a comprehensive data base on the brain drain. A second objective is to provide new and more rigorous empirical analysis based on these new data as well as some theoretical work.

    The four main areas of the Research Program are: impact of remittances, the brain drain, temporary migration, and migration, trade and FDI. The volume "International Migration, Remittances and Development" edited by C. Ozden and M. Schiff presents some of the output in the first two areas of the program. It consists of nine chapters: an introduction, four chapters on brain-drain-related issues, and four chapters on the determinants and effects of migration and remittances.

Trade Notes Series

  • Trade Note 26: "Why Market Access is the Most Important of Agriculture's 'Three Pillars' in the Doha Negotiations" by Kym Anderson, Will Martin and Ernesto Valenzuela

    Limiting trade-distorting domestic support to farmers and phasing out agricultural export subsidies are important and necessary disciplines. However, the potential income gains from abolishing these measures are much smaller than those from eliminating tariffs. Bank research has shown that over 90 percent of the cost of global agricultural distortions (including agricultural subsidies and tariff barriers) is due to tariffs. Why? First, the widely-cited $280 billion of OECD agricultural support in 2004 is derived primarily from tariffs and export subsidies. The resulting market price support (MPS) accounts for $168bn, or 60 percent of the total. Second, the OECD estimates of support refer only to support to farmers (primary agriculture), and there is a great deal of support to food processing covered under the Agreement on Agriculture – virtually all of which is provided by tariffs. Third, trade measures are doubly costly – distorting both production and consumption – potentially roughly doubling the costs per dollar of support to producers. Fourth, almost all of the agricultural support outside the OECD is provided through border measures. Fifth, the rates of protection provided by tariffs tend to vary more than those provided by subsidies. Since the costs of any distortion rise with the square of its rate, this variability raises the cost of providing support via tariffs. Sixth, the costs of domestic support are reduced to some degree by decoupling from production. Even without taking decoupling into account, World Bank research finds that domestic support accounted for only 5 percent of the global welfare cost of agricultural distortions in 2001.


New Policy Research Working Papers


For the record...

  • On November 30, in advance of the WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong (China), the World Bank organized a video conference with key civil society organizations from developed and developing countries. The topic of discussion was trade, Doha and poverty reduction. The meeting involved approximately 50 CSO participants from Belgium, India, Moldova, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia and the United States, representing trade unions, NGOs, academic think tanks, and youth groups. The aims of the video-conference were two fold: (a) to exchange views on the Bank’s updated approach to the Doha Development Agenda and the Hong Kong Ministerial (see presentation below); and (b) to discuss civil society concerns and suggestions on the advancement of poverty reduction through the Doha Agenda.  An issue of concern common to the Bank and many of the civil society organizations was on the damaging impact of subsidies on developed countries on the economies of developing countries. More on this event..


Of note...

  • New conference edition "Accession to the WTO: Country Experiences and Technical Assistance, A joint MNZ MNWA GTZ World Bank Conference held in Berlin on 17 to 19 November 2004"

    The advantages of membership in the WTO include improved access to the markets of the WTO members and integration into the multilateral trade system. The accession processes can also provide key impetus for internal reform in the new member states. However, the requirements made of individual accession candidates have been criticised for being stricter than those applied to the founding members. The donor countries and institutions are therefore offering developing countries extensive support programmes. A panel debate jointly organized by the World Bank, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry of Economics and the GTZ will be examining the opportunities and challenges associated with accession to the WTO by developing countries. The newly-released conference edition is available online here.

  • Transfer of Technology for Successful Integration into the Global Economy  ed. by B.Hoekman and B.Smarzynska Javorcik

    The importance of international technology diffusion for economic development can hardly be overstated. Both the acquisition of technology and its diffusion foster productivity growth. As invention and creation processes remain overwhelmingly the province of industrialized countries, most developing countries rely largely on imported technologies as sources of new productive knowledge. The contributions in this volume advance our understanding of technology diffusion through trade and foreign direct investment in a range of developing and transition economies. The studies examine the relative importance of the two channels for productivity growth both at the firm and economy-wide level. They discuss policy intervention used by developing countries to stimulate international technology transfer and provide guidance on the likely effect of policies towards trade and inward investment on productivity performance in different "types" of developing countries.


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