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Outputs: Country and Regional Work

Africa (AFR)

Africa Regional Trade Facilitation Project

  • Report: Africa Trade Insurance Impact Assessment
    The report provides the impact of ATI in facilitating trade and investment in Africa and to develop a Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for monitoring and improving the impact on an annual basis in view of the membership expansion and strategy ATI is undertaking.

Capacity Development on Regional Integration

EPA: Implementation Issues and Complementary Reforms

EPA: Implementation Guidance, Dialogue and Follow-up

  • Report: Africa’s Trade in Services and Economic Partnership Agreements 
    Economic Partnership Agreements are one trade option that African countries can
    pursue to support coordinated trade and regulatory reform in services together with
    unilateral, regional and multilateral reforms. The main impacts of a services EPA for African countries would come from locking in openness to trade, providing sound precedents for regulation in key sectors, cooperation on competition policy and support for regional integration.

Mainstreaming Trade: Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique

  • Malawi CEM: Seizing Opportunities for Growth through Trade
    The CEM reviews the current sources of growth, the policy actions that led to the growth, and the role that trade has played. It also suggests how the current growth can be sustained through either intensifying what is already happening or diversifying the sources of growth.
  • Mozambique CEM: Sustaining Growth and Reducing Poverty 
    The CEM analyzes how the current growth model which relies mainly on the production of non-tradables plus mega-projects can be transformed intoa new one to make the high growth rates sustainable. It proposes to make the economy competitive for labor-intensive exports of goods and services.

Africa Region Tourism Strategy: Capturing the Economic Power of an Under Recognized Export

Ethiopia Pro-Poor Tourism Linkages

  • Report: Enhancing Private Sector and Community Engagement in Tourism Services in Ethiopia
    The report assesses the trends in the tourist sector and the current links between the tourist activity and the poor in the local economy. It also suggests a range of intervenitons that will improve the pvoerty reducing impact of tourism. It provides suggestions on how the emerging Ethiopian Sustainable Tourism Project can be designed to effectively support tourism.

Legal and Regulatory Environment for Cross-border Mobile Banking in Southern Africa

  • Report: Mobile Banking in Southern Africa for Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, and Zambia
    This report influences the expansion of access to finance through the rapid, but safe, take off of domestic and cross-border branchless banking, with appropriate protections for customers and the financial systemby encouraging: (i) the use of incentives that encourage innovative bank and non-bank led domestic and international m-banking solutions; (ii) the establishment of appropriate financial system infrastructure, and its good governance; and (iii) the establishment of proportionate regulation which provides an open but safe environment.
  • Policy Note: Facilitating Cross-border Mobile Banking in Southern Africa 
    This note describes the supply side factors influencing the development of mobile banking serv ices- remittances and informal trade, and the financial and telecommunications landscape. Based on this, it highlights the key regulatory issues facing South African countries and concludes with recommendations for overcoming the constraints to the development of accessible m banking in Africa.
  • Economic Premise 26: Facilitating Cross-border Mobile Banking in Southern Africa
    The use of mobile banking is an increasingly important component of national and regional economic development in Southern Africa. Mobile banking can help bring the large unbanked population into the formal financial sector, and can facilitate cross-border trade by easing the difficulty for small businesses and traders to make financial transactions. For mobile banking to reach its full potential in Southern Africa, however, African governments must establish more efficient regulatory frameworks and implement well-designed pilot programs to gain more insight into the challenges facing a full rollout of mobile banking.

Democratic Republic of Congo and Western Regional Integration

Nigeria Promoting Trade in ICT Services

  • Economic Premise 35: Developing an African Offshoring Industry: The Case of Nigeria 
    This notes raises the awareness of Nigeria’s potential as an African offshoring hub, and it is aimed primarily toward policy makers, potential private sector investors, and development partners. This note addresses the following questions: what can Nigeria do to take advantage of the benefits of global trade in services; how can the country brand itself as an off-shoring destination for international investors; and what government policies are required to ensure that Nigeria plays a role in the growing ICT offshoring sector.
Sudan-Uganda-Congo, Democratic Republi-Kenya Cross-Border Trade Facilitation

Tanzania: Scaling up Trade for Growth and Competitiveness

  • Policy Note: Tanzania - Towards a Trade and Competitiveness Strategy to Propel Growth 
    This policy note seeks to delineate the key components of a trade and competitiveness strategy for Tanzania. The objective is to provide a strategic framework and direction that would allow the country to exploit opportunities from the evolving trends in the global economy.

Zimbabwe: Trade Diagnostic

  • Report: Zimbabwe’s Foreign Trade Performance during the Decade of Economic Turmoil – Will Exports Recover? 
    This report provides preliminary answers to three intertwined questions that are essential to the development of a strategy that would boost Zimbabwe’s foreign trade performance: How a decade of economic chaos has affected Zimbabwe’s export base? Whether lost export capacity can be restored? And what policy actions are now necessary to set Zimbabwe on a path of sustained, export-led growth?

Spatial Prioritization of Infrastructure Investments to Support Trade and Growth in Central Africa

  • Report: Republic of Congo Prioritizing Infrastructure Investment: A Spatial Approach
    This report provides a strategic framework for sequencing and prioritizing infrastructure investments in such a way as to maximize their contribution to economic growth and diversification. The framework will contribute to the public investment prioritization process as well as help to inform the Bank’s assistance strategy and composition of project portfolio.

Technology Absorption FDI and Trade in Southern Africa

Trade Costs in Africa

  • Working Paper 4790: Expanding Trade Within Africa - The Impact of Trade Facilitation
    The authors examine the role of trade facilitation reforms, such as increased port efficiency, improved customs, and regulatory environments, and upgrading services infrastructure on trade between African countries. They also consider how regional trade agreements relate to intra-African trade flows. Using trade data from 2003 to 2004, they find that improvement in ports and services infrastructure promise relatively more expansion in intra-African trade than other measures. They also show that, almost all regional trade agreements have a positive effect on trade flows.
  • Working Paper 4917: Why Trade Facilitation Matters for Africa
    This paper reviews recent research on the impact of trade costs on African countries and highlights new data which address the sources of trade costs. It also reviews recent research on the four dimensions of trade costs: border-related costs, transport costs, costs related to behind-the-border issues and costs of compliance with rules of origin that are specific to preferential trade.
  • Working Paper 5184: What Constrains Africa's Exports?
    The authors examine the role of trade facilitation reforms, such as increased port efficiency, improved customs, and regulatory environments, and upgrading services infrastructure on trade between African countries. They also consider how regional trade agreements relate to intra-African trade flows. Using trade data from 2003 to 2004, they find that improvement in ports and services infrastructure promise relatively more expansion in intra-African trade than other measures. They also show that, almost all regional trade agreements have a positive effect on trade flows.

Support to Nigeria Trade Work

  • Report: Employment and Growth Study
    This report sheds light on the extent to which Nigeria’s much improved economic performance has impacted the labor market, and to develop a growth strategy that could enhance the employment intensity of growth.

Regional Trade and Integration in East Africa: Professional Services Needed for Business

  • Economic Premise 32: Reform and Regional Integration of Professional Services in East Africa
    National markets for professionals and professional services in East Africa remain underdeveloped, whereas regional markets are fragmented by restrictive policies and regulatory heterogeneity. This note describes that an effective reform agenda will require policy action in four areas: education, regulation of professional services, trade policy, and labor mobility at both the national and international levels.

Regional Trade and Integration in Southern Africa: Professional Services

Services Trade in Africa

  • Working Paper 4870: Professional Services and Development: A Study of Mozambique
    The paper shows that Mozambique is exceptionally scarce in professional skills even taking into account its low-income per capita. Only 0.6% of the private sector labor force has completed tertiary education and professionals represent only 2.7% of the workforce in Mozambican firms, compared to an average of 5.8% for a number of other African countries. The paper suggests that appropriate policy response to this scarcity, however, depends on the conditions in the markets for specific professional skills.

Ethiopia: The Role of Service

  • Report:  Towards a Globally Competitive Ethiopian Economy - The Role of Services and Urbanization
    This report assesses the competitiveness of the Ethiopian economy at the national and the sub-national level particularly as it relates to the role of services. For the assessment at the national level, the study will use the Integrated Value Chain Analysis (IVCA) methodology for two products: (1) cut flowers (horticulture), using roses as a proxy for developments in the processed agricultural products sector; and (2) polo shirts (garments) as a proxy for developments in the light manufacturing sector.

Industrial Clusters as Trade Capacity Building Platforms for Indigenous Private Sector in Africa

Market Access in Africa

Industrial Clusters as Market Access Platforms in Africa

  • Report: Industrial Clusters and Micro and Small Enterprises in Africa From Survival to Growth 
    This report was conducted by World Bank, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Research Institute, and the Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID), in collaboration with researchers affiliated with the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) for a study on Africa’s domestic enterprises to improve the understanding of the constraints micro and small enterprises in Africa face in improving productivity and expanding their markets.

Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Regional Investment Climate Assessment

Sub-Saharan Africa:  Incentives, Exports and Industrial Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa-Lessons from the Textile and Apparel Industry

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East Asia and Pacific (EAP)

SPS In Laos

  • Technical Report 48802: Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures - Enhancing Trade, Food Safety, and Agricultural Health
    This study implements one of the recommendations of the SPS requirements faced by Lao agriculture exports and imports from both the Lao PDR Government and trading partners. It focuses on compliance with principles of the WTO, market access, competitiveness and the management of risks of plant pests and animal diseases and threats to food safety arising from trade by Lao PDR and trading partners. The paper also provides recommendation for improved management of SPS measures and SPS capacity building.
  • Brief: Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Enhancing Agro-Food Trade in the Lao PDR
    This brief examines legal and regulatory measures, border crossing procedures and institutional capacities affecting Lao agro-food exports and imports. It reviews the experiences of the private sector with SPS export and import procedures, and identifies gaps and weaknesses in the implementation of SPS measures.

Trade Support for Laos

  • Report: Lao Garment Services Centre
    This project report aims to increase the productivity of the garment sector by supporting the establishment of a Garment Services Centre that would offer “demand driven” training and consultancy to garment factories.
  • Report: Sustainable Silk and Handicraft Production
    This project report aims to sustainably expand the production of high quality Lao silk so
    that it can be fed into the silk textile value chain thereby enabling an expansion of silk handicraft exports to the global market, while creating additional jobs and incomes in rural areas.

Trade Costs in East Asia and the Pacific 

  • Working Paper 4615: Trade Facilitation in ASEAN member Countries: Measuring progress and Assessing Priorities
    This paper reviews recent progress and indicators of trade facilitation in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Using a standard gravity model, the authors find that trade flows in Southeast Asia are particularly sensitive to transport infrastructure and information and communications technology. The results suggest that the region stands to make significant economic gains from trade facilitation reform.
  • Working Paper 4731: Governance, Corruption, and Trade in the Asia Pacific
    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. Results suggest that trade in the region would increase by 11 percent and global welfare would expand by $406 billion by raising transparency to the average in the region. Most of the increase in welfare would take place in member economies undertaking reform.
  • Working Paper 4911: Weathering the Storm: Investing in Port Infrastructure to Lower Trade Costs in East Asia
    This paper examines how investment in port facilities affects trade costs and facilitation. It focuses on developing countries in East Asia where international trade has played a major role over the past several decades in economic development. The scope of the study includes the costs, as well as benefits, of the construction of port infrastructure to address traffic congestion in East Asia. The paper also discusses the important role of port investment to stimulate demand in a time of economic crisis.

Food Crisis in East Asia

  • Report: ASEAN Food Market Study - Trusting Trade and the Private Sector
    The study focuses on the role of trade and private sector participation in rice and maize markets in ASEAN to cushion against future food crisis.

Promoting Regional Trade in East Asia

  • Report: Trade Issues in East Asia - Overcoming Trade Barriers from Standards and Technical Regulations 
    This report reviews the lowering of tariffs that has shifted attention towards non-tariff measures that impede market access. One of the most important non-tariff measures are regulations and standards aimed at securing the safety and or quality of products, labeling requirements and protection of the environment. Standards are now recognized as a ‘trade issue’ since they determine market access.

Promoting Market Integration and Trade Diversification in ASEAN through Regulatory Reform 


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Europe and Central Asia (ECA)

Building Institutional Capacity for Trade Policy Analysis in Kyrgyz Republic 

Regional Integration in CAREC countries

  • Report 50433: Deepening Integration in Border Regions with CAREC
    This paper presents initial thinking based on discussions with officials in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in 2008-09 and on an examination of legal acts pertaining to cross-border cooperation.
  • Report 50434: Bazaars and Trade Integration in CAREC Countries
    This report studies the economic and trade effects of bazaars in central Asia in a detailed way. It presents a wealth of information and statistics relating to critical income generating activities and seeks to uncover the vital role played by bazaars in supporting economic growth.
  • Working Paper 185: Enhancing Regional Trade Integration in Southeast Europe
    This report is part of the World Bank's efforts to understand the impact of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) on regional trade flows as well as to put forward other complementary ideas that could enhance further regional trade integration. The objectives of the paper are to : i) to present recent trends in intra regional trade in Southeast Europe (EEE) , in particular following the implementation of CEFTA, and ii) to bring the attention of policy makers some of the remaining impediments to enhance intra regional trade.

Fostering Regional Cooperation in Central Asia through Better Connectivity Infrastructure and Distribution and Transit Services

  • Report:  Central Asia Expanding Trade by Connecting with Markets
    This report is about the five countries of Central Asia which is expanded their trade significantly since beginning their transition with exports quadrupling to almost $70 million between 2003 and 2008 but without substantial diversification. These countries achieved this by promoting private investment, property rights, trade liberalization, and transport infrastructure in varying degrees.


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Latin America and Caribbean (LAC)

Trade Costs in Latin America
  • Policy Note: Central America's Intra and Extra-Regional Trade Potential: A Gravity Model Approach to Understanding Regional Integration
    To complement the various supply chain analysis and country-specific economic modeling exercises underway in Central America, the current paper takes a spatial approach to infrastructure integration in Central America, benchmarking the current intra-regional trade performance of the region against the patterns observed in the European Union and, in turn, projecting the potential trade volumes that would take place in a "spatially integrated" Central America. Specifically, the paper attempts to measure the extent to which various physical variables act as obstacles to intra-regional trade.

Regional Integration in Latin America 

  • Working Paper 4848: Assessing the Impact of Political Economy Factors on Rules of Origin Under NAFTA
    This paper seeks to identify directly the contribution of political economy factors in accounting for the stringency of Rules of Origin under NAFTA. This study quantifies the impact of both determinants - those considered "justifiable" because they prevent trade deflection, and those deemed to arise from "political economy" forces - on the restrictiveness of rules of origin under the North American Free Trade Agreement, approximated by a restrictiveness index.

Can Skills and Competencies for Trade Be Taught?

Export Competitiveness in Latin America 

  • Working Paper 5407: Export Entrepreneurs: Evidence from Peru
    This paper examines firm entry and survival in exporting, and in products and markets not previously served by any domestic exporters.
  • Report 53316: Bringing HOPE to Haiti's Apparel Industry: Improving Competitiveness through Factory-Level
    The purpose of the analysis of Haiti's apparel value-chain in this report is to provide a comprehensive view of the advantages and challenges of manufacturing in Haiti relative to manufacturing in the Caribbean and Central America and elsewhere. It situates Haiti's attributes and suggests priorities for improving its competitiveness relative to that of other suppliers.This report helps readers to see how Haiti fits into this ever-changing global apparel market kaleidoscope.
  • Report: Haiti: Damage Assessment to the Industrial Zone
    The report presents an evaluation of the damage and repair/reconstructions recommendations by building, suggests materials needed, identifies vendors and availability in th country and estimates overall cost for the repair/reconstruction of the PIM, taking into account more earthquake-resistant structures.

Financial Services and Preferential Trade Agreements

Impact of Logistics on Food Prices in LCR

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Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

MENA and the Rise of China

  • Report: Strengthening MENA's Trade and Investments Links with China and India
    China and India’s spectacular economic rise over the last two decades has accelerated their trade with Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Their demands for oil, gas, and other natural resources have been driving new relationships with MENA countries based not only on energy but on trade, investment, and political ties. The future may well bring new opportunities and faster growth to MENA countries, but the challenges are great. For MENA oil-producing countries, faster growth in China and India will increase revenues from oil and the difficult choices associated with their management. For the labor abundant, nonoil-producing countries, competition with China and India will spotlight the need for policy measures to increase productivity.
  • Report: Strengthening China’s and India’s Trade and Investment Ties to the Middles Eastern and North Africa
    This report addresses the following subjects; (i) the demand for energy from China and India is expected to increase substantially in the future, thus greatly benefiting oil producing countries in the MENA region, (ii) the oil exporters in the Gulf have layed big bets on economic diversification and knowledge enterprises, (iii) the non-oil-producing countries, especially in the Maghreb, are finding competition with China and India difficult in both third and domestic markets and (iv) both groups of MENA countries need to foster a culture of growth to overcome the complacency instilled by oil windfalls and government subsidies.

Egypt From Domestic to Global Supply Chains

  • Workshop and Training Program: Reducing Poverty through Supply Chain Integration in Upper Egypt - Pushing Success Ahead with Innovative Business Models, March 2008.
    The purpose of the workshop was to: (i) bring together key holders in the dried onion and tomato supply chains to review previous experiences with the different approaches applied to supply chain development in UE; (ii.) to identify the missing elements that have so far prevented effective linkages between farmers and other market participants; and (iii) discuss which concrete measures need to be taken to scale up and replicate successes achieved in strengthening farm to market linkages in UE.

Egypt Service Trade

Syria Export Diverisification

  • Working Paper 5368: Estimates of trade-related adjustment costs in Syria
    The scope and complexity of international trading arrangements in the Middle East, as well as their spotty historical record of success, underscores the urgent need for an adequate understanding of the relative costs and benefits of participation in preferential trading arrangements and, more generally, of changes in domestic import regimes. This paper seeks to address this problem by providing estimates of the adjustment costs associated with two broad classes of hypothetical trade policy scenarios for Syria: participation in preferential trading arrangements, and changes in the domestic import regime.

Trade Competiveness in Middle East and North Africa

  • Book: Trade Competitiveness of the Middle East and North Africa: Policies for Export Diversification  
    International trade was deeply affected by the global financial and economic crisis. Mimicking worldwide trends, imports from and exports tothe Middle East and North Africa dropped significantly in 2009. This book shows that the Middle East and North Africa region has yet to seize all the opportunities offered by the four recent global trends, the emergence of global supply chains, the growth of trade in services, the rise of China and India as major international trading powers, and regional integration that shape trade policy and performance around the world. It also identifies additional reforms that could strengthen global production networks, allow countries to benefit more from trade in services, better capture the opportunities offered by the rise of China and India, and harness the potential of regional integration.

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South Asia (SAR)

Regional Integration in South Asia

South Asia Trade, Transit and Trade Facilitation

  • Report: Ship Breaking and Recycling Industry in Bangladesh and Pakistan (SBRI)
    This report seeks to strengthen the knowledge base with respect to competitiveness and profitability of the SBRI and to investigate the feasibility of ship breaking countries in this region, specifically Bangladesh and Pakistan, achieving compliance with the Hong Kong Convention (HKC) without jeopardizing the future of the industry there.
  • Report: Bangladesh Transit Fees for Indian Trucks
    This report aims to propose a transit fee—and a methodology for its calculation—for Indian trucks transiting across Bangladesh that conforms to the World Trade Organization (WTO) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)—that is a fee which is reasonable having regard to the conditions of traffic and which is non discriminatory.

Harnessing Services for South Asia's Development 

  • Report: The Service Revolution in South Asia
    The growth experience of India and other South Asian countries suggests that a "Service Revolution" - rapid income growth, job creation, gender quality and poverty reduction led by services - is now possible. What is service revolution? Can services be as dynamic as manufacturing? Can latecomers to development take advantage of the globalization of ervices. Can services be a driver of sustained growth, job creation and poverty reduction? What kind of policies and institutions do developing countries need to benefit from services-led growth.

Food Prices Crisis in South Asia

  • Report: Food Price Increases in South Asia: National Responses and Regional Dimensions
    Food price inflation not only threatens macroeconomic stability but also decreases the welfare levels of most households, especially the poorer ones, for whom food consumption constitutes a relatively large share of total expenditures. This report analyzes the causes and effects of food price inflation in South Asia during the period 2007/08 and beyond; simulates the impact of food price increases on household welfare and the potential of adjustments in consumer and producer behavior for mitigating the negative impact on welfare; and assesses the potential impact of regional trade liberalization on food prices.

Trade Costs in South Asia

Economic Outlook in South Asia

  • Website: South Asia's Economic Outlook
    South Asia's rebound since March 2009 has been strong. South Asia is poised to grow by about 7% in 2010 and nearly 8% in 2011, thanks to the strong recovery in India, good performance in Bangladesh, post-conflict bounce in Sri Lanka, recovery in Pakistan, and turnarounds in other countries, including Afghanistan, Bhutan, and Maldives.The region's prospective growth is close to pre-crisis peak levels and faster than the high rates of the early part of the decade (6.5% annually from 2000 to 2007).

South Asia Cross Border Energy Program

  • Report: Central Asia-South Asia Electricity Transmission and Trade (CASA-1000) Project feasibility Study Update 
    This report address the following issues: (i) Assessment of the availability and cost of power supply options in Tajikistan and Kyrgyz Republic; (ii) Assessment of the import potential of Pakistan and Afghanistan and the cost of alternatives of import; (iii) Assessment of the optimal size and configuration of the interconnection; (iv) Identification of the transmission needs of the existing networks in the countries; (vi) Update of line routing, control scheme, project cost, implementation plan, functional specifications, operations and maintenance plan and associated risks and (vii) Update of the economic analysis.

Trade and Labor in South Asia

  • Report: Cross‐Border Labor Mobility, Remittances and Economic Development in South Asia - forthcoming July 2011

Understanding The Gender Dimension of Trade Markets in Afghanistan

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Last updated on Mar 22, 2011

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