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Trade Policy and Integration


About the Program

The World Bank's work in the area of trade policy and integration is divided into three broad components:

1. Trade policy and market access - A country's ability to use trade to advance its development objectives depends in part on the market access conditions that confront its exports and on the policies affecting imports of goods and services. The trade policies of developed countries (such as support policies for agriculture in a number of high-income countries), can have negative effects on developing countries. Advocacy to remove such distortions, and to make international trade rules and institutions more supportive of the needs of developing countries, can have a direct impact on the poor. Thus, this component goes beyond traditional policies such as import tariffs to also cover behind-the-border policies that can affect trade patterns and the allocation of factors of production across industries within a country, including non-tariff measures (NTMs) and regulations in services industries.

2. Regional integration and international cooperation - This component addresses trade in a global setting, with a focus on both regional agreements and multilateral trade issues.

3. Managing shocks and promoting inclusion - This component examines mechanisms through which trade dynamics and trade-related policy changes affect labor markets and volatility.

For questions on trade policy and integration, please contact: Ian Gillson


Streamlining Non-Tariff Measures: A Toolkit for Policy Makers

This resource helps policy makers and analysts address non-tariff measures (NTMs) by recognizing their complexity and variety with regard to objectives, procedures, and economic and societal impact. It also devises an adequate institutional framework to address NTMs which accounts for their cross-cutting nature as measures that involve several government agencies and stakeholders.




  • Toolkit for the Analysis of Current Account ImbalancesToolkit for the Analysis of Current Account Imbalances
    By Ana Paula Cusolito and Milan Nedeljkovic | November 2013
    Free Download

  • Non-Tariff Measures - A Fresh Look at Trade Policy's New FrontierNon-Tariff Measures - A Fresh Look at Trade Policy's New Frontier
    Edited by Olivier Cadot and Mariem Malouche | July 2012
    Free Download

  • Preferential Trade Agreement Policies for Development: A HandbookPreferential Trade Agreement Policies for Development: A Handbook
    By Jean-Pierre Chauffour, Jean-Christophe Maur | July 2011
    Free Download | Book Widget

  • Trade Finance during the Great Trade CollapseTrade Finance during the Great Trade Collapse
    By Jean-Pierre Chauffour and Mariem Malouche | June 2011
    Free Download | Book Widget

  • Managing OpennessManaging Openness: Trade and Outward-Oriented Growth after the Crisis
    By Mona Haddad and Ben Shepherd | March 2011
    Free Download | Book Widget

Blog Posts


Better Understanding Non-Tariff Measures: Tools to Identify and Assess Trade Policy's Newest Frontier
Wednesday, April 24, 2013 | World Bank MC 5-100 | 9 am - 5 pm


  • Monitoring export vulnerability to changes in growth rates of major global markets
    Interest in assessing the impacts on developing countries of changes in major markets' economic performance has risen in tandem with global economic uncertainty over short- and medium-term growth prospects. This paper proposes a methodology to measure the vulnerability of a country's exports to fluctuations in the economic activity of foreign markets.
    Claire Hollweg, Daniel Lederman, and Jose Daniel Reyes | November 2012
  • Trade causes growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
    In the 1990s the mainstream consensus was that trade causes growth. Subsequent research shed doubt on the consensus view, as evidence suggested that the identification of the effect of trade on growth was problematic in the existing literature. This paper contributes to this debate by focusing on growth in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Markus Bruckner and Daniel Lederman | March 2012
  • Reducing distortions in international commodity markets: an agenda for multilateral cooperation
    This paper briefly reviews a number of factors that may distort international commodity markets with a view to identifying elements of an agenda for multilateral cooperation to reduce such distortions.
    Bernard Hoekman and Will Martin | January 2012
  • More trade research >>

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