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    Governance, Civil Society and Participation

    Anti-Corruption Reform in Rule of Law Programs
    -Maria Gonzalez de Asis
    The focus of this paper is how broad the reform horizon should be in order to assess and reshape the form in which corruption should be conceptualized and treated. Evidence collected from reforms in rule of law programs has shown a certain lack of success in improving integrity and reducing corruption within the judiciary in many developing countries and points to the need to rethink or restyle previous approaches. The analysis of how to improve diagnosis of corruption, the effects of the involvement of civil society over corruption issues, how informal networks influence the judiciaries and the important role played by a free and responsible media are addressed in this regard.
    2006. 18 pages. Stock No. 37264. Full text   PDF 144 KB
     

    Anti-Corruption Commissions: Panacea or Real Medicine to Fight Corruption
    -John R. Heilbrunn

    This paper argues that anti-corruption commissions fail to reduce public sector venality in all but a few special circumstances. It notes that those governments that have established successful anti-corruption commissions have done so in response to demands for reform from a broad base of domestic constituents. Demands for reform generally occur after a precipitating crisis has caused deep economic hardship and a national consensus exists that reforms must be implemented. Anti-corruption commissions are effective when they respond to that national consensus and a broad domestic coalition supports reform. Without the precipitating crisis, building such domestic coalitions is a challenge for even the most popular leaders. When support is more tenuous, policymakers have an incentive to weaken reforms and avoid any threat to powerful constituents who profit from official inattention to expenditures, access to governments contracts, and other manifestations of public sector inefficiency.

    2004. 22 pages. Stock No. 37234. Full textPDF 273 KB



    Acción Local, Mejores Vidas: Implementación de Proyectos Participativos y Decentralizados
    -Daniel Sellen, editor
    This paper summarizes papers presented at a regional seminar on decentralization. The purpose of the seminar was to strengthen the preparation and implementation of decentralization projects that benefit the community directly. The papers cover design principles for efficient project implementation and examples of best practices, especially in Brazil and Peru.
    In Spanish only. 1999. 77 pages. Stock No. 37140. Full textPDF 1.6 Mb



     
    Back from the Sidelines? Redefining the Contribution of Legislatures to the Budget Cycle
    -Joachim Wehner
    This paper looks at the role of   parliaments in the budget process, from the role of  finance and budget committees which scrutinize proposed government budgets prior to parliamentary approval, to the role of public accounts and departmental committees which ensure that actual government spending is in line with that approved by parliament. A comparative approach is taken, whereby presidential and parliamentary systems are reviewed, and where the differences between parliaments’ constitutional power and current practices are highlighted. An additional focus is given to the research and information needs of parliaments as they deliberate the budget and the importance of parliamentary committees as the “engine room” for financial scrutiny.
    2004. 26 pages. Stock No. 37230. Full text 465 KB


    Beyond Public Scrutiny
    -Joanne Caddy, Tiago Peixoto and Mary McNeil
    This report – undertaken in 2006 – is part of the OECD Directorate for Public Governance and Territorial Development’s (GOV) efforts to identify emerging trends and develop pertinent policy lessons for all countries seeking to build more open, accountable and responsive government. It also contributes to the World Bank’s series of SA stocktaking exercises, which have been undertaken in various regions of the world. It does not claim to provide a comprehensive inventory of OECD member countries’ experience, nor an in-depth description of the myriad activities underway. Rather, it illustrates the wealth of innovative practices currently available, and provides a rich resource for practitioners
    2007.  194 pages. Stock No. 37265. Full text 1.2 MB


    Budget Institutions and Fiscal Responsibility: Parliaments and the Political Economy of the Budget Process in Latin America
    -Carlos Santiso

    “Can parliaments make an effective contribution to the budget process while preserving fiscal discipline?” is one of the key questions this Paper seeks to answer. Parliaments do possess a wide range of budgetary powers, but often fail to exercise them effectively or responsibly. The paper explores the contribution of parliaments to the budget process in presidential systems of government with highly centralised budgetary systems. It offers a political economy perspective on the budget process in Latin America and reveals increased legislative budget activism since the restoration of democracy. It argues that a more purposeful contribution of parliaments to the oversight of the budget might help countries seeking greater accountability in the management of public finances. Ultimately, the governance of the budget reflects a delicate balance between executive power and legislative oversight. The key challenge of legislative budgeting in Latin American is how to retain the advantages of strong executive authority required to ensure fiscal discipline while providing the institutional checks and balances that guarantee effective accountability.

    2005. 44 pages. Stock No. 37253. Full text 295 KB



    Building a Clean Machine: Anticorruption Coalitions and Sustainable Reform
    -Michael Johnston and Sahr J. Kpundeh
    This volume examines wide-ranging issues confronting cities, and reviews successful tools, strategies, and practices used to address them. It assembles a set of readings on nine "windows" of urban management to which the chapters of the book are devoted. These "windows" are explored in the context of the new urban strategy of the World Bank, which recognizes that cities are crucial in efforts to address poverty and development issues.
    2002. 33 pages. Stock No. 37208. Full textPDF 260KB


    Building State Capacity in Africa
    -Sahr Kpundeh and Brian Levy, editors

    The World Bank and other donors are fully committed to modalities of development support that put countries in the driver’s seat, with the poverty reduction strategy process —prepared by national governments, on the basis of close consultation with civil society—providing the framework for that support. An effective poverty reduction strategy process and a productive partnership can be built only on a platform of strong public capacity: capacity to formulate policies; capacity to build consensus; capacity to implement reform; and capacity to monitor results, learn lessons, and adapt accordingly. Building the requisite capacities turns out to be a formidable challenge. For these reasons, enhancing the capacity of African states has risen to the top of the continent’s development agenda.
    In recent years, a number of African governments have moved forward with new-style programs to build public sector capacity. Building State Capacity in Africa aims to share some of the lessons for the design and implementation of public sector capacity building that are emerging from this new generation of operational practice. It also exemplifies an increasingly collaborative way of working within the World Bank Group. This book draws on in-depth Bank research and research projects were done in collaboration with African development partners and scholars. The editors contend that this model of working together constitutes the most effective way for the World Bank Group to contribute, in its role as a knowledge Bank, to the challenge of building state capacity in Africa.

    2004. 380 pages. Stock no. 16000 (ISBN 0-8213-6000-0). Price: US$30.
    Click here to order this book


    The Challenge of Urban Government: Policies and Practices
    -Mila Freire and Richard Stren, editors
    This volume examines wide-ranging issues confronting cities, and reviews successful tools, strategies, and practices used to address them. It assembles a set of readings on nine "windows" of urban management to which the chapters of the book are devoted. These "windows" are explored in the context of the new urban strategy of the World Bank, which recognizes that cities are crucial in efforts to address poverty and development issues.
    2001. 469 pages. ISBN 0-8213-4738-1. SKU 14738. $30.00
    Go to http://publications.worldbank.org/ecommerce/to order this book.


    Chile: Recent Policy Lessons and Emerging Challenges
    -Guillermo E. Perry and Danny M. Leipziger, editors
    The "Chilean model" has been expostulated for some time in the Latin American and Caribbean region and elsewhere because it appeared that the country, despite terrible political and economic turmoil, embodied important lessons about economic management. To a large extent, Chile's positive fiscal outcomes have been the result of sound policies as well as sound fiscal institutions. However, there is room for improvement in the education and health sectors, and the results for Chile in terms of equality of income are not positive. This book presents a series of papers analyzing different aspects of Chilean public policy, which cover economic and social policies as well as regulatory and governance issues.
    1999. 452 pages. ISBN 0-8213-4500-1. SKU 14500. $35.00
    Go to http://publications.worldbank.org/ecommerce/to order this book.


    Controlled Decentralization: Local Governments and the Ministry of Home Affairs in Japan
    -Kengo Akizuki
    Intergovernmental relations in post-war Japan have evolved in a complex fashion best described as "controlled decentralization." This reflects the fact that while substantial autonomy is now noticeable in the actions and authority of local governments, it has come about through a gradual process in which the central government has played a mostly controlling but often reactive and accommodating role. This process has been facilitated by the increasing local orientation of the Ministry of Home Affairs, whose role has changed over time from that of a "regulator" to that of a "champion" of local governments in the national arena.
    2001. 25 pages. Stock No. 37170. Full text. PDF 72 Kb


    Corrupt Cities: A Practical Guide to Cure and Prevention
    -Joint publication with ICS Press (Institute for Contemporary Studies)
    Robert Klitgaard, Ronald MacLean-Abaroa, and H. Lindsey Parris
    Drawing on their decades of experience in battling corruption around the world, the authors of this book offer a novel way to defeat corruption on the local level. "Preventing corruption," the authors contend, "can help raise city revenues, improve service delivery, stimulate public confidence and participation, and win elections." The book shows how it has been done, even in the most adverse settings, and how it can be done again. Case studies from New York, Hong Kong, and La Paz, Bolivia, show how seemingly hopeless problems can become the catalysts of successful reform.
    2000. 175 pages. ISBN 0-8213-4600-8. SKU 14600. $20.00
    Go to http://publications.worldbank.org/ecommerce/to order this book.


    Curbing Corruption: Toward a Model for Building National Integrity
    -Rick Stapenhurst and Sahr Kpundeh, editors
    This book seeks to achieve a balance between theoretical and practical discussions of corruption and its causes and remedies. It presents country case studies and examples of good practice. The volume explores the interaction between corruption and economic performance, and considers economic and institutional approaches to anticorruption efforts, with particular attention to the role of the public sector and civil society, including the media.
    1998. 176 pages. ISBN 0-8213-4257-6. SKU 14257. $25.00
    Go to http://publications.worldbank.org/ecommerce/to order this book.


    Decentralization Briefing Notes
    -Jennie Litvack and Jessica Seddon, editors
    The notes in this paper are designed to highlight the broad rance of issues that need to be considered with regard to decentralization. The notes provide brief overviews of the many different aspects of decentralization and summarize key issues that need to be considered by practitioners. Each note is not meant to address its topic in great depth, but rather to help readers consider which questions to ask in their countries. By bringing these individual notes together, readers are encouraged to consider the cross-cutting nature of decentralization and the importance of a comprehensive approach.
    1999. 96 pages. Stock No. 37142. Full text. PDF 544 Kb


    Demanding Good Governance: A Stocktaking of Social Accountability Initiatives by Civil Society in Anglophone Africa
    -Mary McNeil and Takawira Mumvuma

    In Africa discussions have intensified recently over the role of civil society in bringing about greater government accountability to its citizens, particularly with regard to the flow of public resources. Through the lessons of civic engagement, participation, and civic ownership, citizen groups in Africa are now beginning to hold a growing number of public officials and service providers accountable for their actions and behaviours.  Such social accountability is working to bring about more efficient and equitable governance by reducing corruption and improving delivery of public services to the poor. This report synthesizes a stocktaking of civil society-initiated social accountability practices in the public budgetary process in 10 Anglophone African countries—Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    2006. 109 pages. Stock No. 37261. Full text. PDF 591 Kb


    e-Leadership Institutions for the Knowledge Economy
    -Nagy Hanna

    This paper points at an array of institutional leadership options available to countries at various development levels. Understanding these options and their respective strengths and weaknesses is a starting point for country leaders and other policymakers to fashion the institutional mechanisms and competencies that e-development requires. The report identifies five broad archetypes or basic institutional models and considers the experience of various countries in terms of these models. It provides a list of pros and cons of each model, based on recent country results. It also identifies the core capabilities that e-Development institutions should possess to achieve and sustain ICT-enabled economic and social transformation.  It also suggests a research agenda to further our understanding of the governance and institutional mechanisms needed to guide e-Development.

    2007. 118 pages. Stock No. 37271. Full text. PDF 734 Kb


    e-Parliaments
    The Use of Information and Communications Technologies to Improve Parliamentary Processes
    -Tess Kingham
    This paper primarily looks at how e-parliaments—the use of ICT to improve parliamentary processes—have developed, considers possible future directions and advocates the adoption of a three-stage model of e-parliament, which will relate strongly to both e-government and e-democracy.
    2003. 38 pages. Stock No. 37210. Full textPDF


    Empowering Civil Society to Monitor the Environment: Education for Students, Awareness for the Public, and Functional Literacy for Targeted Groups
    -David Lakshmanan Ariasingam
    This paper, along with case studies, provides evidence that empowering civil society can improve the effectiveness and sustainability of environment projects. Empowerment includes encouraging people to monitor the environment through environmental education for primary and secondary students, environmental awareness programs for the public, and efforts to improve the functional literacy of targeted groups.
    1999. 40 pages. Stock No. 37141. Full text PDF 186 Kb


    Empowering The Marginalized: Case Studies of Social Accountability in Asia
    -Karen Sirker and Sladjana Cosic (w/ the Public Affairs Foundation, Bangalore, India)
    The profiles of leadership and innovation from these case studies highlight how ordinary people can make a difference by asking the right questions at the right time in the right manner, or in other words, by making their voices heard, often backed by the evidence, information and communication strategies. Although far from being comprehensive, these cases reveal some cross-cutting concepts and applications that act as key enablers for social accountability, such as: responsiveness and voice; power of information; local ownership; political buy-in; and local capacity building.
    2007. 86 pages. Stock No. 37266. Full text PDF 513 Kb


    Empowerment in Practice: Analysis and Implementation
    A World Bank Learning Module
    This learning module provides a tool for understanding the concept of empowerment and for using it in development practice. The module offers a framework for conceptualizing empowerment and takes participants through case-based exercises that apply the framework to the analysis, design, implementation, and monitoring of development policies and operations. 
    2007. 72 pages. Stock No. 37272 . Full text PDF 1.3 MB 
     
    Evolution and Salient Characteristics of the Japanese Local Government System
    -Farrukh Iqbal
    This paper provides an overview of salient characteristics of the Japanese local government system, paying special attention to the following: the strong preference for regional balance in fiscal transfer rules; the lack of systematic influence by individual politicians in grant allocations; the practice of exchanging staff across different levels of government; the use of attractive work and remuneration conditions to obtain and retain high quality staff at the local government level; the use of local governments as development project implementation agencies; the use of amalgamation to create larger local government units to exploit economies of scale; and the exercise of local policy initiatives.
    2001. 20 pages. Stock No. 37179. Full text. PDF 61 Kb


    Freedonia: A Case Study in Investigative Journalism
    -Alex Larsen, Flemming Ytzen, Rod MacDonnell, and Alex Norris
    This case study presents a case of graft and corruption in the fictitious country of Freedonia. It aims to develop both the technical skills and the professional ethics of participants. The case was used extensively in EDI's courses in investigative journalism, which are designed to equip journalists with the professional skills needed to investigate and report incidences of corruption. Teaching Notes available.
    1998. 14 pages. Case: Stock No. 37115 . Full textPDF 33 Kb
    Teaching Notes: Stock No. 37116. Full textPDF 48 Kb


    How Parliamentarians Can Help Ensure Accountability for Spending on HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health 
    -Amanda Glassman
    This note provides an overview of the budgetary process with specific reference to allocations for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment and highlights potential trouble-spots where the exercise of Parliamentary oversight could improve financial performance as well as improve outcomes.
    2007. 35 pages. Stock No. 37270. Full text PDF 496 Kb


    Impact of Agency Delegated Functions : A Japanese Case Study
    -Ikuo Kume
    The Japanese national government has made extensive use of local governments for certain development projects through an arrangement known as the agency-delegated function. This paper describes the legal and institutional framework for this arrangement and discusses its advantages and disadvantages for local governments. It analyses the effectiveness of agency-delegated functions in achieving their objectives by comparing the delivery of kindergarten and nursery-school services over time. It shows that nursery services for preschoolers, mandated to local governments through the agency-delegated function, expanded faster than kindergarten services, which were left to the discretion of local governments. It also reports a negative correlation between per capita prefectural income and the availability of nursery schools. These two findings suggest that agency-delegated functions can help meet both quantity and redistribution objectives of the national government.
    2001. 22 pages. Stock No. 37176. Full textPDF 64 Kb


    Impersonal Mechanisms and Personal Networks in the Distribution of Grants in Japan
    -Steven R. Reed
    This paper shows that the distribution of grants to local governments is not significantly affected by individual political influence. Statistical analysis shows no link between the allocation of construction funds, for example, and the power of individual politicians. Instead, the distribution of such grants has tended to be stable across prefectures over time, indicating that bureaucratic formulae and historically determined entitlements dominate the distribution process.
    2001. 25 pages. Stock No. 37172. Full textPDF 75 Kb


    Intergovernmental Relations in Japan: Models and Perspectives
    -Michio Muramatsu
    This paper argues that changes in intergovernmental relations in Japan in the post-war period are best understood in terms of an integrationist as opposed to a separationist model. While the latter model emphasizes the benefits of autonomy for local governments and of competition among them, the former stresses the benefits of minimizing coordination problems and building capacity through the sharing of staff and responsibilities among different levels of government.
    2001. 20 pages. Stock No. 37178. Full textPDF 56 Kb


    Internal Audit: Finding its place in Public Finance Management
    -Cecilia Nordin Van Gansberghe

    For centuries, internal audit was a simple administrative procedure of checking documents, counting assets, and reporting on past events to various types of management. Several forces in our times have led to a quiet revolution in internal audit. Democracy requires government to be accountable in its use of public money and in providing effective, efficient, and economical service delivery. Ever larger and more complex systems require greater competencies, thus internal audit has had to become ever more professional. Sheer size also brings with it the need to assess risk, deploying scarce resources in the most logical manner to address those risks. Technological advances have made it possible to track and analyse more data much faster. An informed world that keeps turning ever faster, makes it essential for governments to be well informed by internal audit about the risks and improvements in public finance management and service delivery.

    2005. 24 pages. Stock No. 37246. Full textPDF 200 Kb


    Keeping an Eye on Subnational Governments: Internal Control and Audit at Local Levels
    -Mustafa Baltaci and Serdar Yilmaz
    Fiscal decentralization in developing countries has been at the center stage of public sector reforms in the last two decades. Yet, a closer look at the recent reforms in the developing world indicates that decentralization does not necessarily translate into better outcomes because of waste, corrup-tion, and inefficiencies. The success of decentralization depends on the existence of a framework that keeps local or “subnational” governments on track and holds local government officials ac-countable for results—two missing components in most recent decentralization efforts. This paper attempts to close this implementation gap by developing a conceptual framework of internal con-trol and audit at the local level.

    2006. 31 pages. Stock No. 37257. Full text PDF 164 Kb



    A Leadership Approach to Achieving Change in the Public Sector: The Case of Madagascar
    -Guenter Heidenhof, Stefanie Teggemann, and Cia Sjetnan
    This paper tells the story of Madagascar’s transformation after the 2001 crisis. Emerging from crisis and riddled with systemic and institutional barriers to development, amply manifest in all of its systems, structures, and in behaviors and perceptions at the individual level, Madagascar made significant progress through committed leadership and attention to systemic, underlying dysfunctions.  It is the story of how delivery of customized support to those in power who are willing to make a difference can unleash capacity

    2007. 23 pages. Stock No. 37267. Full text PDF 162 Kb

     
    Leadership and Innovation in Subnational Government
    -Edited by Tim Campbell and Harald Fuhr
    This book takes stock of promising innovations that began to appear in local government across the region of Latin America and the Caribbean during the 1990s. The purpose of this work—in contrast to many reports which document best practice—is to deepen our understanding of the genesis and evolution of change as local leaders cope with the challenges of governing in decentralized democracies. One of the most striking features exhibited by the cases in this volume is that local authorities have been change makers often without help from outside, from national or international agencies.
    2004. 450 pages. ISBN 0-8213-5707-7. SKU 15707. $35.00
    Go to http://publications.worldbank.org/ecommerce/to order this book.


    Legislative Ethics and Codes of Conduct
    -Rick Stapenhurst and Riccardo Pelizzo
    This working paper by Pelizzo and Stapenhurst investigates how some legislatures have attempted to create an ethics regime and illustrates how such regimes and codes of conduct can promote good governance.  The paper examines the need for an effective ethics regime.  It is argued that because corruption and other forms of legislative misconduct undermine democracy, they should be eliminated and that the establishment of an ethics regime can be helpful in so doing.  The paper also provides an in-depth investigation of codes of conduct. The evidence presented reveals that there is considerable variation in how specific the dispositions of a code of conduct might be, in how severe might be the sanctions imposed by the code of conduct, and in the type of institutions that might enforce the ethics regimes. The working paper concludes with a section drawing tentative conclusions about the utility of such codes and rules and what factors may contribute to their success.
    2004. 18 pages. Stock No. 37237 Full text 338 KB


    Legislature and the Budget
    -Rick Stapenhurst

    This paper examines one of the most important roles for legislatures—that of financial oversight—and considers some of the lessons emerging from a decade of legislative development and reform.

    2004. 15 pages. Stock No. 37233 Full text290 KB


    Legislatures and Oversight
    -Edited by Riccardo Pelizzo and Rick Stapenhurst

    The paper by Pelizzo and Stapenhurst presents the data collected from a survey of 83 countries by the Inter-Parliamentary Union in collaboration with the World Bank Institute. The data analysis reveals that legislatures in parliamentary systems are generally better equipped to oversee government activities than are legislatures in presidential and semipresidential systems. The paper also investigates the role of legislatures in preparing and approving the budget. The analysis reveals that legislatures in presidential systems are generally the most active legislatures in the preparation of the budget, while parliaments are the most active legislatures in approving the budget.

    2004. 58 pages. Stock No.37236 Full text 1 MB


    Local Governance in Developing Countries
    -Edited by Anwar Shah
    This book provides a new institutional economics perspective on alternative models of local governance, offering a comprehensive view of local government organization and finance in the developing world. The experiences of ten developing/transition economies are reviewed to draw lessons of general interest in strengthening responsive, responsible, and accountable local governance. The book is written in simple user friendly language to facilitate a wider readership by policy makers and practitioners in addition to students and scholars of public finance, economics and politics.
    2006.  ISBN: 0-8213-6565-7     ISBN-13: 978-0-8213-6565-6    SKU: 16565  $35.00
    Go to http://publications.worldbank.org
    to order this book.


    Local Governance in Industrial Countries
    -Edited by Anwar Shah

    This important new series represents a response to several independent evaluations in recent years that have argued that development practitioners and policy makers dealing with public sector reforms in developing countries and, indeed, anyone with a concern for effective public governance could benefit from a synthesis of newer perspectives on public sector reforms. This series distills current wisdom and presents tools of analysis for improving the efficiency, equity, and efficacy of the public sector. Leading public policy experts and practitioners have contributed to the series.

    2006. ISBN: 0-8213-6328-X     ISBN-13: 978-0-8213-6328-7     SKU: 16328  $35.00
    Go to http://publications.worldbank.org
    to order this book.


    Local Government Policy Initiatives in Japan
    -Toshiya Kitayama
    This paper suggests that local governments in Japan have played an important role in coping with post-war socioeconomic changes by embarking on a series of innovative policies responding to the evolving needs and demands of citizens. Using case studies, it describes the different ways in which local governments were able to initiate policy change in three main areas: business promotion, industrial regulation, and welfare provision. It notes that one outcome of autonomous action in some cases has been "learning by doing" for local government staff.
    2001. 23 pages. Stock No. 37177. Full text63 KB


    Madagascar: Building Decentralization Capacity through Rapid Results Initiatives 
    -Govindan Nair, Eric Champagne and Cia Sjetnan
    In Madagascar, a country-led needs analysis identified, as a key priority, the design of a strategy to achieve rapid development results. RRI has proven its ability to generate – beyond the achievement of ambitious stretch targets – significant intangible collateral benefits of local ownership, participation, transparency, accountability, and improved access to knowledge and information. Although the aggregate impact of the RRI program in terms of macro-level measures of output, local tax collection, etc., has so far not been quantitatively significant, this paper shows the systems put in place and behavior change brought about by RRI will facilitate many aspects of future development.
    2007. 12 pages. Stock No. 37268. Full text  157 KB
     
    The Media's Role in Curbing Corruption
    -Rick Stapenhurst
    This paper examines how the media have exposed corrupt officials, prompted investigations by official bodies, reinforced the work and legitimacy of both parliaments and their anti-corruption bodies, and pressured for change to laws and regulations that create a climate favorable to corruption. The paper considers, too, how the media can be strengthened, highlighting private versus public ownership, the need for improved protection of journalists who investigate corruption, press freedom, and media accountability.
    2000. 75 pages. Stock No. 37158. Full text209 KB


    Municipal Amalgamation in Japan
    -Masaru Mabuchi
    This paper describes the causes and consequences of post-war municipal amalgamations in Japan. It shows that recent amalgamations have been inspired in part by the desire to ensure that municipalities thus formed had sufficient capacity to deliver important public services in such areas as education, sanitation, and welfare. It notes that there may be cost-efficiency gains associated with amalgamation in that the costs of delivering public services in Japan appear to be lower for larger municipalities (up to a point). Furthermore, case studies of some prefectures show that voter turnout in elections is not significantly affected by amalgamations.
    2001. 26 pages. Stock No. 37175. Full text59 KB


    Parliament and Access to Information: Working for Transparent Governance
    -Toby Mendel
    Between 2000 and 2003, the World Bank Institute (WBI) and the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA) collaborated on a series of projects to foster a better relationship between Parliament and the media as a crucial component of any functioning democratic society. The WBI and the CPA therefore organized a Study Group on the topic of Access to Information in July 2004, hosted and supported by the Parliament of Ghana. This working paper highlights the ideas of the Study Group regarding the unique contribution Parliamentarians can make to transparent governance. It also focuses on access to information legislation, as well as practical measures to implement such legislation and more generally to promote open governance.
    2005. 86 pages. Stock No. 37247. Full text 788 KB




    Parliament and the Media
    -Nicolas Bouchet and Nixon K.Kariithi
    This two-part paper (a joint product of WBI and the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA)) contains in part 1 the conclusions reached by the Study Group on Parliament and Media, a report of its discussions, and the input of resource persons with parliamentary, legal, and media expertise. Part 2 consists of a summary of the discussions during the Indian Ocean Rim Conference on “Parliament and the Media: Securing and Effective Relationship”, held in 2002.
    2003. 100 pages. Stock No. 37228. Full text 1045 KB



    Parliamentary Libraries, Institutes and Offices: The Sources of Parliamentary Information

    -Robert Miller, Riccardo Pelizzo and Rick Stapenhurst

    Noting that legislatures need information to perform their representative, legislative, and oversight functions, this Paper primarily looks at different sources of parliamentary information – parliamentary libraries (including research staff and internet access),  parliamentary institutes, and more specialized legislative budget offices. Not surprisingly, the distribution of parliamentary libraries and their resources vary greatly, from the United States Library of Congress, which has 110 million books and 75,000 periodical subscriptions, to Burundi, where the parliamentary library has only 50 books. The paper concludes that, where parliamentary budgets cannot sustain a comprehensive library service, a parliamentary institute could offer a more viable source of information for parliamentarians.

    2004. 16 pages. Stock No. 37238 Full text 391 KB

     

    Parliamentary Oversight for Government Accountability
    -Edited by Riccardo Pelizzo, Rick Stapenhurst and David Olson
    Several papers that examine the link between democracy and oversight, specific oversight tools, structural and procedural problems that may impair the effectiveness of oversight, and the challenges of effective parliamentary oversight and the capacity of parliamentary committees to adequately monitor the complexities of government policies.
    2006.  59 pages.  Stock No. 37262  Full text 391KB


    Parliaments as Peacebuilders: The Role of Parliaments in Conflict-Affected Countries (working paper)
    - Mitchell O’Brien
    This Working Paper builds upon a Discussion Paper prepared for a World Bank Institute/Commonwealth Parliamentary Association Study Group on “The Role of Parliament in Conflict Affected Countries” held in Colombo, Sri Lanka from 25-29 October 2004 with the support of the Parliament of Sri Lanka.  This paper argues that one of the best tools a nation has at its disposal for managing conflict and poverty is parliament.  Parliament is a prime institution through which to address the divergent interests of multiple groups because of the nature of the parliamentary process and parliaments’ ability to build relationships within parliament and within the broader community.  The role of parliament in conflict-affected countries becomes even more pronounced when you consider the correlation between poverty and conflict; by addressing issues of poverty, equitable distribution of resources and economic development parliamentarians can help guard against the creation of an environment that is prone to the escalation of conflict.

    2005. 39 pages. Stock No. 37250. Full text 330 KB

     


    Parliaments as Peacebuilders in Conflict-Affected Countries (book)
    -Edited by Mitchell O'Brien , Rick Stapenhurst , Niall Johnston
    2008. 250 pages. ISBN: 0-8213-7579-2     ISBN-13: 978-0-8213-7579-2     SKU: 17579  $30.00
    Click HERE  to order this book



    Parliaments and the PRSP Process
    -K. Scott Hubli and Alicia P. Mandeville
    This paper is designed to assist those involved in poverty reduction strategies with identigying and implementing activities and programs that will integrate existing democratic institutions into poverty reduction efforts, thus strengthening the impact and sustainability of each country's PRSP. As such, it is intended to be a tool for Bank and Fund staff, national PRSP  commission members, members or staff of parliament, or other actors seeking to unite a country's economic and democratic transitions.
    2004. 21 pages. Stock No. 37231. Full text529 KB 


    Personnel Exchange Among Central and Local Governments in Japan
    -Takenori Inoki
    This paper describes the Japanese system of staff loans and transfers across different levels of government. It examines various possible rationales for the existence of this system and discusses its implications for the building of capacity among local governments.
    2001. 27 pages. Stock No. 37173. Full text75 KB


    Personnel Systems in Japanese Local Governments
    -Hiroaki Inatsugu
    Personnel systems and policies can have a substantial influence on the quality of local government. This paper shows that Japanese local governments provide stable and well-paid careers. Indeed, pay scales are slightly higher than those of central government staff. As a result, Japanese local governments have attracted good staff into their ranks and built up strong human resource capacity over time. Moreover, the tendency for a brain drain to the central government has been restrained. Also, the similarity of personnel systems across local government units has led to a convergence of skill bases across such units over time.
    2001. 35 pages. Stock No. 37174. Full text87 KB


    Pillars of Integrity: The Importance of Supreme Audit Institutions in Curbing Corruption
    -Kenneth M. Dye and Rick Stapenhurst
    This paper discusses the role of Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) in promoting accountability and transparency within government, considers some of the factors making for effective SAIs and highlights the linkages between the audit institutions and other "pillars of integrity," notably the media and Parliament.
    1998. 34 pages. Stock No. 37133. Full text 152 KB



    Reducing Corruption at the Local Level    
    -Maria Gonzalez de Asis

    The objective of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework, including concrete examples, for controlling corruption at the local level. It outlines strategies to involve civil society in policymaking and monitoring, to identify reform priorities through diagnostic tools, and to develop systems and processes to improve government performance.

    2006. 20 pages. Stock No. 37263Full text  144KB


    The Role of Legislatures in Poverty Reduction: Experience and Future Directions
    -Edited by Katrina Sharkey, Theodore Dreger, and Sabina Bhatia

    This paper traces the involvement of legislators in the PRS process and identifies key bottlenecks which make deeper engagement difficult.  The paper offers suggestions for strengthening parliamentary oversight and civil society’s interface with parliament on poverty reduction issues.

    2006. 21 page. Stock No. 37259. Full text 225 KB



    The Role of Parliaments in the Budget Process
    -Edited by Riccardo Pelizzo, Rick Stapenhurst and David Olson

    The Role of Parliaments in the Budget Process is a collection of several papers that were presented at the roundtable organized by the World Bank Institute and the Research Committee of legislative specialists. “The Role of Parliaments in the Budget Process” roundtable was held at the Southern Political Science Association Annual Meeting (New Orleans, LA) in January 5-9, 2005.

    The first article examines data from 43 countries to explain the different institutional arrangements to oversee the budget process. The second one analyses the bargaining process in the legislature of the Czech Republic. The next paper studies the role of the Italian parliament to observe how institutional and political conditions influence the legislative power over the budget. Finally, the fourth paper discusses the potential value of independent analytical budget units for the legislature in increasing the transparency, credibility and accountability of the budget process.

    2005. 44 pages. Stock No. 37254. Full text 490 KB



    The Role of Parliament in Government
    -John K. Johnson

    This working paper was developed as a resource for newly elected legislators. The paper outlines the core functions of legislatures, presents a model of parliamentary power that differs from the traditional model, allowing legislators to identify their type of legislature, including its strengths and weaknesses. The paper considers the factors that influence parliamentary capacity: political and electoral systems, formal parliamentary powers, political will and space, and the technical capacity of parliaments. It concludes by presenting some recent examples of parliamentary development – noting where progressive parliamentary leadership has resulted in substantial increases in parliamentary autonomy and parliamentary effectiveness.

    2005. 23 pages. Stock No. 37251.  Full text PDF 132 KB



    The Role of Parliaments in Curbing Corruption
    -Edited by Rick Stapenhurst , Niall Johnston , Riccardo Pelizzo
    2006. 276 pages. ISBN: 0-8213-6723-4  $30.00
    Click HERE  to order this book.    


    Social Accountability in the Public Sector: A Conceptual Discussion and Learning Module
    A growing number of authors and practitioners have proposed civic engagement as a way to improve the accountability of public institutions and office holders to their constituencies. This paper and learning module attempt to clarify one aspect of the growing literature on civic engagement: society’s role in improving government accountability—a process increasingly being termed as “social accountability.” The paper presents accountability as “a proactive process by which public officials inform about and justify their plans of action, their behavior and results and are sanctioned accordingly.” It then explores the various ways in which civil society can participate in strengthening accountability in the public sector. The paper also highlights two areas in which the World Bank can apply social accountability approaches: public sector reform and decentralization. 
    2005. 103 pages. Stock No. 37249. Full text1.3 MB


    Social Marketing Strategies to Fight Corruption
    -G. S. Kindra and Rick Stapenhurst
    Drawing on lessons from the use of social marketing in public-health campaigns, environmental campaigns, education campaigns, and the protection of individual/group rights, this paper argues that social marketing can also make an important contribution to the creation of an atmosphere in public life that discourages fraud and corruption.
    1998. 28 pages. Stock No. 37121. Full text190 KB


    Sorting Out Intergovernmental Roles and Responsibilities in the Hungarian Transition
    -Robert Ebel, Istvan Varfalavi, and Sandor Varga
    This paper examines Hungary's experience with dismantling the command economy inherited from 40 years of Soviet domination, and with fiscal decentralization of the public sector-the sorting out of the roles and responsibilities among the governments.
    2000. 29 pages. Stock No. 37156. Full text75 KB


    Stocktaking of Social Accountability Initiatives in the Asia and Pacific Region
    -Dennis Arroyo and Karen Sirker
    The paper highlights a mix of forces, conditions, and motivating factors out of which some social accountability initiatives have developed, including the concern of increased development effectiveness, improved governance, and empowerment, particularly of the poor. It focuses on the specific tools and mechanisms that were used to improve social accountability. While many fall into the public expenditure management cycle, such as budget analysis, budget formulation, budget expenditure tracking, and performance monitoring, the stocktaking found evidence of other types of social accountability tools such as lifestyle checks, right to information, and social audits and those involving information and communication technology.
    2005. 45 pages. Stock No. 37255. Full text 244 KB


    Taxes and Transfers in Japan's Local Public Finances
    -Nobuki Mochida
    A strong inter-regional equity bias has been a distinctive feature of the Japanese local public finance system. This paper shows that substantial equalization of revenues per capita is achieved via transfers from the central government and that, over time, this appears to have substantially improved the regional distribution of income: the Gini coefficient of per capita regional income declined from around 0.17 in 1950 to 0.10 in 1990. Now that considerable regional equality has been achieved, a greater concern for the exercise of local preferences is being voiced.
    2001. 31 pages. Stock No. 37171. Full text170 KB


    Towards Political Inclusiveness: The Changing Role of Local Government in Japan
    -Terry MacDougall
    The Japanese local government system has proved to be responsive to the needs of political development in the sense of enabling broader participation of the citizenry in public affairs. The growth in political inclusiveness came about partly as a result of direct action through "citizens movements" against urban and industrial pollution (during the 1960s and 70s) as well as through consultative committees involving nongovernmental groups (more recently). This process has not always smooth and friction-free but has acquired a strong partnership-oriented tenor in recent years.
    2001. 34 pages. Stock No. 37169. Full text100 KB


    Trends inParliamentary Oversight
    -Edited by Riccardo Pelizzo, rick Stapenhurst and David Olson

    The paper by Pelizzo and Stapenhurst presents the data collected from a survey of 83 countries by the Inter-Parliamentary Union in collaboration with the World Bank Institute. The data analysis reveals that legislatures in parliamentary systems are generally better equipped to oversee govern-ment activities than legislatures in presidential and semipresidential systems. The paper also inves-tigates the role of legislatures in preparing and approving the budget. The analysis reveals that leg-islatures in presidential systems are generally the most active legislatures in the preparation of the budget, while parliaments are the most active legislatures in approving the budget.

    2004. 66 pages. Stock No. 37236. Full text998 KB



    The World Bank and Civil Society Development:
    Exploring Two Courses of Action for Capacity Building
    -Gabriel Siri
    This paper builds on the premise that civil society can make a significant contribution to the development process, both on its own-as the "third sector" of society-and by working in partnership with government. It recognizes the value of establishing an environment where civil society can flourish, and the importance of good governance and of an effective dialogue among stakeholders. The framework of activities involved in the development of civil society includes two operational courses of action on which the paper centers attention: 1) One course emphasizes the participation of community groups, NGOs, and other civil society organizations in the implementation of government projects; and 2) The other course of action focuses on directly promoting the autonomous development of civil society organizations and their ability to generate and carry out community initiatives. This often constitutes a new dimension of public policy involving government support for independent civic action and the formation of social capital.
    2002. 33 pages. Stock No. 37207. Full text251 KB
     

     



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