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Unofficial Economy

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Both research and operational writings from the various governance projects at the World Bank Institute can found organized by category under  Working Papers & Articles. If you would like to know more about a paper, see what others think, or make a comment, click on "Abstract". To download a paper directly, click on "Full Text." For additional resources such as articles in Other Languages click here; for selected media articles referring to the World Bank Institute's Governance Work  click here.

"Institutions and the Underground Economy" (chapter by Simon Johnson and Daniel Kaufmann in A Decade of Transition: Achievements and Challenges (2001). Edited by O. Havrylyshyn and S. M. Nsouli. International Monetary Fund: Washington, D.C.)
Full text (1.9 mb pdf)

Dodging the Grabbing Hand: The Determinants of Unofficial Activity in 69 Countries (from Journal of Public Economics)
June 2000 • E. Friedman, S. Johnson, D. Kaufmann, and P. Zoido-Lobatón

Barter in Transition Economies: Competing Explanations Confront Ukrainian Data
January 2000 • D. Marin, D. Kaufmann, and B. Gorochowskij
Abstract • Full text (126 kb pdf)

Why Do Firms Hide? Bribes and Unofficial Activity After Communism (from Journal of Public Economics)
June 2000 • S. Johnson, D. Kaufmann, J. McMillan, and C. Woodruff
Abstract • Full text (110 kb pdf)

Measuring Governance, Corruption, and State Capture: How Firms and Bureaucrats Shape the Business Environment in Transition Economies (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2312)
April 2000 • J. Hellman, G. Jones, D. Kaufmann, and M. Schankerman
Abstract  Full text(600 kb pdf)

Corruption, Public Finance, and the Unofficial Economy (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2169)
August 1999 • S. Johnson, D. Kaufmann, and P. Zoido-Lobatón
Abstract • Full text (564 kb pdf) • Abstract and full text from SSRN

Regulatory Discretion and the Unofficial Economy (from the American Economic Review)
May 1998 • S. Johnson, D. Kaufmann, and P. Zoido-Lobatón
Abstract • Full text (35 kb pdf)

Why is Ukraine’s Economy—and Russia’s—Not Growing? (from "Transition")
April 1997 • D. Kaufmann
Abstract • Full text (75 kb pdf)

The Unofficial Economy in Transition (Brookings Papers on Economic Activity)
February 1997 • S. Johnson, D. Kaufmann, and A. Shleifer

Integrating the Unofficial Economy into the Dynamics of Post-Socialist Economies: A Framework of Analysis and Evidence (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1691)
December 1996 • D. Kaufmann and A. Kaliberda
Abstract • Full text (150 kb pdf)

Diminishing returns to administrative controls and the emergence of the unofficial economy (in Economic Policy)
December 1994 • D. Kaufmann

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