From a border conflict with Peru in 1995, the natural national disaster caused by El Niño in 97-98 and the deposing of a president due to corruption allegations, the second half of the 1990s was a time of political and economic woes in Ecuador. The country remains heavily indebted and over 30% of the population live in extreme poverty. Acknowledging that it had to create a plan for better governance if it wanted to develop economically, the government of Ecuador requested World Bank assistance in fighting corruption in October 1998. The World Bank and the government of Ecuador agreed that the key principles of this anti-corruption initiative would be commitment to reform, participation and collective action, technocratic empiricism as a key input, transparency and follow through with actions.
The World Bank and the government of Ecuador agreed that the key principles of this anti-corruption initiative would be commitment to reform, participation and collective action, technocratic empiricism as a key input, transparency and follow through with actions. Considering empirical analysis a key input, the government of Ecuador collected data from in-depth surveys of 1,800 households, 1164 enterprises 1,139 public officials. The goal of this work is to stimulate a technocratic, non-political debate with agency specific data focusing the debate on institutions, not individuals and ultimately establish quantitative benchmarks to gauge the success of institutional reforms already underway, and, if necessary to redirect efforts on priority areas.
This report presents the results of a governance and anti-corruption empirical diagnostic study of Ecuador. The purpose of this report is to advance the formulation and implementation of a detailed anti-corruption strategy and action program. Another aim is to build consensus among key stakeholders, including the executive, legislative, judiciary branches of government as well as civil society and the private sector.
- Sub-regional Conference on Anti-Corruption—Quito, October 14–16, 2003: Ecuador's Comisión de Control Cívico de la Corrupción (CCCC) held the 2nd Sub-regional Conference on Anti-corruption. WBI participated via video conference, presenting our approach to improving governance and combating corruption and sharing the results of WBI diagnostic work in Ecuador. The main objective of the conference was to promote dialogue and collaboration among Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. • Download WBI presentation (3 Mb PDF [in Spanish])
From the empirical work and evidence stems government response, in the form of an anti-corruption strategy. From the strategy comes national initiatives, policies, reforms and throughout the whole process, local capacity is built.
Local Capacity Building
It is important to note that before asking for World Bank assistance, the government of Ecuador had taken measurements to ameliorate its corruption situation. 1997 marked the creation of the Civil Counter Corruption Commission (CCCC), an institution formed by independent respected individuals from the civil society with powers to investigate and bring corruption efforts to Ecuador. The CCCC along with other local partners such as the Office for the Modernization of the State, the Executive Control Office, and a network of NGOs all collaborated with the WBI in accomplishing the diagnostic work. Other partner and donor organizations include Transparency International, the Carter Center, UNDP, USAID and the Inter-American Development Bank.
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