Since the return to constitutional rule in 1993 and especially in recent years, Ghanaian public interest in corruption has grown steadily. While all observers and stakeholders readily concede that corruption is a problem in Ghana, there is little agreement on its nature and scope and on what to do to tackle it in a sustained manner. Therefore, in 1999 the Government of Ghana requested World Bank assistance in conducting a national survey of corruption and the provision of public services.
Three questionnaire modules, household, enterprise and public official, were adopted for the survey. To secure the sharpest survey instruments, key stakeholders with the assistance of CDD consultants developed a conceptual framework for adapting the draft survey instruments to suit the Ghanaian situation. The process began with a review of the draft survey instruments, followed by three focus group discussions involving academics, public sector/business experts and allied professionals with some experience in survey sampling. The draft surveys were pre-tested by CDD field supervisors in the Accra metropolis including the suburbs. Inputs from the exercise helped project managers, World Bank officials and CDD consultants fine-tune the survey instruments. The final product was translated into five major local languages and these diagnostic corruption surveys were carried out from March to July 2000. Different sample designs were adopted for the various components of the survey. Altogether, 1500 households, 500 enterprises and 1000 public officials were selected for the process.
This report represents the latest collaboration between the Government of Ghana, International Development Partners and key Ghanaian public agencies and civil society bodies to establish a solid empirical base for developing effective strategies to combat corruption. It is an analysis of the results of the household, enterprise and pubic official surveys with the ultimate goal of generating debate and discussion, creating awareness on the extent/level of corruption, soliciting ideas for curbing or controlling corruption and to serve as a basis for institutional reform.
In addition to writing a report on the results of its diagnostic findings it is important to disseminate the information and results. By doing so, the issues of governance and corruption are effectively addressed and improved.
From the empirical work and evidence stems government response, in the form of an anti-corruption strategy. From the strategy comes national initiatives, policies, reforms and throughout the whole process, local capacity is built.
Local Capacity Building
Concern with corruption and the desire to curb it led to the establishment of an independent Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) under the 1992 Constitution and the Serious Fraud Office by an Act of Parliament. Civil society also mobilized to push for curbs on corruption under the aegis of the Ghana Integrity Initiative (GII), which is also the local chapter of Transparency International. A recent and novel development in the fight against corruption in Ghana has brought together key public and non-governmental bodies called the Ghana Anti-Corruption Coalition and comprising of the National Institutional Review Program (NIRP), Serious Fraud Office (SFO), Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA), CHRAJ, GII and the Center for Democracy and Development (CDD).
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