Following the signing of the Arusha Peace Agreement in 2000, the government of the Republic of Burunditargeted good governance policy as a priority for addressing the challenges of reconstruction and reconciliation. These governance related goals included the establishment of a legal, institutional and social framework based on good governance, the efficiency of the state to manage public goods, rule of law and justice for all, and social consensus and civil society participation in public policy design and implementation.
In this context, the Government asserted its interest in improving governance and reducing corruption through increased transparency in the management of public goods. This engagement was reflected in a letter addressed to the President of the World Bank in 2006, requesting assistance to carry out an in-depth, in-country governance and anticorruption (GAC) diagnostic. With the use of surveys of domestic citizens/service users, managers of enterprises, public officials and non governmental organizations representatives, the diagnostic will provide data and analytical information to assist the government in policy design to improve governance and reduce corruption. Based on the survey results, a Governance Action Plan will be prepared by the government in collaboration key stakeholders in the country.
The World Bank Institute has worked in collaboration with the Social Development Department (Post-conflict Unit) at the World Bank and a local research firm to design the survey instruments adapted to the Burundian context. In 2007, focus groups were conducted in Bujumbura and in the province of Ngoziwith users and providers of public services to identify trends and patterns in perceptions on governance related issues. The result from focus group discussions contributed to the process of preparing the survey instruments. The Ministry of Good Governance has led the diagnostic study process in collaboration with a Steering Committee, composed of members of civil society organizations, the private sector and the academia.The survey, which covered 945 households, 1146 public officials, 333 enterprises and 152 NGOs, was completed at the end of 2007.
The Minister of Good Governance is leading the preparation of the dissemination of the results of the survey to be conducted in September 2008. Dissemination activities will be carried out in Bujumbura and in all the provinces in the country through radio programs in Kirundi, the national language. The Steering Committee is mandated to assist in the preparation of a governance action plan.
For more information, please visit the World Bank site for Burundi.
The Burundigovernance diagnostic covered households, private enterprises, public officials and NGOs, who are also important actors and users of public services in Burundi, in an attempt to capture the views and experiences of both users and providers of public services. The questionnaires were also adapted to address the post-conflict issues related to the Burundian context.
Terms of Reference for the Burundi Diagnostic (In French, 54 kb pdf)
Questionnaires used (In French, 240 kb pdf):
Focus groups were organized in April 2007 in the capital, Bujumbura and in Ngozi, the third largest town located in the northern part of the country. The objective was to collect the viewpoints and recommendations of a number of providers and users of public services in order to create a database of information on governance that would then be used to help design formal survey questionnaires that are comprehensive and adapted to the context. The following report presents the results of those focus groups.
Focus Groups Report - Final version (In French, 456 kb pdf)
The final report presenting the results of the Governance and Corruption diagnostic survey was completed in June 2008. It has been validated by the Steering Committee and Council of Ministers.
GAC Report (In French, 698 kb pdf)
Executive Summary (In French, 174 kb pdf)
Radio Power: ENGAGING THE YOUTH IN RURAL BURUNDI
Partnering with local radio stations. programs to engage the marginalized youth in Burundi on governance and anti-corruption were carried out in Burundi. Raising awareness and promoting accountability through radio and use of cell phones in rural areas in Burundi were information flow is limited was achieved with success. To listen to how this program conducted click here:
The findings of the survey were disseminated in a first phase over a two day workshop that took place September 8-9, 2008 in Bujumbura. The dissemination was chaired by the First Vice-President of the Republic and the Ministre à la Présidence Chargé de la Bonne Gouvernance, de la Privatisation, de l’Inspection Générale de l’Etat et de l’Administration locale and saw the participation of about 65 participants from government and civil society. Local media covered the event (328 kb pdf). The objective was to present the diagnostic’s main results and elicit group discussions and recommendations to be incorporated into a National Governance Strategy. The government has committed to pursuing dissemination activities in the entire country through regional workshops and radio programs.
|Professor Nimunbona presenting the results of the GAC survey.|| |
Dissemination Workshop: GAC Survey
From left to right: Minister Good Governance, First Vice-President, World Bank Country Manager
From January 13-16, 2009, two days dissemination workshops took place in the 17 provinces of the country to which the local population was invited to participate. The participants divided into working groups on sectors identified as a priority for governance reform, suggested strategies to be carried out to address the most pressing issues in those sectors and identified the institutions that would be responsible for them. The recommendations gathered from the dissemination activities in Bujumbura and the provinces will help inform the design of the National Governance Strategy that the Steering Committee has been mandated to assist in preparing. In all regions, the participants expressed their desire to see such consultations take place more frequently and touch on other aspects of the country's socio-economic life. Indeed, such participatory processes are especially important at the decentralized level in a post conflict environment where the presence of the state is often weak and the populations have more limited access to information and public services.
Dissemination Workshop Report (In French, 1 mb pdf)
The survey results in justice and education -two sectors of great priority to the Burundian and the youth especially- and on corruption in general were also disseminated via radio alongside with the results of the "Voices of Youth" studies. The latter studies were conducted by Professor Peter Uvin (The Fletcher School, Tufts University) and examined how young, poor and marginalized Burundians fare daily in a post-conflict environment. The Radio Publique Africaine of Burundi, with support from AFTCS, WBI and International Alert conducted 15 radio programs targeted to the youth which enabled many young listeners to call in for comments and recommendations and also allowed to reach people in areas that are harder to access and bring them into the debate. The participating youth corroborated many of the GAC survey findings in their comments and stressed the need for Burundians to get more involved, starting at the community level, for better governance. They also highlighted the need to develop the capacity of the youth especially in rural areas.
For more information on how the radio dissemination elicited local debate on governance, please see this article
Participants in dissemination workshop in the province of Rutana
Burundi's Minister of Good Governance answers questions from young callers on the radio
Rapid Results Initiatives to Promote Good Governance
In the context of the Governance and Leadership Capacity Development Program, the governance Rapid Results Initiatives (RRIs) were launched in education and infrastructure (mainly the water and electricity sectors) in Burundi in May 2008 . In addition to the governance RRIs, there are other ongoing RRIs in eleven ministries in Burundi supported by the Governance and Leadership Development Program in coordination with PAGE (Programme d’Appui à la Gouvernance Economique). The key objective of these initiatives is to “gain insights into the implementation chain and institutional and organizational change in order to improve effectiveness and achievement of results.” The governance RRIs were identified by the respective ministries and are aimed at decreasing the opportunities for corrupt practices and improving service delivery. A mid-term evaluation workshop for the governance RRIs was carried out on September 10, 2008 with the objectives of assessing progress of the ongoing initiatives, identifying constrains and agreeing on a roadmap of actions to achieve results.
A WBI mission has carried out follow-up meetings with the Vice-Minister of Education and the Director General of the REGIDESO (water and electricity company) to agree on the identification of additional initiatives as well as the measures required to institutionalize the changes obtained through the RRIs.
For an example of a RRI in education, please see this blog entry in the Governance Matters blog webpage.
Sources of Rural Growth Study in Burundi
The World Bank Institute (WBI) has contributed to the Sources of Rural Growth Study undertaken by the World Bank in Burundi. The Sources of Rural Growth study was aimed at two principal audiences: (i) the Government of Burundi, and (ii) the World Bank and other key development partners who are active in Burundi.
The Government of Burundi seeks to define a vision of future growth of the national economy in the medium to long run and a desirable economic growth path. The GoB also aims to define the agenda of actions (policy reforms, institutional changes, and investments) that will be needed in the short run to bring about the realization of the longer-term vision. The Sources of Growth study is intended to help the Government of Burundi design its growth strategy and decide on both a growth path and an action plan. It will also help the World Bank and other key development partners identify how their work programs can best support the Government’s growth strategy.
The Sources of Rural Growth Study consists of five main components, each of which will constitute a chapter in the report: (i) macro growth diagnosis (ii) overview of the rural sector including the poverty profile, (iii) agricultural competitiveness analysis, (iv) rural growth constraints analysis, and (v) elements of a rural growth strategy. The most binding constraints to agricultural growth in Burundimay not be specific to agriculture. WBI has assisted in identifying areas not directly related to agriculture that may be contributing to low productivity, low profitability, and low competitiveness in the agricultural sector. Analysis on governance related issues has contributed to understanding the non technical constraints that have a negative impact on rural growth.
WBI participated in the SORG workshop organized in Bujumburain June 2007 to present preliminary findings and is contributing to the preparation of the SORG study.
PowerPoint presentation on the links between governance and growth, May, 2007:
Gourvernance et Croissance (In French, 764 kb pdf)
Leadership and Governance in Burundi
The Government of the Republic of Burundi in Partnership with the World Bank Institute Global Programs unit through the Leadership and Governance initiatives has launched the Governance and Leadership Capacity Development Program in Burundi. The overarching objective of the program is to encourage change at the institutional and organizational level through strengthening governance systems and mechanisms and developing the capacity of national leadership teams for more effective implementation of policies and strategies. This objective will be achieved through:
(a) Introducing a culture of results in government and other implementation agencies, including creating accountability for measurable outcomes and incorporating M&E systems into project implementation;
(b) Developing and applying principles for multi-sectoral program planning and implementation among various national stakeholders (government, private sector, civil society…);
(c) Encourage the endogenous development of enhanced capacity to bring about significant results in core areas of government;
(d) Strengthening the understanding – among key national stakeholders, government and non-government – of the potential impact of improved governance to Burundi’s economic growth and development agenda;
(e) Strengthening the demand for governance, by promoting transparency, accountability, and integrity and encouraging the development of avenues for expressing this demand.
National stakeholders will be exposed to techniques and methodologies for more effectively achieving results and for improving governance. The program will expose participants to techniques for:
1. Prioritizing and- identifying desired results and outcomes;
2. Mobilizing multiple stakeholders- around desired results and outcomes;
3. Unbundling, analyzing constraints for- achieving desired results;
4. Creative problem solving for overcoming identified constraints;
5. Assigning accountabilities for achieving set results;
6. Monitoring and evaluating results and outcomes: Have desired results been achieved? If not, why not? Establishing mechanisms for incorporating lessons learned into future planning and implementation processes;
7. Use of diagnostic tools to monitor governance and public sector performance
8. Developing and implementing a governance and anti-corruption strategy, including designing and putting in place tools and instruments for improved governance.
The Capacity Development Resource Center
· State Capture and Transition Survey Databank Interactive and Operational Research
· World Bank Institute Governance Databank (overall)
· Governance and Anti-Corruption Diagnostic Tools
· Methods, Publications, and Findings
For additional information regarding WBI's diagnostic work in Burundi, please contact:
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